or stand in the pathway 7 with sinners,
and its leaves never fall off. 19
He succeeds in everything he attempts. 20
1:4 Not so with the wicked!
nor can sinners join the assembly of the godly. 26
but the way of the wicked ends in destruction. 29
Written by David, when he pretended to be insane before Abimelech, causing the king to send him away. 31
my mouth will continually praise him. 33
let the oppressed hear and rejoice! 35
34:3 Magnify the Lord with me!
Let’s praise 36 his name together!
he delivered me from all my fears.
34:5 Those who look to him for help are happy;
their faces are not ashamed. 38
34:6 This oppressed man cried out and the Lord heard;
he saved him 39 from all his troubles.
34:7 The Lord’s angel camps around
for his loyal followers 49 lack nothing!
34:10 Even young lions sometimes lack food and are hungry,
but those who seek the Lord lack no good thing.
34:11 Come children! Listen to me!
I will teach you what it means to fear the Lord. 50
Would you love to live a long, happy life? 52
or use deceptive speech! 54
Strive for peace and promote it! 56
34:15 The Lord pays attention to the godly
and hears their cry for help. 57
34:16 But the Lord opposes evildoers
and wipes out all memory of them from the earth. 58
he saves them from all their troubles. 60
34:18 The Lord is near the brokenhearted;
not one of them is broken. 69
those who hate the godly are punished. 71
all who take shelter in him escape punishment. 73
Do not envy evildoers!
37:2 For they will quickly dry up like grass,
and wither away like plants. 77
37:3 Trust in the Lord and do what is right!
Settle in the land and maintain your integrity! 78
and he will answer your prayers. 80
Trust in him, and he will act on your behalf. 82
37:6 He will vindicate you in broad daylight,
and publicly defend your just cause. 83
Wait confidently 85 for him!
Do not fret over the apparent success of a sinner, 86
a man who carries out wicked schemes!
Do not fret! That only leads to trouble!
but those who rely on the Lord are the ones who will possess the land. 90
you will stare at the spot where they once were, but they will be gone. 92
37:11 But the oppressed will possess the land
and enjoy great prosperity. 93
and viciously attack them. 95
for he knows that their day is coming. 97
37:14 Evil men draw their swords
and prepare their bows,
to bring down 98 the oppressed and needy,
and to slaughter those who are godly. 99
and their bows will be broken.
37:16 The little bit that a godly man owns is better than
the wealth of many evil men, 101
but the Lord sustains 103 the godly.
and they possess a permanent inheritance. 105
when famine comes they will have enough to eat. 107
the Lord’s enemies will be incinerated 109 –
they will go up in smoke. 110
37:21 Evil men borrow, but do not repay their debt,
but the godly show compassion and are generous. 111
37:23 The Lord grants success to the one
whose behavior he finds commendable. 116
for the Lord holds 119 his hand.
37:25 I was once young, now I am old.
I have never seen a godly man abandoned,
and his children 123 are blessed.
Then you will enjoy lasting security. 125
and never abandons 127 his faithful followers.
They are permanently secure, 128
37:29 The godly will possess the land
and will dwell in it permanently.
37:30 The godly speak wise words
and promote justice. 131
their 133 feet do not slip.
37:32 Evil men set an ambush for the godly
and try to kill them. 134
37:33 But the Lord does not surrender the godly,
or allow them to be condemned in a court of law. 135
Then he will permit you 138 to possess the land;
you will see the demise of evil men. 139
growing in influence, like a green tree grows in its native soil. 141
I looked for them, but they could not be found.
For the one who promotes peace has a future. 144
evil men have no future. 146
he protects them in times of trouble. 148
37:40 The Lord helps them and rescues them;
he rescues them from evil men and delivers them, 149
for they seek his protection.
112:1 Praise the Lord!
who takes great delight in keeping his commands. 153
the godly 155 will be blessed.
112:3 His house contains wealth and riches;
his integrity endures. 156
for each one who is merciful, compassionate, and just. 158
and conducts his business honestly. 160
112:6 For he will never be upended;
others will always remember one who is just. 161
112:7 He does not fear bad news.
before he looks in triumph on his enemies.
his integrity endures. 166
He will be vindicated and honored. 167
they will grind their teeth in frustration 169 and melt away;
the desire of the wicked will perish. 170
1 sn Psalm 1. In this wisdom psalm the author advises his audience to reject the lifestyle of the wicked and to be loyal to God. The psalmist contrasts the destiny of the wicked with that of the righteous, emphasizing that the wicked are eventually destroyed while the godly prosper under the Lord’s protective care.
2 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see v. 3; Pss 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
3 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the more neutral “one.” (Generic “he” is employed in vv. 2-3). Since the godly man described in the psalm is representative of followers of God (note the plural form צַדִּיקִים [tsadiqim, “righteous, godly”] in vv. 5-6), one could translate the collective singular with the plural “those” both here and in vv. 2-3, where singular pronouns and verbal forms are utilized in the Hebrew text (cf. NRSV). However, here the singular form may emphasize that godly individuals are usually outnumbered by the wicked. Retaining the singular allows the translation to retain this emphasis.
4 tn Heb “walk in.” The three perfect verbal forms in v. 1 refer in this context to characteristic behavior. The sequence “walk–stand–sit” envisions a progression from relatively casual association with the wicked to complete identification with them.
5 tn The Hebrew noun translated “advice” most often refers to the “counsel” or “advice” one receives from others. To “walk in the advice of the wicked” means to allow their evil advice to impact and determine one’s behavior.
6 tn In the psalms the Hebrew term רְשָׁעִים (rÿsha’im, “wicked”) describes people who are proud, practical atheists (Ps 10:2, 4, 11) who hate God’s commands, commit sinful deeds, speak lies and slander (Ps 50:16-20), and cheat others (Ps 37:21).
7 tn “Pathway” here refers to the lifestyle of sinners. To “stand in the pathway of/with sinners” means to closely associate with them in their sinful behavior.
8 tn Here the Hebrew term מוֹשַׁב (moshav), although often translated “seat” (cf. NEB, NIV), appears to refer to the whole assembly of evildoers. The word also carries the semantic nuance “assembly” in Ps 107:32, where it is in synonymous parallelism with קָהָל (qahal, “assembly”).
9 tn The Hebrew word refers to arrogant individuals (Prov 21:24) who love conflict (Prov 22:10) and vociferously reject wisdom and correction (Prov 1:22; 9:7-8; 13:1; 15:12). To “sit in the assembly” of such people means to completely identify with them in their proud, sinful plans and behavior.
11 tn Heb “his delight [is] in the law of the
12 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form draws attention to the characteristic behavior described here and lends support to the hyperbolic adverbial phrase “day and night.” The verb הָגָה (hagag) means “to recite quietly; to meditate” and refers metonymically to intense study and reflection.
13 tn Or “his law.”
14 tn The Hebrew perfect verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries the same characteristic force as the imperfect in the preceding verse. According to the psalmist, the one who studies and obeys God’s commands typically prospers.
15 tn Heb “channels of water.”
16 tn Heb “which.”
18 tn Heb “in its season.”
19 tn Or “fade”; “wither.”
sn The author compares the godly individual to a tree that has a rich water supply (planted by flowing streams), develops a strong root system, and is filled with leaves and fruit. The simile suggests that the godly have a continual source of life which in turn produces stability and uninterrupted prosperity.
20 tn Heb “and all which he does prospers”; or “and all which he does he causes to prosper.” (The simile of the tree does not extend to this line.) It is not certain if the Hiphil verbal form (יַצְלִיחַ, yatsliakh) is intransitive-exhibitive (“prospers”) or causative (“causes to prosper”) here. If the verb is intransitive, then כֹּל (kol, “all, everything”) is the subject. If the verb is causative, then the godly individual or the Lord himself is the subject and כֹּל is the object. The wording is reminiscent of Josh 1:8, where the Lord tells Joshua: “This law scroll must not leave your lips! You must memorize it day and night so you can carefully obey all that is written in it. Then you will prosper (literally, “cause your way to prosper”) and be successful.”
22 tn Heb “[they are] like the chaff which [the] wind blows about.” The Hebrew imperfect verbal form draws attention to the typical nature of the action described.
sn Wind-driven chaff. In contrast to the well-rooted and productive tree described in v. 3, the wicked are like a dried up plant that has no root system and is blown away by the wind. The simile describes the destiny of the wicked (see vv. 5-6).
23 tn Or “Therefore.”
24 tn Heb “arise in,” but the verb is used metonymically here in the sense of “stand”; “endure,” as in 1 Sam 13:14 and Job 8:15. The negated Hebrew imperfect verbal form is here taken as indicating incapability or lack of potential, though one could understand the verb form as indicating what is typical (“do not withstand”) or what will happen (“will not withstand”).
25 tn Heb “the judgment.” The article indicates a judgment that is definite in the mind of the speaker. In the immediate context this probably does not refer to the “final judgment” described in later biblical revelation, but to a temporal/historical judgment which the author anticipates. Periodically during the OT period, God would come in judgment, removing the wicked from the scene, while preserving a godly remnant (see Gen 6-9; Ps 37; Hab 3).
26 tn Heb “and sinners in the assembly (or “circle”) of [the] godly.” The negative particle and verb from the preceding line are assumed by ellipsis here (“will not arise/stand”).
sn The assembly of the godly is insulated from divine judgment (Ps 37:12-17, 28-29).
27 tn The translation understands כי as asseverative. Another option is to translate “for,” understanding v. 6 as a theological explanation for vv. 3-5, which contrasts the respective destinies of the godly and the wicked.
28 tn Heb “the
29 tn Heb “but the way of the wicked perishes.” The “way of the wicked” may refer to their course of life (Ps 146:9; Prov 4:19; Jer 12:1) or their sinful behavior (Prov 12:26; 15:9). The Hebrew imperfect verbal form probably describes here what typically happens, though one could take the form as indicating what will happen (“will perish”).
30 sn Psalm 34. In this song of thanksgiving the psalmist praises God for delivering him from distress. He encourages others to be loyal to the Lord, tells them how to please God, and assures them that the Lord protects his servants. The psalm is an acrostic; vv. 1-21 begin with successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet. (Verse 6 begins with the letter he (ה) and v. 7 with the letter zayin (ז). The letter vav (ו), which comes between ה and ז, seems to be omitted, although it does appear at the beginning of v. 6b. The final verse of the psalm, which begins with the letter pe (פ), is outside the acrostic scheme.
31 tn Heb “By David, when he changed his sense before Abimelech and he drove him away and he went.”
sn Pretended to be insane. The psalm heading appears to refer to the account in 1 Sam 21:10-15 which tells how David, fearful that King Achish of Gath might kill him, pretended to be insane in hopes that the king would simply send him away. The psalm heading names the king Abimelech, not Achish, suggesting that the tradition is confused on this point. However, perhaps “Abimelech” was a royal title, rather than a proper name. See P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 278.
32 tn Heb “bless.”
33 tn Heb “continually [will] his praise [be] in my mouth.”
36 tn Or “exalt.”
37 tn Heb “I sought the
38 tc Heb “they look to him and are radiant and their faces are not ashamed.” The third person plural subject (“they”) is unidentified; there is no antecedent in the Hebrew text. For this reason some prefer to take the perfect verbal forms in the first line as imperatives, “look to him and be radiant” (cf. NEB, NRSV). Some medieval Hebrew
39 tn The pronoun refers back to “this oppressed man,” namely, the psalmist.
40 tn Heb “his”; the referent (the
41 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
42 tn The prefixed verb with vav (ו) consecutive here carries the same generalizing force as the active participle in the first line. See GKC 329 §111.u.
43 tn This verb is normally used of tasting or savoring food. The metaphor here appears to compare the
44 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Pss 1:1, 3; 2:12; 41:1; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
45 tn Heb “man.” The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the more neutral “one.”
46 tn “Taking shelter” in the
47 tn Heb “fear.”
48 tn Heb “O holy ones of his.”
49 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
51 tn Heb “Who is the man who desires life?” The rhetorical question is used to grab the audience’s attention. “Life” probably refers here to quality of life, not just physical existence or even duration of life. See the following line.
52 tn Heb “[Who] loves days to see good?”
53 tn Heb “guard your tongue from evil.”
54 tn Heb “and your lips from speaking deception.”
55 tn Or “do good.”
56 tn Heb “seek peace and pursue it.”
57 tn Heb “the eyes of the
58 tn Heb “the face of the
61 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form highlights the generalizing statement and draws attention to the fact that the
62 tn Heb “the crushed in spirit.”
63 tn The Hebrew text uses the singular form; the representative or typical godly person is envisioned.
64 tn Or “trials.”
65 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form highlights the generalizing statement and draws attention to the fact that the
66 tn Heb “him,” agreeing with the singular form in the preceding line.
67 tn The Hebrew participial form suggests such protection is characteristic.
68 tn That is, he protects the godly from physical harm.
69 sn Not one of them is broken. The author of the Gospel of John saw a fulfillment of these words in Jesus’ experience on the cross (see John 19:31-37), for the Roman soldiers, when they saw that Jesus was already dead, did not break his legs as was customarily done to speed the death of crucified individuals. John’s use of the psalm seems strange, for the statement in its original context suggests that the Lord protects the godly from physical harm. Jesus’ legs may have remained unbroken, but he was brutally and unjustly executed by his enemies. John seems to give the statement a literal sense that is foreign to its original literary context by applying a promise of divine protection to a man who was seemingly not saved by God. However, John saw in this incident a foreshadowing of Jesus’ ultimate deliverance and vindication. His unbroken bones were a reminder of God’s commitment to the godly and a sign of things to come. Jesus’ death on the cross was not the end of the story; God vindicated him, as John goes on to explain in the following context (John 19:38-20:18).
70 tn Heb “evil kills the wicked [one].” The singular form is representative; the typical evil person is envisioned. The Hebrew imperfect verbal form draws attention to the typical nature of the action.
71 tn Heb “are guilty,” but the verb is sometimes used metonymically with the meaning “to suffer the consequences of guilt,” the effect being substituted for the cause.
72 tn Heb “redeems the life of his servants.” The Hebrew participial form suggests such deliverance is characteristic.
73 tn “Taking shelter” in the
74 sn Psalm 37. The psalmist urges his audience not to envy the wicked, but to trust in and obey the Lord, for he will destroy sinners and preserve the godly. When the smoke of judgment clears, the wicked will be gone, but the godly will remain and inherit God’s promised blessings. The psalm is an acrostic; every other verse begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
75 tn The verb form is singular (see vv. 3-10 as well, where the second person verbs and pronouns are also singular). The psalmist’s exhortation has a wisdom flavor to it; it is personalized for each member of his audience.
77 tn Heb “like green vegetation.”
78 tn Heb “tend integrity.” The verb רָעָה (ra’ah, “tend, shepherd”) is probably used here in the sense of “watch over, guard.” The noun אֱמוּנָה (’emunah, “faithfulness, honesty, integrity”) is understood as the direct object of the verb, though it could be taken as an adverbial accusative, “[feed] securely,” if the audience is likened to a flock of sheep.
80 tn Or “and he will give you what you desire most.” Heb “and he will grant to you the requests of your heart.”
81 tn Heb “roll your way upon the
83 tn Heb “and he will bring out like light your vindication, and your just cause like noonday.”
84 tn Heb “Be quiet before the
85 tc The Hebrew text has וְהִתְחוֹלֵל (vÿhitkholel, Hitpolel of חִיל, khil, “writhe with fear, suffer”) but this idea fits awkwardly here. The text should be changed to וְתוֹחֵל (vÿtokhel; Hiphil of יָחַל, yakhal, “wait”). It appears that the Hebrew text is the product of dittography: (1) the initial וה (vav-he) is accidentally repeated from the preceding word (יְהוָה, yÿhvah) and (2) the final lamed (ל) is accidentally repeated (note the preceding lamed and the initial lamed on the following form, לו).
86 tn Heb “over one who causes his way to be successful.”
87 tn Heb “Refrain from anger! Abandon rage!”
89 tn Or “cut off, removed.”
90 tn Heb “and those who wait on the
91 tn Heb “and yet, a little, there will be no wicked [one].”
92 tn Heb “and you will carefully look upon his place, but he will not be [there].” The singular is used here in a representative sense; the typical evildoer is in view.
94 tn Or “innocent.” The singular is used here in a representative sense; the typical evildoer and the typical godly individual are in view.
96 tn Heb “laughs.” As the next line indicates, this refers to derisive laughter (see 2:4). The Hebrew imperfect verbal form describes the action from the perspective of an eye-witness who is watching the divine response as it unfolds before his eyes.
98 tn Heb “to cause to fall.”
99 tn Heb “the upright in way,” i.e., those who lead godly lives.
100 tn Heb “enter into.”
101 tn Heb “Better [is] a little to the godly one than the wealth of many evil ones.” The following verses explain why this is true. Though a godly individual may seem to have only meager possessions, he always has what he needs and will eventually possess the land. The wicked may prosper for a brief time, but will eventually be destroyed by divine judgment and lose everything.
102 tn Heb “for the arms of the evil ones will be broken.”
103 tn The active participle here indicates this is characteristically true.
104 tn Heb “the
105 tn Heb “and their inheritance is forever.”
106 tn Heb “in a time of trouble.”
107 tn Heb “in days of famine they will be satisfied.”
109 tc The meaning of the MT (כִּיקַר כָּרִים [kiqar karim], “like what is precious among the pastures/rams”) is uncertain. One possibility is to take the noun כָּרִים as “pastures” and interpret “what is precious” as referring to flowers that blossom but then quickly disappear (see v. 2 and BDB 430 s.v. יָקָר 3). If כָּרִים is taken as “rams,” then “what is precious” might refer to the choicest portions of rams. The present translation follows a reading in the Dead Sea Scrolls (4QpPs37), כיקוד כורם (“like the burning of an oven”). The next line, which pictures the
110 tn Heb “they perish in smoke, they perish.” In addition to repeating the verb for emphasis, the psalmist uses the perfect form of the verb to picture the enemies’ demise as if it had already taken place. In this way he draws attention to the certitude of their judgment.
111 tn Heb “an evil [man] borrows and does not repay; but a godly [man] is gracious and gives.” The singular forms are used in a representative sense; the typical evildoer and godly individual are in view. The three active participles and one imperfect (“repay”) draw attention to the characteristic behavior of the two types.
112 tn The particle כִּי is best understood as asseverative or emphatic here.
114 tn Heb “cursed.”
116 tn Heb “from the
117 tn Other translation options for כִּי in this context are “when” (so NASB) or “though” (so NEB, NIV, NRSV).
118 tn Heb “be hurled down.”
120 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
121 tn Heb “or his offspring searching for food.” The expression “search for food” also appears in Lam 1:11, where Jerusalem’s refugees are forced to search for food and to trade their valuable possessions for something to eat.
122 tn The active participles describe characteristic behavior.
123 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
125 tn Heb “and dwell permanently.” The imperative with vav (ו) is best taken here as a result clause after the preceding imperatives.
126 tn Heb “loves.” The verb “loves” is here metonymic; the
127 tn The imperfect verbal form draws attention to this generalizing statement.
128 tn Or “protected forever.”
129 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
131 tn Heb “The mouth of the godly [one] utters wisdom, and his tongue speaks justice.” The singular form is used in a representative sense; the typical godly individual is in view. The imperfect verbal forms draw attention to the characteristic behavior of the godly.
132 tn Heb “the law of his God [is] in his heart.” The “heart” is here the seat of one’s thoughts and motives.
134 tn Heb “an evil [one] watches the godly [one] and seeks to kill him.” The singular forms are used in a representative sense; the typical evildoer and godly individual are in view. The active participles describe characteristic behavior.
135 tn Heb “the
136 tn Or “wait.”
137 tn Heb “keep his way.” The
138 tn Heb “and he will lift you up.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) is best taken here as a result clause following the imperatives in the preceding lines.
139 tn Heb “when evil men are cut off you will see.”
140 tn The Hebrew uses the representative singular again here.
141 tn Heb “being exposed [?] like a native, luxuriant.” The Hebrew form מִתְעָרֶה (mit’areh) appears to be a Hitpael participle from עָרָה (’arah, “be exposed”), but this makes no sense in this context. Perhaps the form is a dialectal variant of מִתְעָלָה (“giving oneself an air of importance”; see Jer 51:3), from עָלָה (’alah, “go up”; see P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 [WBC], 296). The noun אֶזְרָח (’ezrakh, “native, full citizen”) refers elsewhere to people, but here, where it is collocated with “luxuriant, green,” it probably refers to a tree growing in native soil.
142 tn Heb “and he passes by and, look, he is not [there].” The subject of the verb “passes by” is probably indefinite, referring to any passerby. Some prefer to change the form to first person, “and I passed by” (cf. NEB; note the first person verbal forms in preceding verse and in the following line).
143 tn Or “upright.”
145 tn Or “destroyed together.” In this case the psalmist pictures judgment sweeping them away as a group.
146 tn Heb “the end of evil men is cut off.” As in v. 37, some interpret אַחֲרִית (’akharit, “end”) as referring to offspring (see Ps 109:13). The perfect verbal forms in v. 38 probably express general truths. Another option is that they are used emphatically to state with certitude that the demise of the wicked is as good as done.
147 tn Heb “and the deliverance of the godly [ones] [is] from the
148 tn Heb “[he is] their place of refuge in a time of trouble.”
149 tn The prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) consecutive carry on the generalizing tone of the preceding verse.
150 sn Psalm 112. This wisdom psalm lists some of the benefits of living a godly life. The psalm is an acrostic. After the introductory call to praise, every poetic line (twenty-two in all) begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
151 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The individual is representative of a larger group, called the “godly” in vv. 3-4. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender specific “man” with the more neutral “one.” The generic masculine pronoun is used in the following verses.
152 tn Heb “fears.”
153 tn Heb “in his commands he delights very much.” The words “in keeping” are supplied in the translation for clarification. Taking delight in the law is metonymic here for obeying God’s moral will. See Ps 1:2.
154 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
155 tn Heb “His seed will be mighty on the earth, the generation of the godly.” The Hebrew term דוֹר (dor, “generation”) could be taken as parallel to “offspring” and translated “posterity,” but the singular more likely refers to the godly as a class. See BDB 189-90 s.v. for other examples where “generation” refers to a class of people.
156 tn Heb “stands forever.”
158 tn Heb “merciful and compassionate and just.” The Hebrew text has three singular adjectives, which are probably substantival and in apposition to the “godly” (which is plural, however). By switching to the singular, the psalmist focuses on each individual member of the group known as the “godly.” Note how vv. 5-9, like vv. 1-2a, use the singular to describe the representative godly individual who typifies the whole group.
159 tn Heb “man.”
160 tn Heb “he sustains his matters with justice.”
161 tn Heb “for an eternal memorial a just [one] will be.”
164 tn Heb “his heart,” viewed here as the seat of the volition.
165 tn Heb “he scatters, he gives.”
166 tn Heb “stands forever.”
167 tn Heb “his horn will be lifted up in honor.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17).
170 tn This could mean that the desires of the wicked will go unfulfilled. Another possibility is that “desire” refers by metonymy to the object desired and acquired. In this case the point is that the wicked will lose what they desired so badly and acquired by evil means (see Ps 10:3).