By David; a well-written song. 2
whose sin is pardoned! 5
in whose spirit there is no deceit. 8
my whole body wasted away, 10
while I groaned in pain all day long.
32:5 Then I confessed my sin;
I no longer covered up my wrongdoing.
I said, “I will confess 15 my rebellious acts to the Lord.”
And then you forgave my sins. 16 (Selah)
while there is a window of opportunity. 18
it will not reach them. 21
32:7 You are my hiding place;
you protect me from distress.
You surround me with shouts of joy from those celebrating deliverance. 22 (Selah)
I will advise you as I look you in the eye. 25
which will not obey you
unless they are controlled by a bridle and bit. 28
but the Lord’s faithfulness overwhelms the one who trusts in him. 30
32:11 Rejoice in the Lord and be happy, you who are godly!
Shout for joy, all you who are morally upright! 31
For the music director; a well-written song 33 by the Korahites.
so I long 36 for you, O God!
for the living God.
all day long they say to me, 41 “Where is your God?”
For I was once walking along with the great throng to the temple of God,
shouting and giving thanks along with the crowd as we celebrated the holy festival. 43
Why are you upset? 46
Wait for God!
For I will again give thanks
to my God for his saving intervention. 47
so I will pray to you while I am trapped here in the region of the upper Jordan, 49
all your billows and waves overwhelm me. 54
and by night he gives me a song, 56
a prayer 57 to the living God.
“Why do you ignore 60 me?
Why must I walk around mourning 61
because my enemies oppress me?”
as they say to me all day long, “Where is your God?” 63
Why are you upset? 66
Wait for God!
For I will again give thanks
to my God for his saving intervention. 67
For the music director; by the Korahites, a well-written song. 69
our ancestors 71 have told us
what you did 72 in their days,
in ancient times. 73
and they did not prevail by their strength, 80
for you were partial to 84 them.
44:6 For I do not trust in my bow,
and I do not prevail by my sword.
you humiliate 94 those who hate us.
44:8 In God I boast all day long,
and we will continually give thanks to your name. (Selah)
You did not go into battle with our armies. 96
Those who hate us take whatever they want from us. 98
you scattered us among the nations.
you did not ask a high price for them. 102
those who live on our borders taunt and insult us. 104
foreigners treat us with contempt. 107
and am overwhelmed with shame, 109
44:16 before the vindictive enemy
who ridicules and insults me. 110
or violated your covenant with us. 112
nor have we disobeyed your commands. 114
you have covered us with darkness. 116
and spread out our hands in prayer to another god, 118
44:21 would not God discover it,
44:23 Rouse yourself! Why do you sleep, O Lord?
Wake up! 124 Do not reject us forever!
44:25 For we lie in the dirt,
with our bellies pressed to the ground. 128
44:26 Rise up and help us!
Rescue us 129 because of your loyal love!
I say, “I have composed this special song 134 for the king;
my tongue is as skilled as the stylus of an experienced scribe.” 135
You speak in an impressive and fitting manner! 137
Appear in your majestic splendor! 141
Ride forth for the sake of what is right, 143
on behalf of justice! 144
Then your right hand will accomplish mighty acts! 145
45:5 Your arrows are sharp
and penetrate the hearts of the king’s enemies.
Nations fall at your feet. 146
The scepter 149 of your kingdom is a scepter of justice.
Observe and pay attention! 164
will seek your favor by bringing a gift. 172
decked out in pearls and clothed in a brocade trimmed with gold. 175
45:14 In embroidered robes she is escorted to the king.
Her attendants, the maidens of honor who follow her,
are led before you. 176
45:15 They are bubbling with joy as they walk in procession
and enter the royal palace. 177
you will make them princes throughout the land.
then the nations will praise you 182 forever.
God’s loyal love protects me all day long! 187
it is as effective as a sharp razor, O deceiver. 189
52:3 You love evil more than good,
lies more than speaking the truth. 190 (Selah)
and the tongue that deceives.
he will uproot you from the land of the living. (Selah)
52:6 When the godly see this, they will be filled with awe,
and will mock the evildoer, saying: 196
He trusted in his great wealth
and was confident about his plans to destroy others.” 198
I continually 201 trust in God’s loyal love.
They sin and commit evil deeds; 213
none of them does what is right. 214
they are all morally corrupt. 220
None of them does what is right, 221
not even one!
those who devour my people as if they were eating bread,
and do not call out to God.
even by things that do not normally cause fear. 225
You are able to humiliate them because God has rejected them. 228
When God restores the well-being of his people, 230
may Jacob rejoice, 231
may Israel be happy! 232
Vindicate me 237 by your power!
54:2 O God, listen to my prayer!
Pay attention to what I say! 238
ruthless men, who do not respect God, seek my life. 241 (Selah)
The Lord is among those who support me. 243
As a demonstration of your faithfulness, 246 destroy them!
I will give thanks to your name, O Lord, for it is good!
and I triumph over my enemies. 250
For the music director, to be accompanied by stringed instruments; a well-written song 252 by David.
55:1 Listen, O God, to my prayer!
Do not ignore 253 my appeal for mercy!
55:2 Pay attention to me and answer me!
and angrily attack me.
the horrors of death overcome me. 263
terror overwhelms 265 me.
I would fly away and settle in a safe place!
55:7 Look, I will escape to a distant place;
I will stay in the wilderness. (Selah)
55:8 I will hurry off to a place that is safe
from the strong wind 267 and the gale.”
Frustrate their plans! 269
For I see violence and conflict in the city.
while wickedness and destruction 271 are within it.
55:11 Disaster is within it;
violence 272 and deceit do not depart from its public square.
or else I could bear it;
it is not one who hates me who arrogantly taunts me, 274
or else I could hide from him.
my close friend in whom I confided. 277
in God’s temple we would walk together among the crowd.
May they go down alive into Sheol! 280
For evil is in their dwelling place and in their midst.
55:16 As for me, I will call out to God,
and the Lord will deliver me.
55:17 During the evening, morning, and noontime
I will lament and moan, 281
55:19 God, the one who has reigned as king from long ago,
will hear and humiliate them. 288 (Selah)
They refuse to change,
and do not fear God. 289
he breaks his solemn promises to them. 293
but he harbors animosity in his heart. 295
His words seem softer than oil,
but they are really like sharp swords. 296
and he will sustain you. 298
He will never allow the godly to be upended. 299
But as for me, I trust in you.
A well-written song 305 by Asaph.
Why does your anger burn 307 against the sheep of your pasture?
as well as Mount Zion, where you dwell!
and all the damage the enemy has done to the temple! 312
they set up their battle flags. 315
74:5 They invade like lumberjacks
swinging their axes in a thick forest. 316
74:7 They set your sanctuary on fire;
they desecrate your dwelling place by knocking it to the ground. 322
“We will oppress all of them.” 324
They burn down all the places where people worship God in the land. 325
there are no longer any prophets 327
and we have no one to tell us how long this will last. 328
74:10 How long, O God, will the adversary hurl insults?
Will the enemy blaspheme your name forever?
74:11 Why do you remain inactive?
Intervene and destroy him! 329
performing acts of deliverance on the earth. 331
you shattered the heads of the sea monster 333 in the water.
you dried up perpetually flowing rivers. 338
you created the cycle of summer and winter. 343
and how a foolish nation blasphemes your name!
Do not continue to disregard 347 the lives of your oppressed people!
for the dark regions of the earth are full of places where violence rules. 349
74:21 Do not let the afflicted be turned back in shame!
Let the oppressed and poor praise your name! 350
Remember how fools insult you all day long! 352
or the unceasing shouts of those who defy you. 355
A well-written song 357 by Asaph.
78:1 Pay attention, my people, to my instruction!
Listen to the words I speak! 358
78:2 I will sing a song that imparts wisdom;
I will make insightful observations about the past. 359
that which our ancestors 361 have told us –
We will tell the next generation
about the Lord’s praiseworthy acts, 363
about his strength and the amazing things he has done.
he set up a law in Israel.
He commanded our ancestors
to make his deeds known to their descendants, 365
78:6 so that the next generation, children yet to be born,
might know about them.
They will grow up and tell their descendants about them. 366
78:7 Then they will place their confidence in God.
They will not forget the works of God,
and they will obey 367 his commands.
78:8 Then they will not be like their ancestors,
who were a stubborn and rebellious generation,
a generation that was not committed
and faithful to God. 368
but they retreated in the day of battle. 371
and they refused to obey 373 his law.
the amazing things he had shown them.
78:12 He did amazing things in the sight of their ancestors,
in the land of Egypt, in the region of Zoan. 375
78:13 He divided the sea and led them across it;
he made the water stand in a heap.
78:14 He led them with a cloud by day,
and with the light of a fire all night long.
78:15 He broke open rocks in the wilderness,
and gave them enough water to fill the depths of the sea. 376
78:16 He caused streams to flow from the rock,
and made the water flow like rivers.
78:17 Yet they continued to sin against him,
and rebelled against the sovereign One 377 in the desert.
by asking for food to satisfy their appetite.
“Is God really able to give us food 380 in the wilderness?
streams gushed forth.
But can he also give us food?
Will he provide meat for his people?”
A fire broke out against Jacob,
and his anger flared up 383 against Israel,
78:22 because they did not have faith in God,
and did not trust his ability to deliver them. 384
78:23 He gave a command to the clouds above,
and opened the doors in the sky.
78:24 He rained down manna for them to eat;
he gave them the grain of heaven. 385
He sent them more than enough to eat. 387
78:26 He brought the east wind through the sky,
and by his strength led forth the south wind.
78:27 He rained down meat on them like dust,
birds as numerous as the sand on the seashores. 388
78:28 He caused them to fall right in the middle of their camp,
all around their homes.
he gave them what they desired.
their food was still in their mouths,
78:31 when the anger of God flared up against them.
He killed some of the strongest of them;
he brought the young men of Israel to their knees.
78:32 Despite all this, they continued to sin,
and did not trust him to do amazing things. 391
and filled with terror. 393
they turned back and longed for God.
and that the sovereign God was their deliverer. 397
and lied to him. 399
and they were unfaithful to his covenant.
78:38 Yet he is compassionate.
He forgives sin and does not destroy.
He often holds back his anger,
and does not stir up his fury. 401
and were like a wind that blows past and does not return. 403
78:40 How often they rebelled against him in the wilderness,
and insulted him 404 in the desert!
how he delivered them from the enemy, 409
and his acts of judgment 411 in the region of Zoan.
78:44 He turned their rivers into blood,
and they could not drink from their streams.
as well as frogs that overran their land. 413
78:46 He gave their crops to the grasshopper,
the fruit of their labor to the locust.
78:47 He destroyed their vines with hail,
and their sycamore-fig trees with driving rain.
and hurled lightning bolts down on their livestock. 415
He sent fury, rage, and trouble
as messengers who bring disaster. 417
he did not spare them from death;
he handed their lives over to destruction. 419
78:51 He struck down all the firstborn in Egypt,
the firstfruits of their reproductive power 420 in the tents of Ham.
78:52 Yet he brought out his people like sheep;
he led them through the wilderness like a flock.
78:53 He guided them safely along,
while the sea covered their enemies.
78:54 He brought them to the border of his holy land,
78:55 He drove the nations out from before them;
he assigned them their tribal allotments 423
and allowed the tribes of Israel to settle down. 424
they were as unreliable as a malfunctioning bow. 431
and made him jealous with their idols.
78:59 God heard and was angry;
he completely rejected Israel.
the tent where he lived among men.
78:62 He delivered his people over to the sword,
and was angry with his chosen nation. 437
he was like a warrior in a drunken rage. 445
78:66 He drove his enemies back;
he made them a permanent target for insults. 446
78:67 He rejected the tent of Joseph;
he did not choose the tribe of Ephraim.
78:68 He chose the tribe of Judah,
and Mount Zion, which he loves.
as secure as the earth, which he established permanently. 448
78:70 He chose David, his servant,
and took him from the sheepfolds.
and made him the shepherd of Jacob, his people,
and of Israel, his chosen nation. 450
he led them with skill. 453
By day I cry out
and at night I pray before you. 458
Pay attention 460 to my cry for help!
and I am ready to enter Sheol. 462
I am like a helpless man, 465
like corpses lying in the grave,
whom you remember no more,
and who are cut off from your power. 467
in the dark places, in the watery depths.
88:7 Your anger bears down on me,
and you overwhelm me with all your waves. (Selah)
88:8 You cause those who know me to keep their distance;
you make me an appalling sight to them.
I am trapped and cannot get free. 469
88:9 My eyes grow weak because of oppression.
I call out to you, O Lord, all day long;
I spread out my hands in prayer to you. 470
88:10 Do you accomplish amazing things for the dead?
Do the departed spirits 471 rise up and give you thanks? (Selah)
88:11 Is your loyal love proclaimed in the grave,
or your faithfulness in the place of the dead? 472
or your deliverance in the land of oblivion? 475
88:13 As for me, I cry out to you, O Lord;
in the morning my prayer confronts you.
88:14 O Lord, why do you reject me,
and pay no attention to me? 476
I have been subjected to your horrors and am numb with pain. 478
your terrors destroy me.
88:17 They surround me like water all day long;
they join forces and encircle me. 480
those who know me leave me alone in the darkness. 482
A well-written song 484 by Ethan the Ezrachite.
to future generations I will proclaim your faithfulness. 486
in the skies you set up your faithfulness.” 488
“I have made a covenant with my chosen one;
I have made a promise on oath to David, my servant:
and establish your throne throughout future generations.’” 491 (Selah)
as well as your faithfulness in the angelic assembly. 493
89:6 For who in the skies can compare to the Lord?
Who is like the Lord among the heavenly beings, 494
and more awesome than 497 all who surround him?
Who is strong like you, O Lord?
Your faithfulness surrounds you.
When its waves surge, 500 you calm them.
with your strong arm you scattered your enemies.
89:11 The heavens belong to you, as does the earth.
You made the world and all it contains. 503
89:12 You created the north and the south.
Tabor and Hermon 504 rejoice in your name.
89:13 Your arm is powerful,
your hand strong,
Loyal love and faithfulness characterize your rule. 508
O Lord, they experience your favor. 510
89:16 They rejoice in your name all day long,
and are vindicated 511 by your justice.
By your favor we are victorious. 513
our king to the Holy One of Israel. 515
“I have energized a warrior; 518
I have raised up a young man 519 from the people.
89:20 I have discovered David, my servant.
With my holy oil I have anointed him as king. 520
and my arm will strengthen him.
a violent oppressor will not be able to humiliate him. 524
89:23 I will crush his enemies before him;
I will strike down those who hate him.
and by my name he will win victories. 526
89:25 I will place his hand over the sea,
his right hand over the rivers. 527
89:26 He will call out to me,
the most exalted of the earth’s kings.
89:28 I will always extend my loyal love to him,
and my covenant with him is secure. 531
and make his throne as enduring as the skies above. 533
89:30 If his sons reject my law
and disobey my regulations,
and do not keep my commandments,
their sin by inflicting them with bruises. 536
nor be unfaithful to my promise. 538
or go back on what I promised. 540
89:35 Once and for all I have vowed by my own holiness,
I will never deceive 541 David.
His throne will endure before me, like the sun, 543
his throne will endure like the skies.” 545 (Selah)
you are angry with your chosen king. 547
you have thrown his crown to the ground. 550
you have made his strongholds a heap of ruins.
he has become an object of disdain to his neighbors.
and all his enemies to rejoice.
and have not sustained him in battle. 556
and have knocked 558 his throne to the ground.
and have covered him with shame. (Selah)
89:46 How long, O Lord, will this last?
Will you remain hidden forever? 560
Will your anger continue to burn like fire?
Why do you make all people so mortal? 562
89:48 No man can live on without experiencing death,
or deliver his life from the power of Sheol. 563 (Selah)
the ones performed in accordance with your reliable oath to David? 566
and of how I must bear so many insults from people! 569
89:51 Your enemies, O Lord, hurl insults;
they insult your chosen king as they dog his footsteps. 570
We agree! We agree! 573
to the Lord I plead for mercy. 578
142:2 I pour out my lament before him;
I tell him about 579 my troubles.
you watch my footsteps. 581
In the path where I walk
they have hidden a trap for me.
142:4 Look to the right and see!
No one cares about me. 582
I have nowhere to run; 583
no one is concerned about my life. 584
142:5 I cry out to you, O Lord;
I say, “You are my shelter,
my security 585 in the land of the living.”
142:6 Listen to my cry for help,
for I am in serious trouble! 586
Rescue me from those who chase me,
for they are stronger than I am.
that I may give thanks to your name.
Because of me the godly will assemble, 588
for you will vindicate me. 589
1 sn Psalm 32. The psalmist recalls the agony he experienced prior to confessing his sins and affirms that true happiness comes when one’s sins are forgiven. He then urges others not to be stubborn, but to turn to God while forgiveness is available, for God extends his mercy to the repentant, while the wicked experience nothing but sorrow.
2 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
3 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Pss 1:1, 3; 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15). Here it refers to the relief that one experiences when one’s sins are forgiven.
4 tn Heb “lifted up.”
5 tn Heb “covered over.”
6 tn Heb “man.” The word choice reflects the perspective of the psalmist, who is male. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, the gender and age specific “man” has been translated with the more neutral “one.”
7 tn Heb “blessed [is] the man to whom the
8 sn In whose spirit there is no deceit. The point is not that the individual is sinless and pure. In this context, which focuses on confession and forgiveness of sin, the psalmist refers to one who refuses to deny or hide his sin, but instead honestly confesses it to God.
9 tn Heb “when I was silent.”
10 tn Heb “my bones became brittle.” The psalmist pictures himself as aging and growing physically weak. Trying to cover up his sin brought severe physical consequences.
11 tn Heb “your hand was heavy upon me.”
12 tc Heb “my [?] was turned.” The meaning of the Hebrew term לְשַׁד (lÿshad) is uncertain. A noun לָשָׁד (lashad, “cake”) is attested in Num 11:8, but it would make no sense to understand that word in this context. It is better to emend the form to לְשֻׁדִּי (lÿshuddiy, “to my destruction”) and understand “your hand” as the subject of the verb “was turned.” In this case the text reads, “[your hand] was turned to my destruction.” In Lam 3:3 the author laments that God’s “hand” was “turned” (הָפַךְ, hafakh) against him in a hostile sense.
sn You tried to destroy me. The psalmist’s statement reflects his perspective. As far as he was concerned, it seemed as if the Lord was trying to kill him.
13 tn The translation assumes that the plural form indicates degree. If one understands the form as a true plural, then one might translate, “in the times of drought.”
14 sn Summer. Perhaps the psalmist suffered during the hot season and perceived the very weather as being an instrument of divine judgment. Another option is that he compares his time of suffering to the uncomfortable and oppressive heat of summer.
16 tn Heb “the wrongdoing of my sin.” By joining synonyms for “sin” in this way, the psalmist may be emphasizing the degree of his wrongdoing.
18 tn Heb “at a time of finding.” This may mean, “while there is time to ‘find’ [the
19 tn The Hebrew term רַק (raq) occasionally has an asseverative force.
20 sn The surging water is here a metaphor for trouble that endangers one’s life.
22 tn Heb “[with] shouts of joy of deliverance you surround me.”
23 tn The second person pronominal forms in this verse are singular. The psalmist addresses each member of his audience individually (see also the note on the word “eye” in the next line). A less likely option (but one which is commonly understood) is that the
24 tn Heb “I will instruct you and I will teach you in the way [in] which you should walk.”
25 tn Heb “I will advise, upon you my eye,” that is, “I will offer advice [with] my eye upon you.” In 2 Chr 20:12 the statement “our eye is upon you” means that the speakers are looking to the
26 tn The verb form is plural (i.e., “do not all of you be”); the psalmist addresses the whole group.
27 tn Heb “like a horse, like a mule without understanding.”
28 tn Heb “with a bridle and bit, its [?] to hold, not to come near to you.” The meaning of the Hebrew noun עֲדִי (’adiy) is uncertain. Normally the word refers to “jewelry,” so some suggest the meaning “trappings” here (cf. NASB). Some emend the form to לְחֵיהֶם (lÿkhehem, “their jawbones”) but it is difficult to see how the present Hebrew text, even if corrupt, could have derived from this proposed original reading. P. C. Craigie (Psalms 1-50 [WBC], 265) takes the form from an Arabic root and translates “whose gallop.” Cf. also NRSV “whose temper must be curbed.”
29 tn Heb “many [are the] pains of evil [one].” The singular form is representative here; the typical evildoer, representative of the larger group of wicked people, is in view.
30 tn Heb “but the one who trusts in the
31 tn Heb “all [you] pure of heart.” The “heart” is here viewed as the seat of one’s moral character and motives. The “pure of heart” are God’s faithful followers who trust in and love the
32 sn Psalm 42. The psalmist recalls how he once worshiped in the Lord’s temple, but laments that he is now oppressed by enemies in a foreign land. Some medieval Hebrew
33 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
34 tn Since the accompanying verb is feminine in form, the noun אָיִּל (’ayyil, “male deer”) should be emended to אַיֶּלֶת (’ayyelet, “female deer”). Haplography of the letter tav has occurred; note that the following verb begins with tav.
35 tn Or “pants [with thirst].”
36 tn Or “my soul pants [with thirst].” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
37 tn Or “my soul thirsts.”
38 tn The words “I say” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarification.
39 tn Heb “When will I go and appear [to] the face of God?” Some emend the Niphal verbal form אֵרָאֶה (’era’eh, “I will appear”) to a Qal אֶרְאֶה (’er’eh, “I will see”; see Gen 33:10), but the Niphal can be retained if one understands ellipsis of אֶת (’et) before “face” (see Exod 34:24; Deut 31:11).
40 tn Heb “My tears have become my food day and night.”
41 tn Heb “when [they] say to me all the day.” The suffixed third masculine plural pronoun may have been accidentally omitted from the infinitive בֶּאֱמֹר (be’ÿmor, “when [they] say”). Note the term בְּאָמְרָם (bÿ’omram, “when they say”) in v. 10.
42 tn Heb “These things I will remember and I will pour out upon myself my soul.” “These things” are identified in the second half of the verse as those times when the psalmist worshiped in the
43 tc Heb “for I was passing by with the throng [?], I was walking with [?] them to the house of God; with a voice of a ringing shout and thanksgiving a multitude was observing a festival.” The Hebrew phrase בַּסָּךְ אֶדַּדֵּם (bassakh ’eddaddem, “with the throng [?] I was walking with [?]”) is particularly problematic. The noun סָךְ (sakh) occurs only here. If it corresponds to הָמוֹן (hamon, “multitude”) then one can propose a meaning “throng.” The present translation assumes this reading (cf. NIV, NRSV). The form אֶדַּדֵּם (“I will walk with [?]”) is also very problematic. The form can be taken as a Hitpael from דָּדָה (dadah; this verb possibly appears in Isa 38:15), but the pronominal suffix is problematic. For this reason many emend the form to ם[י]אַדִּרִ (’adirim, “nobles”) or ם-רִ[י]אַדִ (’adirim, “great,” with enclitic mem [ם]). The present translation understands the latter and takes the adjective “great” as modifying “throng.” If one emends סָךְ (sakh, “throng [?]”) to סֹךְ (sokh, “shelter”; see the Qere of Ps 27:5), then ר[י]אַדִּ (’addir) could be taken as a divine epithet, “[in the shelter of] the majestic one,” a reading which may find support in the LXX and Syriac Peshitta.
44 tn Heb “Why do you bow down?”
45 sn For poetic effect the psalmist addresses his soul, or inner self.
46 tn Heb “and [why] are you in turmoil upon me?” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries on the descriptive present nuance of the preceding imperfect. See GKC 329 §111.t.
47 tc Heb “for again I will give him thanks, the saving acts of his face.” The verse division in the Hebrew text is incorrect. אֱלֹהַי (’elohay, “my God”) at the beginning of v. 7 belongs with the end of v. 6 (see the corresponding refrains in 42:11 and 43:5, both of which end with “my God” after “saving acts of my face”). The Hebrew term פָּנָיו (panayv, “his face”) should be emended to פְּנֵי (pÿney, “face of”). The emended text reads, “[for] the saving acts of the face of my God,” that is, the saving acts associated with God’s presence/intervention.
49 tn Heb “therefore I will remember you from the land of Jordan.” “Remember” is here used metonymically for prayer (see vv. 8-9). As the next line indicates, the region of the upper Jordan, where the river originates, is in view.
50 tc Heb “Hermons.” The plural form of the name occurs only here in the OT. Some suggest the plural refers to multiple mountain peaks (cf. NASB) or simply retain the plural in the translation (cf. NEB), but the final mem (ם) is probably dittographic (note that the next form in the text begins with the letter mem) or enclitic. At a later time it was misinterpreted as a plural marker and vocalized accordingly.
51 tn The Hebrew term מִצְעָר (mits’ar) is probably a proper name (“Mizar”), designating a particular mountain in the Hermon region. The name appears only here in the OT.
52 tn Heb “deep calls to deep.” The Hebrew noun תְּהוֹם (tÿhom) often refers to the deep sea, but here, where it is associated with Hermon, it probably refers to mountain streams. The word can be used of streams and rivers (see Deut 8:7; Ezek 31:4).
53 tn The noun צִנּוֹר (tsinnor, “waterfall”) occurs only here and in 2 Sam 5:8, where it apparently refers to a water shaft. The psalmist alludes to the loud rushing sound of mountain streams and cascading waterfalls. Using the poetic device of personification, he imagines the streams calling out to each other as they hear the sound of the waterfalls.
54 tn Heb “pass over me” (see Jonah 2:3). As he hears the sound of the rushing water, the psalmist imagines himself engulfed in the current. By implication he likens his emotional distress to such an experience.
55 sn The psalmist believes that the Lord has not abandoned him, but continues to extend his loyal love. To this point in the psalm, the author has used the name “God,” but now, as he mentions the divine characteristic of loyal love, he switches to the more personal divine name Yahweh (rendered in the translation as “the
56 tn Heb “his song [is] with me.”
57 tc A few medieval Hebrew
58 tn The cohortative form indicates the psalmist’s resolve.
60 tn Or “forget.”
62 tc Heb “with a shattering in my bones my enemies taunt me.” A few medieval Hebrew
64 tn Heb “Why do you bow down?”
65 sn For poetic effect the psalmist addresses his soul, or inner self.
66 tn Heb “and why are you in turmoil upon me?”
67 tc Heb “for again I will give him thanks, the saving acts of my face and my God.” The last line should be emended to read יְשׁוּעֹת פְנֵי אֱלֹהָי (yÿshu’ot fÿney ’elohay, “[for] the saving acts of the face of my God”), that is, the saving acts associated with God’s presence/intervention. This refrain is almost identical to the one in v. 5. See also Ps 43:5.
68 sn Psalm 44. The speakers in this psalm (the worshiping community within the nation Israel) were disappointed with God. The psalm begins on a positive note, praising God for leading Israel to past military victories. Verses 1-8 appear to be a song of confidence and petition which the people recited prior to battle. But suddenly the mood changes as the nation laments a recent defeat. The stark contrast between the present and the past only heightens the nation’s confusion. Israel trusted in God for victory, but the Lord rejected them and allowed them to be humiliated in battle. If Israel had been unfaithful to God, their defeat would make sense, but the nation was loyal to the Lord. Comparing the Lord to a careless shepherd, the nation urges God to wake up and to extend his compassion to his suffering people.
70 tn Heb “with our ears we have heard.”
72 tn Heb “the work you worked.”
74 tn Heb “you, your hand.”
76 tn The verb form in the Hebrew text is a Hiphil preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive) from רָעַע (ra’a’, “be evil; be bad”). If retained it apparently means, “you injured; harmed.” Some prefer to derive the verb from רָעַע (“break”; cf. NEB “breaking up the peoples”), in which case the form must be revocalized as Qal (since this verb is unattested in the Hiphil).
77 tn Or “peoples.”
78 tn Heb “and you sent them out.” The translation assumes that the third masculine plural pronoun “them” refers to the fathers (v. 1), as in the preceding parallel line. See Ps 80:11, where Israel, likened to a vine, “spreads out” its tendrils to the west and east. Another option is to take the “peoples” as the referent of the pronoun and translate, “and you sent them away,” though this does not provide as tight a parallel with the corresponding line.
79 tn Or “take possession of.”
80 tn Heb “and their arm did not save them.” The “arm” here symbolizes military strength.
82 tn Heb “your arm.”
83 tn Heb “light of your face.” The idiom “light of your face” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19; 89:15; Dan 9:17).
84 tn Or “favorable toward.”
85 sn The speaker changes here to an individual, perhaps the worship leader or the king. The oscillation between singular (vv. 4, 6) and plural (vv. 1-3, 5, 7-8) in vv. 1-8 may reflect an antiphonal ceremony.
86 tc The LXX assumes a participle here (מְצַוֶּה [mÿtsavveh], “the one who commands/decrees”) which would stand in apposition to “my God.” It is possible that the MT, which has the imperative (צַוֵּה, tsavveh) form, has suffered haplography of the letter mem (ם). Note that the preceding word (אֱלֹהִים, ’elohim) ends in mem. Another option is that the MT is divided in the wrong place; perhaps one could move the final mem from אֱלֹהִים to the beginning of the next word and read מְצַוֶּה אֱלֹהָי (’elohay mÿtsavveh, “[You are my king,] my God, the one who decrees”).
tn Or “command.” This may be the Israelites’ petition prior to the battle. See the introductory note to the psalm.
88 tn Heb “by you.”
89 tn Heb “gore” (like an ox). If this portion of the psalm contains the song of confidence/petition the Israelites recited prior to battle, then the imperfects here and in the next line may express their expectation of victory. Another option is that the imperfects function in an emphatic generalizing manner. In this case one might translate, “you [always] drive back…you [always] trample down.”
sn The Hebrew verb translated “drive back” is literally “gore”; the imagery is that of a powerful wild ox that “gores” its enemies and tramples them underfoot.
90 tn Heb “in your name.” The
91 sn The image of the powerful wild ox continues; see the note on the phrase “drive back” in the preceding line.
92 tn Heb “those who rise up [against] us.”
95 tn The particle אַף (’af, “but”) is used here as a strong adversative contrasting the following statement with what precedes.
96 tn Heb “you did not go out with our armies.” The prefixed verbal form is a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive).
97 tn Heb “you caused us to turn backward.”
99 tn The prefixed verbal form is a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive).
100 tn The prefixed verbal form is a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive).
101 tn Heb “for what is not wealth.”
102 tn Heb “you did not multiply their purchase prices.”
103 tn The prefixed verbal form is a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive).
104 tn Heb “an [object of] taunting and [of] mockery to those around us.”
105 tn The prefixed verbal form is a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive).
106 tn Heb “a proverb,” or “[the subject of] a mocking song.”
108 tn Heb “all the day my humiliation [is] in front of me.”
109 tn Heb “and the shame of my face covers me.”
111 tn Heb “we have not forgotten you.” To “forget” God refers here to worshiping false gods and thereby refusing to recognize his sovereignty (see v. 20, as well as Deut 8:19; Judg 3:7; 1 Sam 12:9; Isa 17:10; Jer 3:21; Ps 9:17).Thus the translation “we have not rejected you” has been used.
112 tn Heb “and we did not deal falsely with your covenant.”
114 tn Heb “and our steps did [not] turn aside from your path.” The negative particle is understood by ellipsis (see the preceding line). God’s “path” refers to his commands, i.e., the moral pathway he has prescribed for the psalmist. See Pss 17:5; 25:4.
115 tn Heb “yet you have battered us in a place of jackals.”
116 tn The Hebrew term צַלְמָוֶת (tsalmavet) has traditionally been understood as a compound noun meaning “shadow of death” (צֵל+מָוֶת [mavet + tsel]; see BDB 853 s.v. צַלְמָוֶת; cf. NASB). Other scholars prefer to vocalize the form צַלְמוּת (tsalmut) and understand it as an abstract noun (from the root צלם) meaning “darkness” (cf. NIV, NRSV). An examination of the word’s usage favors the latter derivation. It is frequently associated with darkness/night and contrasted with light/morning (see Job 3:5; 10:21-22; 12:22; 24:17; 28:3; 34:22; Ps 107:10, 14; Isa 9:1; Jer 13:16; Amos 5:8). In some cases the darkness described is associated with the realm of death (Job 10:21-22; 38:17), but this is a metaphorical application of the word and does not reflect its inherent meaning. In Ps 44:19 darkness symbolizes defeat and humiliation.
117 tn Heb “If we had forgotten the name of our God.” To “forget the name” here refers to rejecting the
118 tn Heb “and spread out your hands to another god.” Spreading out the hands was a prayer gesture (see Exod 9:29, 33; 1 Kgs 8:22, 38; 2 Chr 6:12-13, 29; Ezra 9:15; Job 11:13; Isa 1:15). In its most fundamental sense זר (“another; foreign; strange”) refers to something that is outside one’s circle, often making association with it inappropriate. A “strange” god is an alien deity, an “outside god” (see L. A. Snijders, TDOT 4:54-55).
119 tn The active participle describes what is characteristically true.
120 tn Heb “would not God search out this, for he knows the hidden things of [the] heart?” The expression “search out” is used metonymically here, referring to discovery, the intended effect of a search. The “heart” (i.e., mind) is here viewed as the seat of one’s thoughts. The rhetorical question expects the answer, “Of course he would!” The point seems to be this: There is no way the Israelites who are the speakers in the psalm would reject God and turn to another god, for the omniscient God would easily discover such a sin.
121 tn The statement “because of you” (1) may simply indicate that God is the cause of the Israelites’ defeat (see vv. 9-14, where the nation’s situation is attributed directly to God’s activity, and cf. NEB, NRSV), or (2) it may suggest they suffer because of their allegiance to God (see Ps 69:7 and Jer 15:15). In this case one should translate, “for your sake” (cf. NASB, NIV). The citation of this verse in Rom 8:36 follows the LXX (Ps 43:23 LXX), where the Greek term ἕνεκεν (Jeneken; LXX ἕνεκα) may likewise mean “because of” or “for the sake of” (BDAG 334 s.v. ἕνεκα 1).
122 tn Or “regarded as.”
123 tn Heb “like sheep of slaughtering,” that is, sheep destined for slaughter.
126 tn Or “forget.”
127 tn Heb “our oppression and our affliction.”
128 tn Heb “for our being/life sinks down to the dirt, our belly clings to the earth.” The suffixed form of נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being, life”) is often equivalent to a pronoun in poetic texts.
130 sn Psalm 45. This is a romantic poem celebrating the Davidic king’s marriage to a lovely princess. The psalmist praises the king for his military prowess and commitment to justice, urges the bride to be loyal to the king, and anticipates that the marriage will be blessed with royal offspring.
131 tn Heb “according to lilies.” “Lilies” may be a tune title or musical style, suggestive of romantic love. The imagery of a “lily” appears frequently in the Song of Solomon in a variety of contexts (see 2:1-2, 16; 4:5; 5:13; 6:2-3; 7:2).
133 tn Heb “[with] a good word.” The “good word” probably refers here to the song that follows.
134 tn Heb “my works [are] for a king.” The plural “works” may here indicate degree, referring to the special musical composition that follows.
135 tn Heb “my tongue [is] a stylus of a skillful scribe.” Words flow from the psalmist’s tongue just as they do from a scribe’s stylus.
136 tn Heb “you are handsome from the sons of man.” The preposition “from” is used in a comparative (“more than”) sense. The peculiar verb form יָפְיָפִיתָ (yafyafita) is probably the result of dittography of yod-pe (יפ) and should be emended to יָפִיתָ (yafita). See GKC 152 §55.e.
137 tn Heb “favor is poured out on your lips.” “Lips” probably stands by metonymy for the king’s speech. Some interpret the Hebrew term חֵן (khen) as referring here to “gracious (i.e., kind and polite) speech”, but the word probably refers more generally to “attractive” speech that is impressively articulated and fitting for the occasion. For other instances of the term being used of speech, see Prov 22:11 and Eccl 10:12.
138 tn Or “this demonstrates.” The construction עַל־כֵּן (’al-ken, “therefore”) usually indicates what logically follows from a preceding statement. However, here it may infer the cause from the effect, indicating the underlying basis or reason for what precedes (see BDB 487 s.v. I כֵּן 3.f; C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms [ICC], 1:386).
139 tn Or “blesses you forever.” Here “bless” means to “endue with the power and skill to rule effectively,” as the following verses indicate.
140 tn Or “mighty one.”
141 tn The Hebrew text has simply, “your majesty and your splendor,” which probably refers to the king’s majestic splendor when he appears in full royal battle regalia.
142 tn Heb “and your majesty, be successful.” The syntax is awkward. The phrase “and your majesty” at the beginning of the verse may be accidentally repeated (dittography); it appears at the end of v. 3.
143 tn Or “for the sake of truth.”
144 tc The precise meaning of the MT is uncertain. The form עַנְוָה (’anvah) occurs only here. One could emend the text to עֲנָוָה וְצֶדֶק (’anavah vÿtsedeq, “[for the sake of truth], humility, and justice”). In this case “humility” would perhaps allude to the king’s responsibility to “serve” his people by promoting justice (cf. NIV “in behalf of truth, humility and righteousness”). The present translation assumes an emendation to יַעַן (ya’an, “because; on account of”) which would form a suitable parallel to עַל־דְּבַר (’al-dÿvar, “because; for the sake of”) in the preceding line.
145 tn Heb “and your right hand will teach you mighty acts”; or “and may your right hand teach you mighty acts.” After the imperatives in the first half of the verse, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive likely indicates purpose (“so that your right hand might teach you mighty acts”) or result (see the present translation). The “right hand” here symbolizes the king’s military strength. His right hand will “teach” him mighty acts by performing them and thereby causing him to experience their magnificence.
146 tn Heb “your arrows are sharp – peoples beneath you fall – in the heart of the enemies of the king.” The choppy style reflects the poet’s excitement.
147 sn The king’s throne here symbolizes his rule.
148 tn Or “forever and ever.”
sn O God. The king is clearly the addressee here, as in vv. 2-5 and 7-9. Rather than taking the statement at face value, many prefer to emend the text because the concept of deifying the earthly king is foreign to ancient Israelite thinking (cf. NEB “your throne is like God’s throne, eternal”). However, it is preferable to retain the text and take this statement as another instance of the royal hyperbole that permeates the royal psalms. Because the Davidic king is God’s vice-regent on earth, the psalmist addresses him as if he were God incarnate. God energizes the king for battle and accomplishes justice through him. A similar use of hyperbole appears in Isa 9:6, where the ideal Davidic king of the eschaton is given the title “Mighty God” (see the note on this phrase there). Ancient Near Eastern art and literature picture gods training kings for battle, bestowing special weapons, and intervening in battle. According to Egyptian propaganda, the Hittites described Rameses II as follows: “No man is he who is among us, It is Seth great-of-strength, Baal in person; Not deeds of man are these his doings, They are of one who is unique” (see Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 2:67). Ps 45:6 and Isa 9:6 probably envision a similar kind of response when friends and foes alike look at the Davidic king in full battle regalia. When the king’s enemies oppose him on the battlefield, they are, as it were, fighting against God himself.
149 sn The king’s scepter symbolizes his royal authority.
150 sn To love justice means to actively promote it.
151 sn To hate evil means to actively oppose it.
152 tn For other examples of the repetition of Elohim, “God,” see Pss 43:4; 48:8, 14; 50:7; 51:14; 67:7. Because the name Yahweh (“
153 sn Anointed you. When read in the light of the preceding context, the anointing is most naturally taken as referring to the king’s coronation. However, the following context (vv. 8-9) focuses on the wedding ceremony, so some prefer to see this anointing as part of the king’s preparations for the wedding celebration. Perhaps the reference to his anointing at his coronation facilitates the transition to the description of the wedding, for the king was also anointed on this occasion.
154 sn The phrase oil of joy alludes to the fact that the coronation of the king, which was ritually accomplished by anointing his head with olive oil, was a time of great celebration and renewed hope. (If one understands the anointing in conjunction with the wedding ceremony, the “joy” would be that associated with the marriage.) The phrase “oil of joy” also appears in Isa 61:3, where mourners are granted “oil of joy” in conjunction with their deliverance from oppression.
155 tn Heb “from your companions.” The “companions” are most naturally understood as others in the royal family or, more generally, as the king’s countrymen.
156 tn The words “perfumed with” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
157 tn Heb “the palaces of ivory.” The phrase “palaces of ivory” refers to palaces that had ivory panels and furniture decorated with ivory inlays. Such decoration with ivory was characteristic of a high level of luxury. See 1 Kgs 22:39 and Amos 3:15.
158 tn Heb “from the palaces of ivory stringed instrument[s] make you happy.”
159 tn Heb “daughters of kings.”
160 tn Heb “valuable ones.” The form is feminine plural.
162 tn Heb “a consort stands at your right hand, gold of Ophir.”
163 tn Heb “daughter.” The Hebrew noun בת (“daughter”) can sometimes refer to a young woman in a general sense (see H. Haag, TDOT 2:334).
sn Listen, O princess. The poet now addresses the bride.
164 tn Heb “see and turn your ear.” The verb רָאָה (ra’ah, “see”) is used here of mental observation.
165 tn Heb “your people.” This reference to the “people” of the princess suggests she was a foreigner. Perhaps the marriage was arranged as part of a political alliance between Israel (or Judah) and a neighboring state. The translation “your homeland” reflects such a situation.
166 tn Heb “and the house of your father.”
167 tn After the preceding imperatives, the jussive verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive is best understood as introducing a purpose (“so that the king might desire your beauty”) or result clause (see the present translation and cf. also NASB). The point seems to be this: The bride might tend to be homesick, which in turn might cause her to mourn and diminish her attractiveness. She needs to overcome this temptation to unhappiness and enter into the marriage with joy. Then the king will be drawn to her natural beauty.
168 tn Or “desire.”
169 tn Or “bow down.”
170 sn Submit to him. The poet here makes the point that the young bride is obligated to bring pleasure to her new husband. Though a foreign concept to modern western culture, this was accepted as the cultural norm in the psalmist’s day.
172 tn Heb “and a daughter of Tyre with a gift, your face they will appease, the rich of people.” The phrase “daughter of Tyre” occurs only here in the OT. It could be understood as addressed to the bride, indicating she was a Phoenician (cf. NEB). However, often in the OT the word “daughter,” when collocated with the name of a city or country, is used to personify the referent (see, for example, “Daughter Zion” in Ps 9:14, and “Daughter Babylon” in Ps 137:8). If that is the case here, then “Daughter Tyre” identifies the city-state of Tyre as the place from which the rich people come (cf. NRSV). The idiom “appease the face” refers to seeking one’s favor (see Exod 32:11; 1 Sam 13:12; 1 Kgs 13:6; 2 Kgs 13:4; 2 Chr 33:12; Job 11:19; Ps 119:58; Prov 19:6; Jer 26:19; Dan 9:13; Zech 7:2; 8:21-22; Mal 1:9).
173 tn Heb “[the] daughter of a king.”
174 tn Heb “[is] completely glorious.”
175 tc Heb “within, from settings of gold, her clothing.” The Hebrew term פְּנִימָה (pÿnimah, “within”), if retained, would go with the preceding line and perhaps refer to the bride being “within” the palace or her bridal chamber (cf. NIV, NRSV). Since the next two lines refer to her attire (see also v. 9b), it is preferable to emend the form to פְּנִינִיהָּ (“her pearls”) or to פְּנִינִים (“pearls”). The mem (מ) prefixed to “settings” is probably dittographic.
176 tn Heb “virgins after her, her companions, are led to you.” Some emend לָךְ (lakh, “to you”) to לָהּ (lah, “to her,” i.e., the princess), because the princess is now being spoken of in the third person (vv. 13-14a), rather than being addressed directly (as in vv. 10-12). However, the ambiguous suffixed form לָךְ need not be taken as second feminine singular. The suffix can be understood as a pausal second masculine singular form, addressed to the king. The translation assumes this to be the case; note that the king is addressed once more in vv. 16-17, where the second person pronouns are masculine.
177 tn Heb “they are led with joy and happiness, they enter the house of the king.”
178 tn The pronoun is second masculine singular, indicating the king is being addressed from this point to the end of the psalm.
179 tn The prefixed verbal form could be taken as jussive and the statement interpreted as a prayer, “May your sons carry on the dynasty of your ancestors!” The next line could then be taken as a relative clause, “[your sons] whom you will make princes throughout the land.”
180 tn Heb “in place of your fathers will be your sons.”
181 tn Heb “I will cause your name to be remembered in every generation and generation.” The cohortative verbal form expresses the poet’s resolve. The king’s “name” stands here for his reputation and character, which the poet praised in vv. 2-7.
182 sn The nations will praise you. As God’s vice-regent on earth, the king is deserving of such honor and praise.
184 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
185 tn Heb “when Doeg the Edomite came and told Saul and said to him, ‘David has come to the house of Ahimelech.’”
sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm during the period when Saul was seeking his life. On one occasion Doeg the Edomite, Saul’s head shepherd (1 Sam 21:7), informed Saul of David’s whereabouts (see 1 Sam 21-22).
186 tn Heb “Why do you boast in evil?”
187 tn Heb “the loyal love of God [is] all the day.” In this context, where the psalmist is threatened by his enemy, the point seems to be that the psalmist is protected by God’s loyal love at all times.
188 tn Heb “destruction your tongue devises.”
189 tn Heb “like a sharpened razor, doer of deceit.” The masculine participle עָשָׂה (’asah) is understood as a substantival vocative, addressed to the powerful man.
190 tn Or “deceit more than speaking what is right.”
191 tn Heb “you love all the words of swallowing.” Traditionally בַּלַּע (bala’) has been taken to mean “swallowing” in the sense of “devouring” or “destructive” (see BDB 118 s.v. בָּלַע). HALOT 135 s.v. III *בֶּלַע proposes a homonym here, meaning “confusion.” This would fit the immediate context nicely and provide a close parallel to the following line, which refers to deceptive words.
192 tn The adverb גַּם (gam, “also; even”) is translated here in an adversative sense (“yet”). It highlights the contrastive correspondence between the evildoer’s behavior and God’s response.
193 tn Heb “will tear you down forever.”
195 tn Heb “from [your] tent.”
196 tn Heb “and the godly will see and will fear and at him will laugh.”
197 tn The imperfect verbal form here draws attention to the ongoing nature of the action. The evildoer customarily rejected God and trusted in his own abilities. Another option is to take the imperfect as generalizing, “[here is the man who] does not make.”
198 tn Heb “he was strong in his destruction.” “Destruction” must refer back to the destructive plans mentioned in v. 2. The verb (derived from the root עָזַז, ’azaz, “be strong”) as it stands is either an imperfect (if so, probably used in a customary sense) or a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive). However the form should probably be emended to וַיָּעָז (vayya’az), a Qal preterite (with vav [ו] consecutive) from עָזַז. Note the preterite form without vav (ו) consecutive in the preceding line (וַיִּבְטַח, vayyivtakh, “and he trusted”). The prefixed vav (ו) was likely omitted by haplography (note the suffixed vav [ו] on the preceding עָשְׁרוֹ, ’oshro, “his wealth”).
200 tn Or “luxuriant, green, leafy.”
201 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever and ever.”
202 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”
203 tn Or “for.”
204 tn Heb “you have acted.” The perfect verbal form (1) probably indicates a future perfect here. The psalmist promises to give thanks when the expected vindication has been accomplished. Other options include (2) a generalizing (“for you act”) or (3) rhetorical (“for you will act”) use.
205 tn Or “wait.”
206 tn Heb “your name.” God’s “name” refers here to his reputation and revealed character.
207 tn Heb “for it is good in front of your loyal followers.”
208 sn Psalm 53. This psalm is very similar to Ps 14. The major difference comes in v. 5, which corresponds to, but differs quite a bit from, Ps 14:5-6, and in the use of the divine name. Ps 14 uses “the
209 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מָחֲלַת (makhalat, “machalath”) is uncertain; perhaps it refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. The term also appears in the heading of Ps 88.
211 tn Heb “a fool says in his heart.” The singular is used here in a collective or representative sense; the typical fool is envisioned.
212 sn There is no God. This statement is probably not a philosophical assertion that God does not exist, but rather a confident affirmation that he is unconcerned about how men live morally and ethically (see Ps 10:4, 11).
213 tn Heb “they act corruptly, they do evil [with] injustice.” Ps 14:1 has עֲלִילָה (’alilah, “a deed”) instead of עָוֶל (’aval, “injustice”). The verbs describe the typical behavior of the wicked. The subject of the plural verbs is “sons of man” (v. 2). The entire human race is characterized by sinful behavior. This practical atheism – living as if there is no God who will hold them accountable for their actions – makes them fools, for one of the earmarks of folly is to fail to anticipate the long range consequences of one’s behavior.
214 tn Heb “there is none that does good.”
215 sn The picture of the
216 tn Heb “upon the sons of man.”
217 tn Or “acts wisely.” The Hiphil is exhibitive.
218 tn That is, who seeks to have a relationship with God by obeying and worshiping him.
220 tn Heb “together they are corrupt.”
221 tn Heb “there is none that does good.”
223 tn Heb “Do they not understand?” The rhetorical question expresses the psalmist’s amazement at their apparent lack of understanding. This may refer to their lack of moral understanding, but it more likely refers to their failure to anticipate God’s defense of his people (see vv. 5-6).
224 tn Heb “there they are afraid [with] fear.” The perfect verbal form is probably used in a rhetorical manner; the psalmist describes the future demise of the oppressors as if it were already occurring. The adverb שָׁם (sham, “there”) is also used here for dramatic effect, as the psalmist envisions the wicked standing in fear at a spot that is this vivid in his imagination (BDB 1027 s.v.). The cognate accusative following the verb emphasizes the degree of their terror (“absolutely”).
225 tn Heb “there is no fear.” Apparently this means the evildoers are so traumatized with panic (see v. 5b) that they now jump with fear at everything, even those things that would not normally cause fear. Ps 14:5 omits this line.
226 tn Heb “scatters the bones.” The perfect is used in a rhetorical manner, describing this future judgment as if it were already accomplished. Scattering the bones alludes to the aftermath of a battle. God annihilates his enemies, leaving their carcasses spread all over the battlefield. As the bodies are devoured by wild animals and decay, the bones of God’s dead enemies are exposed. See Ps 141:7.
227 tn Heb “[those who] encamp [against] you.” The second person masculine singular pronominal suffix probably refers to God’s people viewed as a collective whole. Instead of “for God scatters the bones of those who encamp against you,” Ps 14:5 reads, “for God is with a godly generation.”
228 tn Once again the perfect is used in a rhetorical manner, describing this future judgment as if it were already accomplished. As in the previous line, God’s people are probably addressed. The second person singular verb form is apparently collective, suggesting that the people are viewed here as a unified whole. Ps 14:6 reads here “the counsel of the oppressed you put to shame, even though God is his shelter,” the words being addressed to the wicked.
229 tn This refers metonymically to God, the one who lives in Zion and provides deliverance for Israel.
230 tn Heb “turns with a turning [toward] his people.” The Hebrew term שְׁבוּת (shÿvut) is apparently a cognate accusative of שׁוּב (shuv).
231 tn The verb form is jussive.
232 tn Because the parallel verb is jussive, this verb, which is ambiguous in form, should be taken as a jussive as well.
235 tn Heb “Is not David hiding with us?”
sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm during the period when Saul was seeking his life. On one occasion the Ziphites informed Saul that David was hiding in their territory (see 1 Sam 23:19-20).
236 tn God’s “name” refers here to his reputation and revealed character, which would instill fear in the psalmist’s enemies (see C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms [ICC], 2:17).
237 tn The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s wish or request.
238 tn Heb “to the words of my mouth.”
239 tc Many medieval Hebrew
240 tn Heb “rise against me.”
241 tn Heb “and ruthless ones seek my life, they do not set God in front of them.”
242 tn Or “my helper.”
243 tn Or “sustain my life.”
245 tn The Kethib (consonantal text) reads a Qal imperfect, “the evil will return,” while the Qere (marginal reading) has a Hiphil imperfect, “he will repay.” The parallel line has an imperative (indicating a prayer/request), so it is best to read a jussive form יָשֹׁב (yashov, “let it [the evil] return”) here.
246 tn Heb “in [or “by”] your faithfulness.”
247 tn The cohortative verbal form expresses the psalmist’s resolve/vow to praise.
249 tn The perfects in v. 7 are probably rhetorical, indicating the psalmist’s certitude and confidence that God will intervene. The psalmist is so confident of God’s positive response to his prayer, he can describe God’s deliverance and his own vindication as if they were occurring or had already occurred.
250 tn Heb “and on my enemies my eyes look.”
253 tn Heb “hide yourself from.”
255 tn Heb “in my complaint.”
256 tn The verb is a Hiphil cohortative from הוּם (hum), which means “to confuse someone” in the Qal and “to go wild” in the Niphal. An Arabic cognate means “to be out of one’s senses, to wander about.” With the vav (ו) conjunctive prefixed to it, the cohortative probably indicates the result or effect of the preceding main verb. Some prefer to emend the form to וְאֵהוֹמָה (vÿ’ehomah), a Niphal of הוּם (hum), or to וְאֶהַמֶה (vÿ’ehameh), a Qal imperfect from הָמָה (hamah, “to moan”). Many also prefer to take this verb with what follows (see v. 3).
257 tn Heb “because of [the] voice of [the] enemy.”
258 tn The singular forms “enemy” and “wicked” are collective or representative, as the plural verb forms in the second half of the verse indicate.
259 tn Heb “from before the pressure of the wicked.” Some suggest the meaning “screech” (note the parallel “voice”; cf. NEB “shrill clamour”; NRSV “clamor”) for the rare noun עָקָה (’aqah, “pressure”).
260 tn Heb “wickedness,” but here the term refers to the destructive effects of their wicked acts.
261 tc The verb form in the MT appears to be a Hiphil imperfect from the root מוֹט (mot, “to sway”), but the Hiphil occurs only here and in the Kethib (consonantal text) of Ps 140:10, where the form יַמְטֵר (yamter, “let him rain down”) should probably be read. Here in Ps 55:3 it is preferable to read יַמְטִירוּ (yamtiru, “they rain down”). It is odd for “rain down” to be used with an abstract object like “wickedness,” but in Job 20:23 God “rains down” anger (unless one emends the text there; see BHS).
262 tn Heb “shakes, trembles.”
263 tn Heb “the terrors of death have fallen on me.”
264 tn Heb “fear and trembling enter into me.”
265 tn Heb “covers.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the descriptive (present progressive) force of the preceding imperfect.
267 tn Heb “[the] wind [that] sweeps away.” The verb סָעָה (sa’ah, “sweep away”) occurs only here in the OT (see H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena [SBLDS], 120).
268 tn Traditionally בַּלַּע (bala’) has been taken to mean “swallow” in the sense of “devour” or “destroy” (cf. KJV), but this may be a homonym meaning “confuse” (see BDB 118 s.v. בַּלַּע; HALOT 135 s.v. III *בֶּלַע). “Their tongue” is the understood object of the verb (see the next line).
269 tn Heb “split their tongue,” which apparently means “confuse their speech,” or, more paraphrastically, “frustrate the plans they devise with their tongues.”
270 tn Heb “day and night they surround it, upon its walls.” Personified “violence and conflict” are the likely subjects. They are compared to watchmen on the city’s walls.
272 tn Or “injury, harm.”
273 tn Or “for.”
275 sn It is you. The psalmist addresses the apparent ringleader of the opposition, an individual who was once his friend.
276 tn Heb “a man according to my value,” i.e., “a person such as I.”
277 tn Heb “my close friend, one known by me.”
278 tn Heb “who together we would make counsel sweet.” The imperfect verbal forms here and in the next line draw attention to the ongoing nature of the actions (the so-called customary use of the imperfect). Their relationship was characterized by such intimacy and friendship. See IBHS 502-3 §31.2b.
279 tc The meaning of the MT is unclear. The Kethib (consonantal text) reads יַשִּׁימָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashimavet ’alemo, “May devastation [be] upon them!”). The proposed noun יַשִּׁימָוֶת occurs only here and perhaps in the place name Beth-Jeshimoth in Num 33:49. The Qere (marginal text) has יַשִּׁי מָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashi mavet ’alemo). The verbal form יַשִּׁי is apparently an alternate form of יַשִּׁיא (yashi’), a Hiphil imperfect from נָשַׁא (nasha’, “deceive”). In this case one might read “death will come deceptively upon them.” This reading has the advantage of reading מָוֶת (mavet, “death”) which forms a natural parallel with “Sheol” in the next line. The present translation is based on the following reconstruction of the text: יְשִׁמֵּם מָוֶת (yeshimmem mavet). The verb assumed in the reconstruction is a Hiphil jussive third masculine singular from שָׁמַם (shamam, “be desolate”) with a third masculine plural pronominal suffix attached. This reconstruction assumes that (1) haplography has occurred in the traditional text (the original sequence of three mems [מ] was lost with only one mem remaining), resulting in the fusion of originally distinct forms in the Kethib, and (2) that עָלֵימוֹ (’alemo, “upon them”) is a later scribal addition attempting to make sense of a garbled and corrupt text. The preposition עַל (’al) does occur with the verb שָׁמַם (shamam), but in such cases the expression means “be appalled at/because of” (see Jer 49:20; 50:45). If one were to retain the prepositional phrase here, one would have to read the text as follows: יַשִּׁים מָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashim mavet ’alemo, “Death will be appalled at them”). The idea seems odd, to say the least. Death is not collocated with this verb elsewhere.
280 sn Go down alive. This curse imagines a swift and sudden death for the psalmist’s enemies.
281 tn The first verb is clearly a cohortative form, expressing the psalmist’s resolve. The second verb, while formally ambiguous, should also be understood as cohortative here.
282 tn The prefixed verb with vav (ו) consecutive normally appears in narrational contexts to indicate past action, but here it continues the anticipatory (future) perspective of the preceding line. In Ps 77:6 one finds the same sequence of cohortative + prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive. In this case as well, both forms refer to future actions.
283 tn Heb “my voice.”
284 tn The perfect verbal form is here used rhetorically to indicate that the action is certain to take place (the so-called perfect of certitude).
285 tn Heb “he will redeem in peace my life from [those who] draw near to me.”
286 tn Or “for.”
287 tn Heb “among many they are against me.” For other examples of the preposition עִמָּד (’immad) used in the sense of “at, against,” see HALOT 842 s.v.; BDB 767 s.v.; IBHS 219 §11.2.14b.
288 tc Heb “God will hear and answer them, even [the] one who sits [from] ancient times.” The prefixed verbal from with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the anticipatory force of the preceding imperfect. The verb appears to be a Qal form from עָנָה (’anah, “to answer”). If this reading is retained, the point would be that God “answered” them in judgment. The translation assumes an emendation to the Piel וַיְעַנֵּם (vay’annem; see 2 Kgs 17:20) and understands the root as עָנָה (’anah, “to afflict”; see also 1 Kgs 8:35).
289 tn Heb “[the ones] for whom there are no changes, and they do not fear God.”
291 tn Heb “stretches out his hand against.”
292 tc The form should probably be emended to an active participle (שֹׁלְמָיו, sholÿmayv) from the verbal root שָׁלַם (shalam, “be in a covenant of peace with”). Perhaps the translation “his friends” suggests too intimate a relationship. Another option is to translate, “he attacks those who made agreements with him.”
293 tn Heb “he violates his covenant.”
294 tn Heb “the butter-like [words] of his mouth are smooth.” The noun מַחְמָאֹת (makhma’ot, “butter-like [words]”) occurs only here. Many prefer to emend the form to מֵחֶמְאָה (mekhem’ah, from [i.e., “than”] butter”), cf. NEB, NRSV “smoother than butter.” However, in this case “his mouth” does not agree in number with the plural verb חָלְקוּ (kholqu, “they are smooth”). Therefore some further propose an emendation of פִּיו (piv, “his mouth”) to פָּנָיו (panayv, “his face”). In any case, the point seems to that the psalmist’s former friend spoke kindly to him and gave the outward indications of friendship.
295 tn Heb “and war [is in] his heart.”
296 tn Heb “his words are softer than oil, but they are drawn swords.”
297 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here.
298 tn The pronoun is singular; the psalmist addresses each member of his audience individually.
299 tn Heb “he will never allow swaying for the righteous.”
302 tn Heb “men of bloodshed and deceit.”
303 tn Heb “will not divide in half their days.”
304 sn Psalm 74. The psalmist, who has just experienced the devastation of the Babylonian invasion of Jerusalem in 586
305 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
306 sn The psalmist does not really believe God has permanently rejected his people or he would not pray as he does in this psalm. But this initial question reflects his emotional response to what he sees and is overstated for the sake of emphasis. The severity of divine judgment gives the appearance that God has permanently abandoned his people.
307 tn Heb “smoke.” The picture is that of a fire that continues to smolder.
308 tn Heb “your assembly,” which pictures God’s people as an assembled community.
311 tn Heb “lift up your steps to,” which may mean “run, hurry.”
312 tn Heb “everything [the] enemy has damaged in the holy place.”
313 tn This verb is often used of a lion’s roar, so the psalmist may be comparing the enemy to a raging, devouring lion.
314 tn Heb “your meeting place.”
316 tn Heb “it is known like one bringing upwards, in a thicket of wood, axes.” The Babylonian invaders destroyed the woodwork in the temple.
317 tn This is the reading of the Qere (marginal reading). The Kethib (consonantal text) has “and a time.”
318 tn The imperfect verbal form vividly describes the act as underway.
319 tn Heb “its engravings together.”
320 tn This Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT (see H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena [SBLDS], 49-50).
321 tn This Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT. An Akkadian cognate refers to a “pickaxe” (cf. NEB “hatchet and pick”; NIV “axes and hatchets”; NRSV “hatchets and hammers”).
322 tn Heb “to the ground they desecrate the dwelling place of your name.”
323 tn Heb “in their heart.”
324 tc Heb “[?] altogether.” The Hebrew form נִינָם (ninam) is problematic. It could be understood as the noun נִין (nin, “offspring”) but the statement “their offspring altogether” would make no sense here. C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs (Psalms [ICC], 2:159) emends יָחַד (yakhad, “altogether”) to יָחִיד (yakhid, “alone”) and translate “let their offspring be solitary” (i.e., exiled). Another option is to understand the form as a Qal imperfect first common plural from יָנָה (yanah, “to oppress”) with a third masculine plural pronominal suffix, “we will oppress them.” However, this verb, when used in the finite form, always appears in the Hiphil. Therefore, it is preferable to emend the form to the Hiphil נוֹנֵם (nonem, “we will oppress them”).
325 tn Heb “they burn down all the meeting places of God in the land.”
326 tn Heb “our signs we do not see.” Because of the reference to a prophet in the next line, it is likely that the “signs” in view here include the evidence of God’s presence as typically revealed through the prophets. These could include miraculous acts performed by the prophets (see, for example, Isa 38:7-8) or object lessons which they acted out (see, for example, Isa 20:3).
327 tn Heb “there is not still a prophet.”
328 tn Heb “and [there is] not with us one who knows how long.”
329 tn Heb “Why do you draw back your hand, even your right hand? From the midst of your chest, destroy!” The psalmist pictures God as having placed his right hand (symbolic of activity and strength) inside his robe against his chest. He prays that God would pull his hand out from under his robe and use it to destroy the enemy.
330 tn The psalmist speaks as Israel’s representative here.
331 tn Heb “in the midst of the earth.”
332 tn The derivation and meaning of the Polel verb form פּוֹרַרְתָּ (porarta) are uncertain. The form may be related to an Akkadian cognate meaning “break, shatter,” though the biblical Hebrew cognate of this verb always appears in the Hiphil or Hophal stem. BDB 830 s.v. II פָּרַר suggests a homonym here, meaning “to split; to divide.” A Hitpolel form of a root פָּרַר (parar) appears in Isa 24:19 with the meaning “to shake violently.”
333 tn The Hebrew text has the plural form, “sea monsters” (cf. NRSV “dragons”), but it is likely that an original enclitic mem has been misunderstood as a plural ending. The imagery of the mythological sea monster is utilized here. See the note on “Leviathan” in v. 14.
334 sn You crushed the heads of Leviathan. The imagery of vv. 13-14 originates in West Semitic mythology. The description of Leviathan should be compared with the following excerpts from Ugaritic mythological texts: (1) “Was not the dragon [Ugaritic tnn, cognate with Hebrew תַּנִין (tanin), translated “sea monster” in v. 13] vanquished and captured? I did destroy the wriggling [Ugaritic ’qltn, cognate to Hebrew עֲקַלָּתוֹן (’aqallaton), translated “squirming” in Isa 27:1] serpent, the tyrant with seven heads” (note the use of the plural “heads” here and in v. 13). (See CTA 3.iii.38-39 in G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 50.) (2) “For all that you smote Leviathan the slippery [Ugaritic brh, cognate to Hebrew בָּרִחַ (bariakh), translated “fast moving” in Isa 27:1] serpent, [and] made an end of the wriggling serpent, the tyrant with seven heads” (See CTA 5.i.1-3 in G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 68.) In the myths Leviathan is a sea creature that symbolizes the destructive water of the sea and, in turn, the forces of chaos that threaten the established order. In the OT, the battle with the sea motif is applied to Yahweh’s victories over the forces of chaos at creation and in history (see Pss 74:13-14; 77:16-20; 89:9-10; Isa 51:9-10). Yahweh’s subjugation of the waters of chaos is related to his kingship (see Pss 29:3, 10; 93:3-4). Isa 27:1 applies imagery from Canaanite mythology to Yahweh’s eschatological victory over his enemies. Apocalyptic literature employs the imagery as well. The beasts of Dan 7 emerge from the sea, while Rev 13 speaks of a seven-headed beast coming from the sea. Here in Ps 74:13-14 the primary referent is unclear. The psalmist may be describing God’s creation of the world (note vv. 16-17 and see Ps 89:9-12), when he brought order out of a watery mass, or the exodus (see Isa 51:9-10), when he created Israel by destroying the Egyptians in the waters of the sea.
335 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a preterite in this narrational context.
336 sn You fed him to the people. This pictures the fragments of Leviathan’s dead corpse washing up on shore and being devoured by those who find them. If the exodus is in view, then it may allude to the bodies of the dead Egyptians which washed up on the shore of the Red Sea (see Exod 14:30).
337 sn You broke open the spring and the stream. Perhaps this alludes to the way in which God provided water for the Israelites as they traveled in the wilderness following the exodus (see Ps 78:15-16, 20; 105:41).
338 sn Perpetually flowing rivers are rivers that contain water year round, unlike the seasonal streams that flow only during the rainy season. Perhaps the psalmist here alludes to the drying up of the Jordan River when the Israelites entered the land of Canaan under Joshua (see Josh 3-4).
339 tn Heb “To you [is] day, also to you [is] night.”
340 tn Heb “[the] light.” Following the reference to “day and night” and in combination with “sun,” it is likely that the Hebrew term מָאוֹר (ma’or, “light”) refers here to the moon.
341 tn Heb “you established [the] light and [the] sun.”
342 tn This would appear to refer to geographical boundaries, such as mountains, rivers, and seacoasts. However, since the day-night cycle has just been mentioned (v. 16) and the next line speaks of the seasons, it is possible that “boundaries” here refers to the divisions of the seasons. See C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms (ICC), 2:156.
343 tn Heb “summer and winter, you, you formed them.”
344 tn Heb “remember this.”
345 tn Or “[how] the enemy insults the
346 sn Your dove. The psalmist compares weak and vulnerable Israel to a helpless dove.
347 tn Heb “do not forget forever.”
348 tc Heb “look at the covenant.” The LXX reads “your covenant,” which seems to assume a second person pronominal suffix. The suffix may have been accidentally omitted by haplography. Note that the following word (כִּי) begins with kaf (כ).
349 tn Heb “for the dark places of the earth are full of dwelling places of violence.” The “dark regions” are probably the lands where the people have been exiled (see C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms [ICC], 2:157). In some contexts “dark regions” refers to Sheol (Ps 88:6) or to hiding places likened to Sheol (Ps 143:3; Lam 3:6).
350 sn Let the oppressed and poor praise your name! The statement is metonymic. The point is this: May the oppressed be delivered from their enemies! Then they will have ample reason to praise God’s name.
351 tn Or “defend your cause.”
352 tn Heb “remember your reproach from a fool all the day.”
353 tn Or “forget.”
354 tn Heb “the voice of your enemies.”
355 tn Heb “the roar of those who rise up against you, which ascends continually.”
356 sn Psalm 78. The author of this lengthy didactic psalm rehearses Israel’s history. He praises God for his power, goodness and patience, but also reminds his audience that sin angers God and prompts his judgment. In the conclusion to the psalm the author elevates Jerusalem as God’s chosen city and David as his chosen king.
358 tn Heb “Turn your ear to the words of my mouth.”
359 tn Heb “I will open with a wise saying my mouth, I will utter insightful sayings from long ago.” Elsewhere the Hebrew word pair חִידָה+מָשָׁל (mashal + khidah) refers to a taunt song (Hab 2:6), a parable (Ezek 17:2), proverbial sayings (Prov 1:6), and an insightful song that reflects on the mortality of humankind and the ultimate inability of riches to prevent death (Ps 49:4).
360 tn Or “known.”
366 tn Heb “in order that they might know, a following generation, sons [who] will be born, they will arise and will tell to their sons.”
367 tn Heb “keep.”
369 tn Heb “the sons of Ephraim.” Ephraim probably stands here by synecdoche (part for whole) for the northern kingdom of Israel.
370 tn Heb “ones armed, shooters of bow.” It is possible that the term נוֹשְׁקֵי (noshÿqey, “ones armed [with]”) is an interpretive gloss for the rare רוֹמֵי (romey, “shooters of”; on the latter see BDB 941 s.v. I רָמָה). The phrase נוֹשְׁקֵי קֶשֶׁת (noshÿqey qeshet, “ones armed with a bow”) appears in 1 Chr 12:2; 2 Chr 17:17.
371 sn They retreated. This could refer to the northern tribes’ failure to conquer completely their allotted territory (see Judg 1), or it could refer generally to the typical consequence (military defeat) of their sin (see vv. 10-11).
372 tn Heb “the covenant of God.”
373 tn Heb “walk in.”
374 tn Heb “his deeds.”
376 tn Heb “and caused them to drink, like the depths, abundantly.”
377 tn Heb “rebelling [against] the Most High.”
378 tn Heb “and they tested God in their heart.” The “heart” is viewed here as the center of their volition.
379 tn Heb “they spoke against God, they said.”
380 tn Heb “to arrange a table [for food].”
381 tn Heb “look.”
382 tn Heb “therefore.”
383 tn Heb “and also anger went up.”
384 tn Heb “and they did not trust his deliverance.”
386 sn Because of the reference to “heaven” in the preceding verse, it is likely that mighty ones refers here to the angels of heaven. The LXX translates “angels” here, as do a number of modern translations (NEB, NIV, NRSV).
387 tn Heb “provision he sent to them to satisfaction.”
388 tn Heb “and like the sand of the seas winged birds.”
389 tn Heb “and they ate and were very satisfied.”
390 tn Heb “they were not separated from their desire.”
391 tn Heb “and did not believe in his amazing deeds.”
392 tn Heb “and he ended in vanity their days.”
393 tn Heb “and their years in terror.”
394 tn Or “killed them,” that is, killed large numbers of them.
395 tn Heb “they sought him.”
396 tn Heb “my high rocky summit.”
397 tn Heb “and [that] God Most High [was] their redeemer.”
398 tn Heb “with their mouth.”
399 tn Heb “and with their tongue they lied to him.”
400 tn Heb “and their heart was not firm with him.”
401 tn One could translate v. 38 in the past tense (“he was compassionate…forgave sin and did not destroy…held back his anger, and did not stir up his fury”), but the imperfect verbal forms are probably best understood as generalizing. Verse 38 steps back briefly from the narrational summary of Israel’s history and lays the theological basis for v. 39, which focuses on God’s mercy toward sinful Israel.
402 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive signals a return to the narrative.
403 tn Heb “and he remembered that they [were] flesh, a wind [that] goes and does not return.”
404 tn Or “caused him pain.”
405 tn Heb “and they returned and tested God.” The Hebrew verb שׁוּב (shuv, “to return”) is used here in an adverbial sense to indicate that an earlier action was repeated.
406 tn Or “wounded, hurt.” The verb occurs only here in the OT.
407 sn The basic sense of the word “holy” is “set apart from that which is commonplace, special, unique.” The Lord’s holiness is first and foremost his transcendent sovereignty as the ruler of the world. He is “set apart” from the world over which he rules. At the same time his holiness encompasses his moral authority, which derives from his royal position. As king he has the right to dictate to his subjects how they are to live; indeed his very own character sets the standard for proper behavior. This expression is a common title for the
408 tn Heb “his hand,” symbolizing his saving activity and strength, as the next line makes clear.
409 tn Heb “[the] day [in] which he ransomed them from [the] enemy.”
412 tn Heb “and he sent an insect swarm against them and it devoured them.”
413 tn Heb “and a swarm of frogs and it destroyed them.”
414 tn Heb “and he turned over to the hail their cattle.”
415 tn Heb “and their livestock to the flames.” “Flames” here refer to the lightning bolts that accompanied the storm.
416 tn Heb “he sent against them the rage of his anger.” The phrase “rage of his anger” employs an appositional genitive. Synonyms are joined in a construct relationship to emphasize the single idea. For a detailed discussion of the grammatical point with numerous examples, see Y. Avishur, “Pairs of Synonymous Words in the Construct State (and in Appositional Hendiadys) in Biblical Hebrew,” Semitics 2 (1971): 17-81.
417 tn Heb “fury and indignation and trouble, a sending of messengers of disaster.”
418 tn Heb “he leveled a path for his anger.” There were no obstacles to impede its progress; it moved swiftly and destructively.
419 tn Or perhaps “[the] plague.”
420 tn Heb “the beginning of strength.” If retained, the plural form אוֹנִים (’onim, “strength”) probably indicates degree (“great strength”), but many ancient witnesses read “their strength,” which presupposes an emendation to אֹנָם (’onam; singular form of the noun with third masculine plural pronominal suffix).
423 tn Heb “he caused to fall [to] them with a measuring line an inheritance.”
424 tn Heb “and caused the tribes of Israel to settle down in their tents.”
425 tn Or “tested and rebelled against.”
426 tn Heb “God, the Most High.”
427 tn Or “keep.”
429 tn Heb “they turned back.”
430 tn Or “acted treacherously like.”
431 tn Heb “they turned aside like a deceitful bow.”
432 tn Traditionally, “high places.”
433 tn Or “rejected.”
434 tn Heb “and he gave to captivity his strength.” The expression “his strength” refers metonymically to the ark of the covenant, which was housed in the tabernacle at Shiloh.
435 tn Heb “and his splendor into the hand of an enemy.” The expression “his splendor” also refers metonymically to the ark of the covenant.
437 tn Heb “his inheritance.”
440 tn Heb “were not praised,” that is, in wedding songs. The young men died in masses, leaving no husbands for the young women.
443 sn Because of the invading army and the ensuing panic, the priests’ widows had no time to carry out the normal mourning rites.
444 tn Heb “and the master awoke like one sleeping.” The
445 tn Heb “like a warrior overcome with wine.” The Hebrew verb רוּן (run, “overcome”) occurs only here in the OT. The phrase “overcome with wine” could picture a drunken warrior controlled by his emotions and passions (as in the present translation), or it could refer to a warrior who awakes from a drunken stupor.
446 tn Heb “a permanent reproach he made them.”
447 tc Heb “and he built like the exalting [ones] his sanctuary.” The phrase כְּמוֹ־רָמִים (kÿmo-ramim, “like the exalting [ones]”) is a poetic form of the comparative preposition followed by a participial form of the verb רוּם (rum, “be exalted”). The text should be emended to כִּמְרֹמִים (kimromim, “like the [heavenly] heights”). See Ps 148:1, where “heights” refers to the heavens above.
448 tn Heb “like the earth, [which] he established permanently.” The feminine singular suffix on the Hebrew verb יָסַד (yasad, “to establish”) refers to the grammatically feminine noun “earth.”
449 tn Heb “from after the ewes he brought him.”
450 tn Heb “to shepherd Jacob, his people, and Israel, his inheritance.”
452 tn Heb “and he shepherded them according to the integrity of his heart.”
453 tn Heb “and with the understanding of his hands he led them.”
454 sn Psalm 88. The psalmist cries out in pain to the Lord, begging him for relief from his intense and constant suffering. The psalmist regards God as the ultimate cause of his distress, but nevertheless clings to God in hope.
455 tn The Hebrew phrase מָחֲלַת לְעַנּוֹת (makhalat lÿ’annot) may mean “illness to afflict.” Perhaps it refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. The term מָחֲלַת also appears in the superscription of Ps 53.
456 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
457 tn Heb “O
458 tn Heb “[by] day I cry out, in the night before you.”
459 tn Heb “may my prayer come before you.” The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive, indicating the psalmist’s desire or prayer.
460 tn Heb “turn your ear.”
461 tn Or “my soul.”
462 tn Heb “and my life approaches Sheol.”
463 tn Heb “I am considered with.”
464 tn Heb “the pit.” The noun בּוֹר (bor, “pit,” “cistern”) is sometimes used of the grave and/or the realm of the dead.
465 tn Heb “I am like a man [for whom] there is no help.”
466 tn Heb “set free.”
467 tn Heb “from your hand.”
469 tn Heb “[I am] confined and I cannot go out.”
470 tn Heb “I spread out my hands to you.” Spreading out the hands toward God was a prayer gesture (see Exod 9:29, 33; 1 Kgs 8:22, 38; 2 Chr 6:12-13, 29; Ezra 9:15; Job 11:13; Isa 1:15). The words “in prayer” have been supplied in the translation to clarify this.
472 tn Heb “in Abaddon,” a name for Sheol. The noun is derived from a verbal root meaning “to perish,” “to die.”
473 tn Heb “known.”
474 tn Heb “darkness,” here a title for Sheol.
475 tn Heb “forgetfulness.” The noun, which occurs only here in the OT, is derived from a verbal root meaning “to forget.”
sn The rhetorical questions in vv. 10-12 expect the answer, “Of course not!”
476 tn Heb “[why] do you hide your face from me?”
477 tn Heb “and am dying from youth.”
478 tn Heb “I carry your horrors [?].” The meaning of the Hebrew form אָפוּנָה (’afunah), which occurs only here in the OT, is unclear. It may be an adverb meaning “very much” (BDB 67 s.v.), though some prefer to emend the text to אָפוּגָה (’afugah, “I am numb”) from the verb פוּג (pug; see Pss 38:8; 77:2).
479 tn Heb “passes over me.”
480 tn Heb “they encircle me together.”
481 tn Heb “you cause to be far from me friend and neighbor.”
482 tn Heb “those known by me, darkness.”
483 sn Psalm 89. The psalmist praises God as the sovereign creator of the world. He recalls God’s covenant with David, but then laments that the promises of the covenant remain unrealized. The covenant promised the Davidic king military victories, but the king has now been subjected to humiliating defeat.
485 tn Or “forever.”
486 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation I will make known your faithfulness with my mouth.”
487 tn Heb “built.”
489 tn The words “the
490 tn Heb “forever I will establish your offspring.”
491 tn Heb “and I will build to a generation and a generation your throne.”
492 tn As the following context makes clear, the personified “heavens” here stand by metonymy for the angelic beings that surround God’s heavenly throne.
493 tn Heb “in the assembly of the holy ones.” The phrase “holy ones” sometimes refers to God’s people (Ps 34:9) or to their priestly leaders (2 Chr 35:3), but here it refers to God’s heavenly assembly and the angels that surround his throne (see vv. 6-7).
494 tn Heb “sons of gods”; or “sons of God.” Though אֵלִים (’elim) is vocalized as a plural form (“gods”) in the Hebrew text, it is likely that the final mem (ם) is actually enclitic rather than a plural marker. In this case one may read “God.” Some, following a Qumran text and the LXX, also propose the phrase occurred in the original text of Deut 32:8. The phrase בְנֵי אֵלִים (vÿney ’elim, “sons of gods” or “sons of God”) occurs only here and in Ps 29:1. Since the “sons of gods/God” are here associated with “the assembly of the holy ones” and “council of the holy ones,” the heavenly assembly (comprised of so-called “angels” and other supernatural beings) appears to be in view. See Job 5:1; 15:15 and Zech 14:5, where these supernatural beings are referred to as “holy ones.” In Canaanite mythological texts the divine council of the high god El is called “the sons of El.” The OT apparently uses the Canaanite phrase, applying it to the supernatural beings that surround the
495 tn Heb “feared.”
496 tn Heb “in the great assembly of the holy ones.”
497 tn Or perhaps “feared by.”
498 tn Traditionally “God of hosts.” The title here pictures the
499 tn Heb “the majesty of the sea.”
500 tn Heb “rise up.”
501 tn Heb “Rahab.” The name “Rahab” means “proud one.” Since it is sometimes used of Egypt (see Ps 87:4; Isa 30:7), the passage may allude to the exodus. However, the name is also used of the sea (or the mythological sea creature) which symbolizes the disruptive forces of the world that seek to replace order with chaos (see Job 9:13; 26:12). Isa 51:9 appears to combine the mythological and historical referents. The association of Rahab with the sea in Ps 89 (see v. 9) suggests that the name carries symbolic force in this context. In this case the passage may allude to creation (see vv. 11-12), when God overcame the great deep and brought order out of chaos.
502 tn Heb “like one fatally wounded.”
503 tn Heb “the world and its fullness, you established them.”
504 sn Tabor and Hermon were two of the most prominent mountains in Palestine.
505 sn The Lord’s arm, hand, and right hand all symbolize his activities, especially his exploits in war.
507 sn The Lord’s throne symbolizes his kingship.
510 tn Heb “in the light of your face they walk.” The idiom “light of your face” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19; Dan 9:17).
511 tn Heb “are lifted up.”
512 tn Heb “for the splendor of their strength [is] you.”
513 tn Heb “you lift up our horn,” or if one follows the marginal reading (Qere), “our horn is lifted up.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 75:10; 89:24; 92:10; Lam 2:17).
514 tn The phrase “our shield” refers metaphorically to the Davidic king, who, as God’s vice-regent, was the human protector of the people. Note the parallelism with “our king" here and with “your anointed one” in Ps 84:9.
515 sn The basic sense of the word “holy” is “set apart from that which is commonplace, special, unique.” The Lord’s holiness is first and foremost his transcendent sovereignty as the ruler of the world. He is “set apart” from the world over which he rules. At the same time his holiness encompasses his moral authority, which derives from his royal position. As king he has the right to dictate to his subjects how they are to live; indeed his very own character sets the standard for proper behavior. This expression is a common title for the
518 tn Heb “I have placed help upon a warrior.”
519 tn Or perhaps “a chosen one.”
520 tn The words “as king” are supplied in the translation for clarification, indicating that a royal anointing is in view.
521 tn Heb “with whom my hand will be firm.”
522 tn Heb “an enemy will not exact tribute.” The imperfect is understood in a modal sense, indicating capability or potential.
523 tn The translation understands the Hiphil of נָשַׁא (nasha’) in the sense of “act as a creditor.” This may allude to the practice of a conqueror forcing his subjects to pay tribute in exchange for “protection.” Another option is to take the verb from a homonymic verbal root meaning “to deceive,” “to trick.” Still another option is to emend the form to יִשָּׂא (yisa’), a Qal imperfect from נָאַשׂ (na’as, “rise up”) and to translate “an enemy will not rise up against him” (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 2:317).
524 tn Heb “and a son of violence will not oppress him.” The imperfect is understood in a modal sense, indicating capability or potential. The reference to a “son of violence” echoes the language of God’s promise to David in 2 Sam 7:10 (see also 1 Chr 17:9).
525 tn Heb “and my faithfulness and my loyal love [will be] with him.”
526 tn Heb “and by my name his horn will be lifted up.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 75:10; 92:10; Lam 2:17).
527 tn Some identify “the sea” as the Mediterranean and “the rivers” as the Euphrates and its tributaries. However, it is more likely that “the sea” and “the rivers” are symbols for hostile powers that oppose God and the king (see v. 9, as well as Ps 93:3-4).
528 sn You are my father. The Davidic king was viewed as God’s “son” (see 2 Sam 7:14; Ps 2:7). The idiom reflects ancient Near Eastern adoption language associated with covenants of grant, by which a lord would reward a faithful subject by elevating him to special status, referred to as “sonship.” Like a son, the faithful subject received an “inheritance,” viewed as an unconditional, eternal gift. Such gifts usually took the form of land and/or an enduring dynasty. See M. Weinfeld, “The Covenant of Grant in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East,” JAOS 90 (1970): 184-203, for general discussion and some striking extra-biblical parallels.
529 tn Heb “the rocky summit of my deliverance.”
530 sn The firstborn son typically had special status and received special privileges.
531 tn Heb “forever I will keep for him my loyal love and will make my covenant secure for him.”
532 tn Heb “and I will set in place forever his offspring.”
533 tn Heb “and his throne like the days of the heavens.”
534 tn Or “desecrate.”
535 tn Heb “I will punish with a club their rebellion.”
sn Despite the harsh image of beating…with a club, the language reflects a father-son relationship (see v. 30; 2 Sam 7:14). According to Proverbs, a שֵׁבֶט (shevet, “club”) was sometimes utilized to administer corporal punishment to rebellious children (see Prov 13:24; 22:15; 23:13-14; 29:15).
536 tn Heb “with blows their sin.”
537 tn Heb “break”; “make ineffectual.” Some prefer to emend אָפִיר (’afir; the Hiphil of פָּרַר, parar, “to break”) to אָסִיר (’asir; the Hiphil of סוּר, sur, “to turn aside”), a verb that appears in 2 Sam 7:15.
538 tn Heb “and I will not deal falsely with my faithfulness.”
539 tn Or “desecrate.”
540 tn Heb “and what proceeds out of my lips I will not alter.”
541 tn Or “lie to.”
542 tn Heb “his offspring forever will be.”
543 tn Heb “and his throne like the sun before me.”
544 tn Heb “like the moon it will be established forever.”
545 tn Heb “and a witness in the sky, secure.” Scholars have offered a variety of opinions as to the identity of the “witness” referred to here, none of which is very convincing. It is preferable to join וְעֵד (vÿ’ed) to עוֹלָם (’olam) in the preceding line and translate the commonly attested phrase עוֹלָם וְעֵד (“forever”). In this case one may translate the second line, “[it] will be secure like the skies.” Another option (the one reflected in the present translation) is to take עד as a rare noun meaning “throne” or “dais.” This noun is attested in Ugaritic; see, for example, CTA 16 vi 22-23, where ksi (= כִּסֵּא, kisse’, “throne”) and ’d (= עד, “dais”) appear as synonyms in the poetic parallelism (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 91). Emending בַּשַּׁחַק (bashakhaq, “in the heavens”) to כַּשַׁחַק (kashakhaq, “like the heavens”) – bet/kaf (כ/ב) confusion is widely attested – one can then read “[his] throne like the heavens [is] firm/stable.” Verse 29 refers to the enduring nature of the heavens, while Job 37:18 speaks of God spreading out the heavens (שְׁחָקִים, shÿkhaqim) and compares their strength to a bronze mirror. Ps 89:29 uses the term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim, “skies”) which frequently appears in parallelism to שְׁחָקִים.
546 tn The Hebrew construction (conjunction + pronoun, followed by the verb) draws attention to the contrast between what follows and what precedes.
549 tn Heb “the covenant of your servant.”
550 tn Heb “you dishonor [or “desecrate”] on the ground his crown.”
551 tn The king here represents the land and cities over which he rules.
552 tn Heb “all the passersby on the road.”
554 tn The perfect verbal form predominates in vv. 38-45. The use of the imperfect in this one instance may be for rhetorical effect. The psalmist briefly lapses into dramatic mode, describing the king’s military defeat as if it were happening before his very eyes.
555 tc Heb “you turn back, rocky summit, his sword.” The Hebrew term צוּר (tsur, “rocky summit”) makes no sense here, unless it is a divine title understood as vocative, “you turn back, O Rocky Summit, his sword.” Some emend the form to צֹר (tsor, “flint”) on the basis of Josh 5:2, which uses the phrase חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים (kharvot tsurim, “flint knives”). The noun צֹר (tsor, “flint”) can then be taken as “flint-like edge,” indicating the sharpness of the sword. Others emend the form to אָחוֹר (’akhor, “backward”) or to מִצַּר (mitsar, “from the adversary”). The present translation reflects the latter, assuming an original reading תָּשִׁיב מִצָּר חַרְבּוֹ (tashiv mitsar kharbo), which was corrupted to תָּשִׁיב צָר חַרְבּוֹ (tashiv tsar kharbo) by virtual haplography (confusion of bet/mem is well-attested) with צָר (tsar, “adversary”) then being misinterpreted as צוּר in the later tradition.
556 tn Heb “and you have not caused him to stand in the battle.”
557 tc The Hebrew text appears to read, “you have brought to an end from his splendor,” but the form מִטְּהָרוֹ (mittÿharo) should be slightly emended (the daghesh should be removed from the tet [ת]) and read simply “his splendor” (the initial mem [מ] is not the preposition, but a nominal prefix).
560 tn Heb “How long, O
561 tn Heb “remember me, what is [my] lifespan.” The Hebrew term חֶלֶד (kheled) is also used of one’s lifespan in Ps 39:5. Because the Hebrew text is so awkward here, some prefer to emend it to read מֶה חָדֵל אָנִי (meh khadel ’aniy, “[remember] how transient [that is, “short-lived”] I am”; see Ps 39:4).
563 tn Heb “Who [is] the man [who] can live and not see death, [who] can deliver his life from the hand of Sheol?” The rhetorical question anticipates the answer, “No one!”
565 tc Many medieval Hebrew
566 tn Heb “[which] you swore on oath to David by your faithfulness.”
567 tc Many medieval Hebrew
568 tn Heb “remember, O Lord, the taunt against your servants.” Many medieval Hebrew
569 tn Heb “my lifting up in my arms [or “against my chest”] all of the many, peoples.” The term רַבִּים (rabbim, “many”) makes no apparent sense here. For this reason some emend the text to רִבֵי (rivey, “attacks by”), a defectively written plural construct form of רִיב (riv, “dispute; quarrel”).
570 tn Heb “[by] which your enemies, O
571 sn The final verse of Ps 89, v. 52, is a conclusion to this third “book” (or major editorial division) of the Psalter. Similar statements appear at or near the end of each of the first, second and fourth “books” of the Psalter (see Pss 41:13; 72:18-19; 106:48, respectively).
573 tn Heb “surely and surely” (אָמֵן וְאָמֵן [’amen vÿ’amen], i.e., “Amen and amen”). This is probably a congregational response to the immediately preceding statement about the propriety of praising God; thus it has been translated “We agree! We agree!”
575 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
576 sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm while in “the cave.” This probably refers to either the incident recorded in 1 Sam 22:1 or to the one recorded in 1 Sam 24:3. See the superscription of Ps 57.
577 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the
578 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the
579 tn Heb “my trouble before him I declare.”
580 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”
581 tn Heb “you know my path.”
582 tn Heb “there is no one who recognizes me.”
583 tn Heb “ a place of refuge perishes from me.”
584 tn Heb “there is no one who seeks for the sake of my life.”
585 tn Heb “my portion.” The psalmist compares the
586 tn Heb “for I am very low.”
587 tn Heb “bring out my life.”
588 tn Or “gather around.”
589 tn The Hebrew idiom גָּמַל עַל (gamal ’al) means “to repay,” here in a positive sense.