A psalm of David.
101:1 I will sing about loyalty and justice!
To you, O Lord, I will sing praises!
When will you come to me?
I will conduct my business with integrity in the midst of my palace. 3
I hate doing evil; 5
I will have no part of it. 6
I will not permit 8 evil.
101:5 I will destroy anyone who slanders his neighbor in secret.
I will not tolerate anyone who has a cocky demeanor and an arrogant attitude. 9
and allow them to live with me. 11
Those who walk in the way of integrity will attend me. 12
Liars will not be welcome in my presence. 14
101:8 Each morning I will destroy all the wicked people in the land,
and remove all evildoers from the city of the Lord.
The prayer of an oppressed man, as he grows faint and pours out his lament before the Lord.
102:1 O Lord, hear my prayer!
Pay attention to my cry for help! 16
Listen to me! 18
When I call out to you, quickly answer me!
and my bones are charred like a fireplace. 20
102:5 Because of the anxiety that makes me groan,
my bones protrude from my skin. 24
I am like a solitary bird on a roof.
102:8 All day long my enemies taunt me;
those who mock me use my name in their curses. 29
and mix my drink with my tears, 31
102:10 because of your anger and raging fury.
Indeed, 32 you pick me up and throw me away.
and I am withered like grass.
and your reputation endures. 35
For it is time to have mercy on her,
for the appointed time has come.
and all the kings of the earth will respect 41 his splendor,
102:16 when the Lord rebuilds Zion,
and reveals his splendor,
people yet to be born will praise the Lord.
from heaven the Lord will look toward earth, 47
102:20 in order to hear the painful cries of the prisoners,
and to set free those condemned to die, 48
102:21 so they may proclaim the name of the Lord in Zion,
102:22 when the nations gather together,
and the kingdoms pay tribute to the Lord. 51
he has cut short my days.
You endure through all generations. 54
102:25 In earlier times you established the earth;
the skies are your handiwork.
102:26 They will perish,
but you will endure. 55
They will wear out like a garment;
like clothes you will remove them and they will disappear. 56
your years do not come to an end.
102:28 The children of your servants will settle down here,
103:1 Praise the Lord, O my soul!
With all that is within me, praise 61 his holy name!
103:2 Praise the Lord, O my soul!
Do not forget all his kind deeds! 62
103:3 He is the one who forgives all your sins,
who heals all your diseases, 63
who crowns you with his loyal love and compassion,
so your youth is renewed like an eagle’s. 67
103:6 The Lord does what is fair,
and executes justice for all the oppressed. 68
his deeds to the Israelites.
103:8 The Lord is compassionate and merciful;
103:9 He does not always accuse,
and does not stay angry. 72
he does not repay us as our misdeeds deserve. 74
103:11 For as the skies are high above the earth,
so he removes the guilt of our rebellious actions 79 from us.
so the Lord has compassion on his faithful followers. 81
Like a flower in the field it flourishes,
and one can no longer even spot the place where it once grew.
and is faithful to their descendants, 88
103:18 to those who keep his covenant,
who are careful to obey his commands. 89
103:19 The Lord has established his throne in heaven;
his kingdom extends over everything. 90
103:20 Praise the Lord, you angels of his,
you powerful warriors who carry out his decrees
and obey his orders! 91
you servants of his who carry out his desires! 93
in all the regions 95 of his kingdom!
Praise the Lord, O my soul!
104:1 Praise the Lord, O my soul!
O Lord my God, you are magnificent. 97
You are robed in splendor and majesty.
104:2 He covers himself with light as if it were a garment.
He stretches out the skies like a tent curtain,
He makes the clouds his chariot,
and travels along on the wings of the wind. 99
104:4 He makes the winds his messengers,
and the flaming fire his attendant. 100
104:5 He established the earth on its foundations;
it will never be upended.
104:7 Your shout made the waters retreat;
at the sound of your thunderous voice they hurried off –
104:8 as the mountains rose up,
and the valleys went down –
to the place you appointed for them. 104
104:9 You set up a boundary for them that they could not cross,
so that they would not cover the earth again. 105
they flow between the mountains.
104:11 They provide water for all the animals in the field;
the wild donkeys quench their thirst.
104:12 The birds of the sky live beside them;
they chirp among the bushes. 107
the earth is full of the fruit you cause to grow. 109
and crops for people to cultivate, 111
so they can produce food from the ground, 112
and so they can have oil to make their faces shine, 114
as well as food that sustains people’s lives. 115
the cedars of Lebanon which he planted,
104:17 where the birds make nests,
near the evergreens in which the herons live. 118
the rock badgers find safety in the cliffs.
and the sun sets according to a regular schedule. 121
during which all the beasts of the forest prowl around.
104:21 The lions roar for prey,
seeking their food from God. 123
104:22 When the sun rises, they withdraw
and sleep 124 in their dens.
104:23 Men then go out to do their work,
and labor away until evening. 125
You have exhibited great skill in making all of them; 127
the earth is full of the living things you have made.
which teems with innumerable swimming creatures, 129
living things both small and large.
104:26 The ships travel there,
and over here swims the whale 130 you made to play in it.
to provide them with food on a regular basis. 132
104:28 You give food to them and they receive it;
you open your hand and they are filled with food. 133
When you take away their life’s breath, they die
and return to dust.
104:30 When you send your life-giving breath, they are created,
and you replenish the surface of the ground.
May the Lord find pleasure in the living things he has made! 136
104:32 He looks down on the earth and it shakes;
he touches the mountains and they start to smolder.
104:33 I will sing to the Lord as long as I live;
I will sing praise to my God as long as I exist! 137
I will rejoice in the Lord.
and the wicked vanish!
Praise the Lord, O my soul!
Praise the Lord!
105:1 Give thanks to the Lord!
Call on his name!
Make known his accomplishments among the nations!
105:2 Sing to him!
Make music to him!
Tell about all his miraculous deeds!
105:3 Boast about his holy name!
Let the hearts of those who seek the Lord rejoice!
105:4 Seek the Lord and the strength he gives!
Seek his presence continually!
105:5 Recall the miraculous deeds he performed,
his mighty acts and the judgments he decreed, 141
105:7 He is the Lord our God;
he carries out judgment throughout the earth. 147
105:8 He always remembers his covenantal decree,
the promise he made 148 to a thousand generations –
the promise he made by oath to Isaac!
105:10 He gave it to Jacob as a decree,
to Israel as a lasting promise, 150
105:11 saying, “To you I will give the land of Canaan
as the portion of your inheritance.”
105:12 When they were few in number,
just a very few, and resident aliens within it,
105:13 they wandered from nation to nation,
and from one kingdom to another. 151
105:14 He let no one oppress them;
he disciplined kings for their sake,
Don’t harm my prophets!”
105:16 He called down a famine upon the earth;
he cut off all the food supply. 154
Joseph was sold as a servant.
his neck was placed in an iron collar, 157
the ruler of nations set him free.
and made him manager of all his property,
and to teach his advisers. 164
Jacob lived for a time 166 in the land of Ham.
and to mistreat 171 his servants.
105:26 He sent his servant Moses,
and Aaron, whom he had chosen.
and his amazing deeds in the land of Ham.
they did not disobey his orders. 174
105:29 He turned their water into blood,
and killed their fish.
105:30 Their land was overrun by frogs,
which even got into the rooms of their kings.
gnats invaded their whole territory.
there was lightning in their land. 177
105:33 He destroyed their vines and fig trees,
and broke the trees throughout their territory.
105:35 They ate all the vegetation in their land,
and devoured the crops of their fields. 179
105:36 He struck down all the firstborn in their land,
the firstfruits of their reproductive power. 180
none of his tribes stumbled.
105:38 Egypt was happy when they left,
for they were afraid of them. 183
and provided a fire to light up the night.
he satisfied them with food from the sky. 186
105:41 He opened up a rock and water flowed out;
a river ran through dry regions.
he made to Abraham his servant.
105:43 When he led his people out, they rejoiced;
his chosen ones shouted with joy. 189
105:44 He handed the territory of nations over to them,
and they took possession of what other peoples had produced, 190
105:45 so that they might keep his commands
and obey 191 his laws.
Praise the Lord!
106:1 Praise the Lord!
Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,
and his loyal love endures! 193
106:2 Who can adequately recount the Lord’s mighty acts,
or relate all his praiseworthy deeds? 194
106:3 How blessed are those who promote justice,
and do what is right all the time!
106:4 Remember me, O Lord, when you show favor to your people!
Pay attention to me, when you deliver,
rejoice along with your nation, 196
and boast along with the people who belong to you. 197
we have done wrong, we have done evil.
106:7 Our ancestors in Egypt failed to appreciate your miraculous deeds,
they failed to remember your many acts of loyal love,
and they rebelled at the sea, by the Red Sea. 200
that he might reveal his power.
he led them through the deep water as if it were a desert.
106:11 The water covered their enemies;
not even one of them survived. 206
they sang praises to him.
they did not wait for his instructions. 209
they challenged God 212 in the desert.
106:15 He granted their request,
then struck them with a disease. 213
and Aaron, the Lord’s holy priest. 215
106:17 The earth opened up and swallowed Dathan;
106:18 Fire burned their group;
the flames scorched the wicked. 218
106:19 They made an image of a calf at Horeb,
and worshiped a metal idol.
for the image of an ox that eats grass.
the one who performed great deeds in Egypt,
106:22 amazing feats in the land of Ham,
mighty 221 acts by the Red Sea.
and turned back his destructive anger. 225
they did not believe his promise. 227
they did not obey 229 the Lord.
that he would make them die 231 in the desert,
and scatter them among foreign lands. 234
and ate sacrifices offered to the dead. 236
and a plague broke out among them.
and the plague subsided.
106:31 This brought him a reward,
an eternal gift. 239
106:32 They made him angry by the waters of Meribah,
and Moses suffered 240 because of them,
and he spoke rashly. 243
as the Lord had commanded them to do.
106:35 They mixed in with the nations
and learned their ways. 245
which became a snare to them. 247
106:38 They shed innocent blood –
the blood of their sons and daughters,
whom they sacrificed to the idols of Canaan.
The land was polluted by bloodshed. 249
106:39 They were defiled by their deeds,
and unfaithful in their actions. 250
and despised the people who belong to him. 252
and those who hated them ruled over them.
106:42 Their enemies oppressed them;
they were subject to their authority. 254
but they had a rebellious attitude, 256
and degraded themselves 257 by their sin.
106:44 Yet he took notice of their distress,
when he heard their cry for help.
106:45 He remembered his covenant with them,
and relented 258 because of his great loyal love.
to have pity on them.
106:47 Deliver us, O Lord, our God!
Gather us from among the nations!
Then we will give thanks 260 to your holy name,
and boast about your praiseworthy deeds. 261
in the future and forevermore. 263
107:1 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,
and his loyal love endures! 267
from east and west,
from north and south.
107:4 They wandered through the wilderness on a desert road;
they found no city in which to live.
107:5 They were hungry and thirsty;
they fainted from exhaustion. 272
107:6 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
that they might find a city in which to live.
107:8 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people! 274
and those who hunger he has filled with food. 276
bound in painful iron chains, 278
and rejected the instructions of the sovereign king. 280
they stumbled and no one helped them up.
107:13 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
and tore off their shackles.
107:15 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people! 283
107:16 For he shattered the bronze gates,
and hacked through the iron bars. 284
and suffered because of their sins.
and they drew near the gates of death.
107:19 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
he rescued them from the pits where they were trapped. 288
107:21 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people! 289
107:22 Let them present thank offerings,
and loudly proclaim what he has done! 290
and carried cargo over the vast waters. 293
107:24 They witnessed the acts of the Lord,
his amazing feats on the deep water.
and it stirred up the waves of the sea. 295
then dropped into the depths.
and all their skill proved ineffective. 301
107:28 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
and the waves 303 grew silent.
and he led them to the harbor 306 they desired.
107:31 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people! 307
107:32 Let them exalt him in the assembly of the people!
Let them praise him in the place where the leaders preside! 308
springs of water into arid land,
because of the sin of its inhabitants.
and a dry land into springs of water.
107:36 He allowed the hungry to settle there,
and they established a city in which to live.
and planted vineyards,
which yielded a harvest of fruit. 314
He would not allow their cattle to decrease in number. 316
because of painful distress 318 and suffering.
and he made them wander in a wasteland with no road.
and cared for his families like a flock of sheep.
107:42 When the godly see this, they rejoice,
and every sinner 321 shuts his mouth.
107:43 Whoever is wise, let him take note of these things!
Let them consider the Lord’s acts of loyal love!
A song, a psalm of David.
I will sing and praise you with my whole heart. 324
108:2 Awake, O stringed instrument and harp!
I will wake up at dawn! 325
108:3 I will give you thanks before the nations, O Lord!
I will sing praises to you before foreigners! 326
and your faithfulness reaches the clouds.
May your splendor cover the whole earth! 329
so that the ones you love may be safe. 331
“I will triumph! I will parcel out Shechem,
the valley of Succoth I will measure off. 333
108:8 Gilead belongs to me,
as does Manasseh! 334
Ephraim is my helmet, 335
Judah my royal scepter. 336
I will make Edom serve me. 338
I will shout in triumph over Philistia.”
108:10 Who will lead me into the fortified city?
Who will bring me to Edom? 339
108:11 Have you not rejected us, O God?
O God, you do not go into battle with our armies.
108:12 Give us help against the enemy,
for any help men might offer is futile. 340
he will trample down 342 our enemies.
For the music director, a psalm of David.
109:2 For they say cruel and deceptive things to me;
they lie to me. 345
they attack me for no reason.
but I continue to pray. 348
and hate for love.
May an accuser stand 352 at his right side!
Then his prayer will be regarded as sinful.
May another take his job! 356
and his wife a widow!
asking for handouts as they leave their ruined home! 359
May strangers loot his property! 361
May no one have compassion 363 on his fatherless children!
May the memory of them be wiped out by the time the next generation arrives! 366
May his mother’s sin not be forgotten! 368
and cut off the memory of his children 370 from the earth!
he harassed the oppressed and needy,
and killed the disheartened. 372
He had no desire to bless anyone, so he has experienced no blessings. 375
so curses poured into his stomach like water
and seeped into his bones like oil. 377
or a belt 379 one wears continually!
109:21 O sovereign Lord,
intervene on my behalf for the sake of your reputation! 383
Because your loyal love is good, deliver me!
109:22 For I am oppressed and needy,
and my heart beats violently within me. 384
I am shaken off like a locust.
I have turned into skin and bones. 387
When they see me, they shake their heads. 389
109:26 Help me, O Lord my God!
Because you are faithful to me, deliver me! 390
and that you, Lord, have accomplished it.
When they attack, they will be humiliated, 394
but your servant will rejoice.
and draped in humiliation as if it were a robe.
in the middle of a crowd 397 I will praise him,
109:31 because he stands at the right hand of the needy,
to deliver him from those who threaten 398 his life.
A psalm of David.
Rule in the midst of your enemies!
he fills the valleys with corpses; 423
he shatters their heads over the vast battlefield. 424
110:7 From the stream along the road he drinks;
then he lifts up his head. 425
111:1 Praise the Lord!
I will give thanks to the Lord with my whole heart,
in the assembly of the godly and the congregation.
111:2 The Lord’s deeds are great,
eagerly awaited 427 by all who desire them.
and his faithfulness endures 429 forever.
the Lord is merciful and compassionate.
he always remembers his covenant. 434
111:6 He announced that he would do mighty deeds for his people,
giving them a land that belonged to other nations. 435
all his precepts are reliable. 437
111:8 They are forever firm,
and should be faithfully and properly carried out. 438
he ordained that his covenant be observed forever. 440
His name is holy and awesome.
all who carry out his precepts acquire good moral insight. 442
He will receive praise forever. 443
112:1 Praise the Lord!
who takes great delight in keeping his commands. 447
the godly 449 will be blessed.
112:3 His house contains wealth and riches;
his integrity endures. 450
for each one who is merciful, compassionate, and just. 452
and conducts his business honestly. 454
112:6 For he will never be upended;
others will always remember one who is just. 455
112:7 He does not fear bad news.
before he looks in triumph on his enemies.
his integrity endures. 460
He will be vindicated and honored. 461
they will grind their teeth in frustration 463 and melt away;
the desire of the wicked will perish. 464
113:1 Praise the Lord!
Praise, you servants of the Lord,
praise the name of the Lord!
113:2 May the Lord’s name be praised
now and forevermore!
the Lord’s name is deserving of praise.
113:4 The Lord is exalted over all the nations;
his splendor reaches beyond the sky. 467
113:5 Who can compare to the Lord our God,
who sits on a high throne? 468
at the sky and the earth.
113:7 He raises the poor from the dirt,
and lifts up the needy from the garbage pile, 470
113:8 that he might seat him with princes,
with the princes of his people.
a happy mother of children. 472
Praise the Lord!
114:1 When Israel left Egypt,
when the family of Jacob left a foreign nation behind, 474
114:2 Judah became his sanctuary,
Israel his kingdom.
114:4 The mountains skipped like rams,
the hills like lambs. 478
114:5 Why do you flee, O sea?
Why do you turn back, O Jordan River?
114:6 Why do you skip like rams, O mountains,
like lambs, O hills?
114:7 Tremble, O earth, before the Lord –
before the God of Jacob,
114:8 who turned a rock into a pool of water,
a hard rock into springs of water! 479
115:1 Not to us, O Lord, not to us!
But to your name bring honor, 481
for the sake of your loyal love and faithfulness. 482
115:2 Why should the nations say,
“Where is their God?”
115:3 Our God is in heaven!
He does whatever he pleases! 483
they are man-made. 485
115:5 They have mouths, but cannot speak,
eyes, but cannot see,
115:6 ears, but cannot hear,
noses, but cannot smell,
115:7 hands, but cannot touch,
feet, but cannot walk.
They cannot even clear their throats. 486
as will everyone who trusts in them.
115:9 O Israel, trust in the Lord!
he will bless the family 498 of Israel,
he will bless the family of Aaron.
both young and old. 500
115:14 May he increase your numbers,
yours and your children’s! 501
115:15 May you be blessed by the Lord,
the creator 502 of heaven and earth!
but the earth he has given to mankind. 504
115:17 The dead do not praise the Lord,
nor do any of those who descend into the silence of death. 505
115:18 But we will praise the Lord
now and forevermore.
Praise the Lord!
116:1 I love the Lord
because he heard my plea for mercy, 507
As long as I live, I will call to him when I need help. 509
the snares 511 of Sheol confronted me.
I was confronted 512 with trouble and sorrow.
116:4 I called on the name of the Lord,
“Please Lord, rescue my life!”
116:5 The Lord is merciful and fair;
our God is compassionate.
I was in serious trouble 515 and he delivered me.
for the Lord has vindicated you. 517
and kept my feet from stumbling.
in the land 521 of the living.
116:10 I had faith when I said,
“I am severely oppressed.”
“All men are liars.”
116:12 How can I repay the Lord
for all his acts of kindness to me?
and call on the name of the Lord.
116:14 I will fulfill my vows to the Lord
before all his people.
116:15 The Lord values
the lives of his faithful followers. 524
116:16 Yes, Lord! I am indeed your servant;
I am your lowest slave. 525
You saved me from death. 526
116:17 I will present a thank offering to you,
and call on the name of the Lord.
116:18 I will fulfill my vows to the Lord
before all his people,
116:19 in the courts of the Lord’s temple,
in your midst, O Jerusalem.
Praise the Lord!
117:1 Praise the Lord, all you nations!
Applaud him, all you foreigners! 528
and the Lord’s faithfulness endures.
Praise the Lord!
118:1 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good
and his loyal love endures! 531
118:2 Let Israel say,
“Yes, his loyal love endures!”
“Yes, his loyal love endures!”
“Yes, his loyal love endures!”
The Lord answered me and put me in a wide open place. 535
What can people do to me? 537
I look in triumph on those who hate me.
than to trust in people.
118:9 It is better to take shelter in the Lord
than to trust in princes.
118:11 They surrounded me, yes, they surrounded me.
Indeed, in the name of the Lord I pushed them away.
118:12 They surrounded me like bees.
Indeed, in the name of the Lord I pushed them away.
but the Lord helped me.
he has become my deliverer.” 549
The Lord’s right hand conquers, 551
the Lord’s right hand conquers.
118:17 I will not die, but live,
and I will proclaim what the Lord has done. 553
but he did not hand me over to death.
I will enter through them and give thanks to the Lord.
118:20 This is the Lord’s gate –
the godly enter through it.
118:21 I will give you thanks, for you answered me,
and have become my deliverer.
has become the cornerstone. 557
118:23 This is the Lord’s work.
We consider it amazing! 558
We will be happy and rejoice in it.
118:25 Please Lord, deliver!
Please Lord, grant us success! 560
Tie the offering 565 with ropes
to the horns of the altar! 566
You are my God and I will praise you!
118:29 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good
and his loyal love endures! 568
who obey 571 the law of the Lord.
119:2 How blessed are those who observe his rules,
and seek him with all their heart,
119:3 who, moreover, do no wrong,
but follow in his footsteps. 572
119:4 You demand that your precepts
be carefully kept. 573
to keep your statutes!
119:6 Then I would not be ashamed,
when I learn your just regulations.
119:8 I will keep your statutes.
Do not completely abandon me! 578
By guarding it according to your instructions! 581
119:10 With all my heart I seek you.
Do not allow me to stray from your commands!
so I might not sin against you.
Teach me your statutes!
119:13 With my lips I proclaim
all the regulations you have revealed. 585
I do not forget your instructions. 593
119:17 Be kind to your servant!
the marvelous things in your law!
Do not hide your commands from me!
your regulations at all times.
119:21 You reprimand arrogant people.
Those who stray from your commands are doomed. 601
for I observe your rules.
your servant meditates on your statutes.
119:24 Yes, I find delight in your rules;
they give me guidance. 604
Revive me with your word! 606
Teach me your statutes!
Sustain me by your word! 612
Graciously give me 614 your law!
119:30 I choose the path of faithfulness;
I am committed to 615 your regulations.
O Lord, do not let me be ashamed!
119:32 I run along the path of your commands,
for you enable me to do so. 617
so that I might observe it continually. 619
119:34 Give me understanding so that I might observe your law,
and keep it with all my heart. 620
for I delight to walk in it. 622
rather than for wealth gained unjustly. 624
Revive me with your word! 626
which you made to the one who honors you. 628
Indeed, 630 your regulations are good.
119:40 Look, I long for your precepts.
Revive me with your deliverance! 631
for I trust in your word.
for I await your justice.
now and for all time. 638
for I seek your precepts.
and not be ashamed.
119:47 I will find delight in your commands,
which I love.
which I love,
and I will meditate on your statutes.
119:49 Remember your word to your servant,
for you have given me hope.
for your promise revives me. 643
Yet I do not turn aside from your law.
O Lord, and console myself. 646
119:53 Rage takes hold of me because of the wicked,
those who reject your law.
in the house where I live. 648
119:55 I remember your name during the night, O Lord,
and I will keep 649 your law.
for I observe your precepts.
Have mercy on me as you promised! 655
and follow 657 your rules.
119:60 I keep your commands
eagerly and without delay. 658
but I do not forget your law.
for your just regulations.
and to those who keep your precepts.
119:64 O Lord, your loyal love fills the earth.
Teach me your statutes!
O Lord, just as you promised. 663
For I consider your commands to be reliable. 665
but now I keep your instructions. 667
119:68 You are good and you do good.
Teach me your statutes!
but I observe your precepts with all my heart.
but I find delight in your law.
119:71 It was good for me to suffer,
so that I might learn your statutes.
119:72 The law you have revealed is more important to me
than thousands of pieces of gold and silver. 670
Give me understanding so that I might learn 672 your commands.
for I find hope in your word.
You disciplined me because of your faithful devotion to me. 675
119:76 May your loyal love console me,
as you promised your servant. 676
For I find delight in your law.
But I meditate on your precepts.
those who know your rules.
so that I might not be ashamed.
I find hope in your word.
I say, 683 “When will you comfort me?”
I do not forget your statutes.
When will you judge those who pursue me?
which violates your law. 689
119:86 All your commands are reliable.
I am pursued without reason. 690 Help me!
119:87 They have almost destroyed me here on the earth,
but I do not reject your precepts.
119:89 O Lord, your instructions endure;
they stand secure in heaven. 694
You established the earth and it stood firm.
119:91 Today they stand firm by your decrees,
for all things are your servants.
I would have died in my sorrow. 697
119:93 I will never forget your precepts,
for by them you have revived me.
119:94 I belong to you. Deliver me!
For I seek your precepts.
yet I concentrate on your rules.
119:96 I realize that everything has its limits,
but your commands are beyond full comprehension. 699
119:97 O how I love your law!
All day long I meditate on it.
for I am always aware of them.
119:99 I have more insight than all my teachers,
for I meditate on your rules.
119:100 I am more discerning than those older than I,
for I observe your precepts.
so that I might keep your instructions. 702
119:102 I do not turn aside from your regulations,
for you teach me.
119:103 Your words are sweeter
in my mouth than honey! 703
119:104 Your precepts give me discernment.
Therefore I hate all deceitful actions. 704
and a light to illumine my path. 706
119:106 I have vowed and solemnly sworn
to keep your just regulations.
119:107 I am suffering terribly.
O Lord, revive me with your word! 707
Teach me your regulations!
but I do not forget your law.
119:110 The wicked lay a trap for me,
but I do not wander from your precepts.
119:111 I claim your rules as my permanent possession,
for they give me joy. 710
at all times, to the very end.
but I love your law.
119:114 You are my hiding place and my shield.
I find hope in your word.
119:115 Turn away from me, you evil men,
Do not disappoint me! 717
119:117 Support me, so that I will be delivered.
Then I will focus 718 on your statutes continually.
for they are deceptive and unreliable. 720
Therefore I love your rules. 722
I am afraid of your judgments.
Do not abandon me to my oppressors!
Do not let the arrogant oppress me!
for your reliable promise to be fulfilled. 729
Teach me your statutes!
119:125 I am your servant. Give me insight,
so that I can understand 731 your rules.
119:126 It is time for the Lord to act –
they break your law!
more than gold, even purest gold.
I hate all deceitful actions. 734
119:129 Your rules are marvelous.
Therefore I observe them.
119:131 I open my mouth and pant,
because I long 738 for your commands.
119:132 Turn toward me and extend mercy to me,
as you typically do to your loyal followers. 739
Do not let any sin dominate me!
so that I can keep 742 your precepts.
Teach me your statutes!
because people 745 do not keep your law.
119:137 You are just, O Lord,
and your judgments are fair.
and absolutely reliable.
for my enemies forget your instructions. 749
119:140 Your word is absolutely pure,
and your servant loves it!
119:141 I am insignificant and despised,
yet I do not forget your precepts.
and your law is reliable. 751
yet I find delight in your commands.
Give me insight so that I can live. 754
119:145 I cried out with all my heart, “Answer me, O Lord!
I will observe your statutes.”
119:146 I cried out to you, “Deliver me,
so that I can keep 755 your rules.”
119:147 I am up before dawn crying for help.
I find hope in your word.
119:148 My eyes anticipate the nighttime hours,
so that I can meditate on your word.
O Lord, revive me, as you typically do! 758
they are far from your law.
119:151 You are near, O Lord,
and all your commands are reliable. 760
119:152 I learned long ago that
you ordained your rules to last. 761
119:153 See my pain and rescue me!
For I do not forget your law.
Revive me with your word!
for they do not seek your statutes.
119:156 Your compassion is great, O Lord.
Revive me, as you typically do! 765
Yet I do not turn aside from your rules.
119:158 I take note of the treacherous and despise them,
because they do not keep your instructions. 767
119:159 See how I love your precepts!
O Lord, revive me with your loyal love!
119:160 Your instructions are totally reliable;
all your just regulations endure. 768
119:161 Rulers pursue me for no reason,
yet I am more afraid of disobeying your instructions. 769
119:162 I rejoice in your instructions,
like one who finds much plunder. 770
119:163 I hate and despise deceit;
I love your law.
because of your just regulations.
nothing causes them to stumble. 773
119:166 I hope for your deliverance, O Lord,
and I obey 774 your commands.
119:167 I keep your rules;
I love them greatly.
119:168 I keep your precepts and rules,
for you are aware of everything I do. 775
Give me insight by your word!
Deliver me, as you promised. 778
119:171 May praise flow freely from my lips,
for you teach me your statutes.
for all your commands are just.
119:173 May your hand help me,
for I choose to obey 780 your precepts.
119:174 I long for your deliverance, O Lord;
I find delight in your law.
May your regulations help me! 782
Come looking for your servant,
for I do not forget your commands.
A song of ascents. 785
120:1 In my distress I cried out
to the Lord and he answered me.
from those who lie with their lips 788
and those who deceive with their tongue. 789
120:3 How will he severely punish you,
you deceptive talker? 790
with arrowheads forged over the hot coals. 792
For I have lived temporarily 794 in Meshech;
I have resided among the tents of Kedar. 795
120:6 For too long I have had to reside
with those who hate 796 peace.
but when I speak, they want to make war. 798
A song of ascents. 800
From where 802 does my help come?
the Creator 804 of heaven and earth!
121:3 May he not allow your foot to slip!
does not sleep or slumber!
121:5 The Lord is your protector;
the Lord is the shade at your right hand.
121:6 The sun will not harm you by day,
or the moon by night. 808
121:7 The Lord will protect you from all harm;
he will protect your life.
now and forevermore.
A song of ascents, 811 by David.
“We will go to the Lord’s temple.”
inside your gates, O Jerusalem.
to accommodate an assembly. 815
the tribes of the Lord,
where it is required that Israel
give thanks to the name of the Lord. 818
on the thrones of the house of David. 821
May those who love her prosper! 823
122:7 May there be peace inside your defenses,
122:8 For the sake of my brothers and my neighbors
I will say, “May there be peace in you!”
122:9 For the sake of the temple of the Lord our God
I will pray for you to prosper. 826
A song of ascents. 828
the one enthroned 830 in heaven.
123:2 Look, as the eyes of servants look to the hand of their master,
as the eyes of a female servant look to the hand of her mistress, 831
so my eyes will look to the Lord, our God, until he shows us favor.
123:3 Show us favor, O Lord, show us favor!
For we have had our fill of humiliation, and then some. 832
of the taunts of the self-assured,
of the contempt of the proud.
A song of ascents, 835 by David.
124:1 “If the Lord had not been on our side” –
let Israel say this! –
124:2 if the Lord had not been on our side,
when men attacked us, 836
124:3 they would have swallowed us alive,
when their anger raged against us.
124:4 The water would have overpowered us;
124:5 The raging water
would have overwhelmed us. 840
for 842 he did not hand us over as prey to their teeth.
The snare broke, and we escaped.
the Creator 845 of heaven and earth.
A song of ascents. 847
125:1 Those who trust in the Lord are like Mount Zion;
it cannot be upended and will endure forever.
so the Lord surrounds his people,
now and forevermore.
upon the allotted land of the godly.
Otherwise the godly might
do what is wrong. 852
125:4 Do good, O Lord, to those who are good,
to the morally upright! 853
May Israel experience peace! 857
A song of ascents. 859
we thought we were dreaming. 861
126:2 At that time we laughed loudly
and shouted for joy. 862
At that time the nations said, 863
“The Lord has accomplished great things for these people.”
126:3 The Lord did indeed accomplish great things for us.
We were happy.
126:4 O Lord, restore our well-being,
just as the streams in the arid south are replenished. 864
126:5 Those who shed tears as they plant
will shout for joy when they reap the harvest. 865
will certainly come in with a shout of joy, carrying his sheaves of grain. 867
A song of ascents, 869 by Solomon.
then those who build it work in vain.
If the Lord does not guard a city, 871
then the watchman stands guard in vain.
127:2 It is vain for you to rise early, come home late,
and work so hard for your food. 872
the fruit of the womb is a reward.
127:4 Sons born during one’s youth
are like arrows in a warrior’s hand. 877
127:5 How blessed is the man who fills his quiver with them!
A song of ascents. 881
each one who keeps his commands! 883
You will be blessed and secure. 886
in the inner rooms of your house;
your children 888 will be like olive branches,
as they sit all around your table.
128:4 Yes indeed, the man who fears the Lord
will be blessed in this way. 889
all the days of your life,
May Israel experience peace! 895
A song of ascents. 897
129:1 “Since my youth they have often attacked me,”
let Israel say.
129:2 “Since my youth they have often attacked me,
but they have not defeated me.
129:3 The plowers plowed my back;
they made their furrows long.
129:4 The Lord is just;
he cut the ropes of the wicked.” 898
129:5 May all who hate Zion
be humiliated and turned back!
129:6 May they be like the grass on the rooftops
which withers before one can even pull it up, 899
129:7 which cannot fill the reaper’s hand,
or the lap of the one who gathers the grain!
“May you experience the Lord’s blessing!
We pronounce a blessing on you in the name of the Lord.”
A song of ascents. 902
Pay attention to 905 my plea for mercy!
O Lord, who could stand before you? 907
I rely on him with my whole being; 913
I wait for his assuring word. 914
more than watchmen do for the morning,
yes, more than watchmen do for the morning. 916
130:7 O Israel, hope in the Lord,
for the Lord exhibits loyal love, 917
and is more than willing to deliver. 918
from all the consequences of their sins. 920
A song of ascents, 922 by David.
131:1 O Lord, my heart is not proud,
nor do I have a haughty look. 923
I do not have great aspirations,
or concern myself with things that are beyond me. 924
like a young child carried by its mother; 927
I am content like the young child I carry. 928
131:3 O Israel, hope in the Lord
now and forevermore!
A song of ascents. 930
132:1 O Lord, for David’s sake remember
all his strenuous effort, 931
132:2 and how he made a vow to the Lord,
and swore an oath to the powerful ruler of Jacob. 932
or get into my bed. 935
132:4 I will not allow my eyes to sleep,
or my eyelids to slumber,
132:5 until I find a place for the Lord,
we found it in the territory of Jaar. 940
132:7 Let us go to his dwelling place!
Let us worship 941 before his footstool!
132:8 Ascend, O Lord, to your resting place,
you and the ark of your strength!
May your loyal followers shout for joy!
132:10 For the sake of David, your servant,
do not reject your chosen king! 943
he will not go back on his word. 945
132:12 If your sons keep my covenant
and the rules I teach them,
their sons will also sit on your throne forever.”
he decided to make it his home. 949
I will live here, for I have chosen it. 951
I will give her poor all the food they need. 953
and her godly people will shout exuberantly. 955
I have determined that my chosen king’s dynasty will continue. 957
and his crown will shine.
A song of ascents, 960 by David.
133:1 Look! How good and how pleasant it is
when brothers live together! 961
133:2 It is like fine oil poured on the head
which flows down the beard 962 –
and then flows down his garments. 963
which flows down upon the hills of Zion. 965
Indeed 966 that is where the Lord has decreed
a blessing will be available – eternal life. 967
A song of ascents. 969
all you servants of the Lord,
who serve 971 in the Lord’s temple during the night.
134:2 Lift your hands toward the sanctuary
and praise the Lord!
134:3 May the Lord, the Creator of heaven and earth,
135:1 Praise the Lord!
Praise the name of the Lord!
Offer praise, you servants of the Lord,
in the courts of the temple of our God.
135:3 Praise the Lord, for the Lord is good!
Sing praises to his name, for it is pleasant! 976
Israel to be his special possession. 978
and our Lord is superior to all gods.
135:6 He does whatever he pleases
in heaven and on earth,
in the seas and all the ocean depths.
135:7 He causes the clouds to arise from the end of the earth,
makes lightning bolts accompany the rain,
and brings the wind out of his storehouses.
135:8 He struck down the firstborn of Egypt,
including both men and animals.
in your midst, O Egypt,
against Pharaoh and all his servants.
135:10 He defeated many nations,
and killed mighty kings –
135:11 Sihon, king of the Amorites,
and Og, king of Bashan,
and all the kingdoms of Canaan.
135:12 He gave their land as an inheritance,
as an inheritance to Israel his people.
your reputation, O Lord, lasts. 983
and has compassion on his servants. 985
135:15 The nations’ idols are made of silver and gold,
they are man-made. 986
135:16 They have mouths, but cannot speak,
eyes, but cannot see,
135:17 and ears, but cannot hear.
Indeed, they cannot breathe. 987
as will everyone who trusts in them.
O family of Aaron, praise the Lord!
135:20 O family of Levi, praise the Lord!
You loyal followers 990 of the Lord, praise the Lord!
he who dwells in Jerusalem. 992
Praise the Lord!
136:1 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,
for his loyal love endures. 994
136:2 Give thanks to the God of gods,
for his loyal love endures.
136:3 Give thanks to the Lord of lords,
for his loyal love endures,
136:4 to the one who performs magnificent, amazing deeds all by himself,
for his loyal love endures,
136:5 to the one who used wisdom to make the heavens,
for his loyal love endures,
136:6 to the one who spread out the earth over the water,
for his loyal love endures,
136:7 to the one who made the great lights,
for his loyal love endures,
136:8 the sun to rule by day,
for his loyal love endures,
136:9 the moon and stars to rule by night,
for his loyal love endures,
136:10 to the one who struck down the firstborn of Egypt,
for his loyal love endures,
136:11 and led Israel out from their midst,
for his loyal love endures,
136:12 with a strong hand and an outstretched arm,
for his loyal love endures,
for his loyal love endures,
136:14 and led Israel through its midst,
for his loyal love endures,
for his loyal love endures,
136:16 to the one who led his people through the wilderness,
for his loyal love endures,
136:17 to the one who struck down great kings,
for his loyal love endures,
136:18 and killed powerful kings,
for his loyal love endures,
136:19 Sihon, king of the Amorites,
for his loyal love endures,
136:20 Og, king of Bashan,
for his loyal love endures,
136:21 and gave their land as an inheritance,
for his loyal love endures,
136:22 as an inheritance to Israel his servant,
for his loyal love endures,
for his loyal love endures,
136:24 and snatched us away from our enemies,
for his loyal love endures,
for his loyal love endures.
136:26 Give thanks to the God of heaven,
for his loyal love endures!
137:1 By the rivers of Babylon
we sit down and weep 1002
when we remember Zion.
137:2 On the poplars in her midst
we hang our harps,
those who mock us demand that we be happy, saying: 1004
“Sing for us a song about Zion!” 1005
137:4 How can we sing a song to the Lord
in a foreign land?
137:5 If I forget you, O Jerusalem,
may my right hand be crippled! 1006
137:6 May my tongue stick to the roof of my mouth,
if I do not remember you,
and do not give Jerusalem priority
over whatever gives me the most joy. 1007
137:7 Remember, O Lord, what the Edomites did
on the day Jerusalem fell. 1008
They said, “Tear it down, tear it down, 1009
right to its very foundation!”
How blessed will be the one who repays you
for what you dished out to us! 1011
137:9 How blessed will be the one who grabs your babies
and smashes them on a rock! 1012
138:1 I will give you thanks with all my heart;
before the heavenly assembly 1014 I will sing praises to you.
138:2 I will bow down toward your holy temple,
and give thanks to your name,
because of your loyal love and faithfulness,
for you have exalted your promise above the entire sky. 1015
You made me bold and energized me. 1017
when they hear the words you speak. 1019
for the Lord’s splendor is magnificent. 1021
138:6 Though the Lord is exalted, he takes note of the lowly,
and recognizes the proud from far away.
You oppose my angry enemies, 1023
and your right hand delivers me.
O Lord, your loyal love endures.
Do not abandon those whom you have made! 1025
For the music director, a psalm of David.
139:2 You know when I sit down and when I get up;
even from far away you understand my motives.
you are aware of everything I do. 1029
without you, O Lord, being thoroughly aware of it. 1031
139:5 You squeeze me in from behind and in front;
you place your hand on me.
139:6 Your knowledge is beyond my comprehension;
it is so far beyond me, I am unable to fathom it. 1032
139:7 Where can I go to escape your spirit?
Where can I flee to escape your presence? 1033
If I were to sprawl out in Sheol, there you would be. 1035
and settle down on the other side 1038 of the sea,
139:10 even there your hand would guide me,
your right hand would grab hold of me.
and the light will turn to night all around me,” 1040
and the night is as bright as 1042 day;
darkness and light are the same to you. 1043
you wove me together 1046 in my mother’s womb.
You knew me thoroughly; 1048
139:15 my bones were not hidden from you,
when 1049 I was made in secret
and sewed together in the depths of the earth. 1050
All the days ordained for me
were recorded in your scroll
before one of them came into existence. 1052
How vast is their sum total! 1054
139:18 If I tried to count them,
they would outnumber the grains of sand.
Even if I finished counting them,
I would still have to contend with you. 1055
Get away from me, you violent men! 1057
your enemies lie. 1061
139:21 O Lord, do I not hate those who hate you,
and despise those who oppose you? 1062
they have become my enemies!
Test me, and know my concerns! 1065
and lead me in the reliable ancient path! 1067
For the music director; a psalm of David.
Protect me from violent men, 1070
All day long they stir up conflict. 1072
Protect me from violent men,
who plan to knock me over. 1077
140:5 Proud men hide a snare for me;
evil men 1078 spread a net by the path;
they set traps for me. (Selah)
140:6 I say to the Lord, “You are my God.”
O Lord, pay attention to my plea for mercy!
you shield 1080 my head in the day of battle.
140:9 As for the heads of those who surround me –
may the harm done by 1084 their lips overwhelm them!
May he throw them into the fire!
From bottomless pits they will not escape. 1086
calamity will hunt down a violent man and strike him down. 1089
and vindicates the poor. 1091
140:13 Certainly the godly will give thanks to your name;
the morally upright will live in your presence.
A psalm of David.
141:1 O Lord, I cry out to you. Come quickly to me!
Pay attention to me when I cry out to you!
141:2 May you accept my prayer like incense,
my uplifted hands like the evening offering! 1093
141:3 O Lord, place a guard on my mouth!
or participate in sinful activities
with men who behave wickedly. 1097
I will not eat their delicacies. 1098
141:5 May the godly strike me in love and correct me!
Indeed, my prayer is a witness against their evil deeds. 1101
They 1103 will listen to my words, for they are pleasant.
so our bones are scattered at the mouth of Sheol.
In you I take shelter.
Do not expose me to danger! 1106
141:9 Protect me from the snare they have laid for me,
and the traps the evildoers have set. 1107
while I escape. 1110
to the Lord I plead for mercy. 1115
142:2 I pour out my lament before him;
I tell him about 1116 my troubles.
you watch my footsteps. 1118
In the path where I walk
they have hidden a trap for me.
142:4 Look to the right and see!
No one cares about me. 1119
I have nowhere to run; 1120
no one is concerned about my life. 1121
142:5 I cry out to you, O Lord;
I say, “You are my shelter,
my security 1122 in the land of the living.”
142:6 Listen to my cry for help,
for I am in serious trouble! 1123
Rescue me from those who chase me,
for they are stronger than I am.
that I may give thanks to your name.
Because of me the godly will assemble, 1125
for you will vindicate me. 1126
A psalm of David.
143:1 O Lord, hear my prayer!
Pay attention to my plea for help!
Because of your faithfulness and justice, answer me!
for no one alive is innocent before you. 1129
They smash me into the ground. 1132
like those who have been dead for ages.
I am absolutely shocked. 1136
I meditate on all you have done;
I reflect on your accomplishments. 1138
143:7 Answer me quickly, Lord!
My strength is fading. 1142
Do not reject me, 1143
for I trust in you.
Show me the way I should go, 1147
because I long for you. 1148
143:9 Rescue me from my enemies, O Lord!
I run to you for protection. 1149
for you are my God.
May your kind presence 1151
Because of your justice, rescue me from trouble! 1156
for I am your servant.
the one who trains my hands for battle, 1163
and my fingers for war,
my refuge 1165 and my deliverer,
my shield and the one in whom I take shelter,
who makes nations submit to me. 1166
their days like a shadow that disappears. 1171
Touch the mountains and make them smolder! 1174
144:6 Hurl lightning bolts and scatter them!
Shoot your arrows and rout them! 1175
Grab me and rescue me from the surging water, 1177
from the power of foreigners, 1178
144:8 who speak lies,
and make false promises. 1179
144:9 O God, I will sing a new song to you!
Accompanied by a ten-stringed instrument, I will sing praises to you,
and rescued David his servant from a deadly 1181 sword.
who speak lies,
and make false promises. 1183
that quickly grow to full size. 1185
Our daughters will be like corner pillars, 1186
carved like those in a palace. 1187
providing all kinds of food. 1189
Our sheep will multiply by the thousands
No one will break through our walls,
no one will be taken captive,
and there will be no terrified cries in our city squares. 1193
How blessed are the people whose God is the Lord!
A psalm of praise, by David.
145:1 I will extol you, my God, O king!
I will praise your name continually! 1196
145:2 Every day I will praise you!
I will praise your name continually! 1197
145:3 The Lord is great and certainly worthy of praise!
No one can fathom his greatness! 1198
145:4 One generation will praise your deeds to another,
and tell about your mighty acts! 1199
145:5 I will focus on your honor and majestic splendor,
and your amazing deeds! 1200
I will declare your great deeds!
and sing about your justice. 1203
145:8 The Lord is merciful and compassionate;
145:9 The Lord is good to all,
and has compassion on all he has made. 1206
145:10 All he has made will give thanks to the Lord.
Your loyal followers will praise you.
145:11 They will proclaim the splendor of your kingdom;
they will tell about your power,
and the majestic splendor of your kingdom.
and your dominion endures through all generations.
and lifts up all who are bent over. 1210
and you provide them with food on a regular basis. 1212
145:16 You open your hand,
and fill every living thing with the food they desire. 1213
and exhibits love in all he does. 1215
145:18 The Lord is near all who cry out to him,
all who cry out to him sincerely. 1216
he hears their cry for help and delivers them.
145:20 The Lord protects those who love him,
but he destroys all the wicked.
Let all who live 1220 praise his holy name forever!
146:1 Praise the Lord!
Praise the Lord, O my soul!
146:2 I will praise the Lord as long as I live!
I will sing praises to my God as long as I exist!
146:3 Do not trust in princes,
or in human beings, who cannot deliver! 1222
146:4 Their life’s breath departs, they return to the ground;
on that day their plans die. 1223
146:5 How blessed is the one whose helper is the God of Jacob,
whose hope is in the Lord his God,
146:6 the one who made heaven and earth,
the sea, and all that is in them,
who remains forever faithful, 1224
and gives food to the hungry.
The Lord releases the imprisoned.
146:8 The Lord gives sight to the blind.
The Lord lifts up all who are bent over. 1226
The Lord loves the godly.
146:9 The Lord protects those residing outside their native land;
he lifts up the fatherless and the widow, 1227
but he opposes the wicked. 1228
146:10 The Lord rules forever,
your God, O Zion, throughout the generations to come! 1229
Praise the Lord!
147:1 Praise the Lord,
for it is good to sing praises to our God!
Yes, 1231 praise is pleasant and appropriate!
and gathers the exiles of Israel.
and bandages their wounds.
147:4 He counts the number of the stars;
he names all of them.
there is no limit to his wisdom. 1235
147:6 The Lord lifts up the oppressed,
but knocks 1236 the wicked to the ground.
Sing praises to our God to the accompaniment of a harp!
provides the earth with rain,
and causes grass to grow on the hillsides. 1239
147:9 He gives food to the animals,
and to the young ravens when they chirp. 1240
147:10 He is not enamored with the strength of a horse,
nor is he impressed by the warrior’s strong legs. 1241
and in those who wait for his loyal love.
147:12 Extol the Lord, O Jerusalem!
Praise your God, O Zion!
147:13 For he makes the bars of your gates strong.
He blesses your children 1243 within you.
He abundantly provides for you 1246 the best grain.
swiftly his order reaches its destination. 1249
147:16 He sends the snow that is white like wool;
he spreads the frost that is white like ashes. 1250
Who can withstand the cold wind he sends? 1252
he breathes on it, 1254 and the water flows.
147:19 He proclaims his word to Jacob,
his statutes and regulations to Israel.
147:20 He has not done so with any other nation;
they are not aware of his regulations.
Praise the Lord!
148:1 Praise the Lord!
Praise the Lord from the sky!
Praise him in the heavens!
Praise him, all his heavenly assembly! 1257
148:3 Praise him, O sun and moon!
Praise him, all you shiny stars! 1258
148:4 Praise him, O highest heaven,
and you waters above the sky! 1259
148:5 Let them praise the name of the Lord,
for he gave the command and they came into existence.
he issued a decree that will not be revoked. 1261
148:7 Praise the Lord from the earth,
you sea creatures and all you ocean depths,
O stormy wind that carries out his orders, 1263
148:9 you mountains and all you hills,
you fruit trees and all you cedars,
148:10 you animals and all you cattle,
you creeping things and birds,
148:11 you kings of the earth and all you nations,
you princes and all you leaders 1264 on the earth,
148:12 you young men and young women,
you elderly, along with you children!
148:13 Let them praise the name of the Lord,
for his name alone is exalted;
his majesty extends over the earth and sky.
and given all his loyal followers reason to praise –
the Israelites, the people who are close to him. 1266
Praise the Lord!
149:1 Praise the Lord!
Sing to the Lord a new song!
Praise him in the assembly of the godly! 1268
149:2 Let Israel rejoice in their Creator!
149:3 Let them praise his name with dancing!
Let them sing praises to him to the accompaniment of the tambourine and harp!
149:4 For the Lord takes delight in his people;
he exalts the oppressed by delivering them. 1271
Let them shout for joy upon their beds! 1273
149:6 May they praise God
while they hold a two-edged sword in their hand, 1274
and punish foreigners.
and their nobles in iron shackles,
All his loyal followers will be vindicated. 1279
Praise the Lord!
150:1 Praise the Lord!
Praise God in his sanctuary!
Praise him in the sky, which testifies to his strength! 1281
150:2 Praise him for his mighty acts!
Praise him for his surpassing greatness!
150:3 Praise him with the blast of the horn!
Praise him with the lyre and the harp!
150:4 Praise him with the tambourine and with dancing!
Praise him with stringed instruments and the flute!
150:5 Praise him with loud cymbals!
Praise him with clanging cymbals!
150:6 Let everything that has breath praise the Lord!
Praise the Lord!
2 tn Heb “take notice of.”
3 tn Heb “I will walk about in the integrity of my heart in the midst of my house.”
4 tn Heb “I will not set before my eyes a thing of worthlessness.”
5 tn Heb “the doing of swerving [deeds] I hate.” The Hebrew term סֵטִים (setim) is probably an alternate spelling of שֵׂטִים (setim), which appears in many medieval Hebrew
6 tn Heb “it [i.e., the doing of evil deeds] does not cling to me.”
7 tn Heb “a perverse heart will turn aside from me.” The adjective עִקֵּשׁ (’iqqesh) has the basic nuance “twisted; crooked” and by extension refers to someone or something that is morally perverse (see Ps 18:26). It appears frequently in the Book of Proverbs, where it is used of evil people (22:5), speech (8:8; 19:1), thoughts (11:20; 17:20), and life styles (2:15; 28:6).
8 tn Heb “know.” The king will not willingly allow perverse individuals to remain in his royal court.
9 tn Heb “[one who has] pride of eyes and wideness [i.e., arrogance] of heart, him I will not endure.”
10 tn Heb “my eyes [are] on the faithful of the land.”
11 tn The Hebrew text simply reads, “in order to live with me.”
12 tn Heb “one who walks in the way of integrity, he will minister to me.”
13 tn Heb “he will not live in the midst of my house, one who does deceit.”
14 tn Heb “one who speaks lies will not be established before my eyes.”
16 tn Heb “and may my cry for help come to you.”
17 tn Heb “do not hide your face from me in the day of my trouble.” The idiom “to hide the face” can mean “to ignore” (see Pss 10:11; 13:1; 51:9) or carry the stronger idea of “to reject” (see Pss 29:7; 30:7; 88:14).
18 tn Heb “turn toward me your ear.”
19 tn Heb “for my days come to an end in smoke.”
21 tn Heb “struck, attacked.”
22 tn Heb “I forget.”
23 sn I am unable to eat food. During his time of mourning, the psalmist refrained from eating. In the following verse he describes metaphorically the physical effects of fasting.
24 tn Heb “from the sound of my groaning my bone[s] stick to my flesh.” The preposition at the beginning of the verse is causal; the phrase “sound of my groaning” is metonymic for the anxiety that causes the groaning. The point seems to be this: Anxiety (which causes the psalmist to groan) keeps him from eating (v. 4). This physical deprivation in turn makes him emaciated – he is turned to “skin and bones,” so to speak.
25 tn The Hebrew term קָאַת (qa’at) refers to some type of bird (see Lev 11:18; Deut 14:17) that was typically found near ruins (see Zeph 2:14). Modern translations have frequently rendered this as some type of owl (NIV, REB “desert owl”; NRSV “owl”).
29 tn Heb “by me they swear.” When the psalmist’s enemies call judgment down on others, they hold the psalmist up as a prime example of what they desire their enemies to become.
31 tn Heb “weeping.”
32 tn Or “for.”
33 tn Heb “my days [are] like an extended [or “lengthening”] shadow,” that is, like a late afternoon shadow made by the descending sun that will soon be swallowed up by complete darkness.
35 tn Heb “and your remembrance [is] for a generation and a generation.”
36 tn The imperfect verbal forms are understood as expressing the psalmist’s confidence in God’s intervention. Another option is to take them as expressing the psalmist’s request or wish, “You, rise up and have compassion!”
37 tn Or “for.”
39 tn Heb “her dust,” probably referring to the dust of the city’s rubble.
41 tn The verb “will fear” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the preceding line).
42 tn The Hebrew adjective עַרְעָר (’arar, “destitute”) occurs only here in the OT. It is derived from the verbal root ערר (“to strip oneself”).
43 tn Heb “despise.”
46 tn Heb “from the height of his sanctuary.”
49 tn Heb “his praise.”
51 tn “and the kingdoms to serve the
53 tn Heb “do not lift me up in the middle of my days.”
54 tn Heb “in a generation of generations [are] your years.”
55 tn Heb “stand.”
56 tn The Hebrew verb חָלַף (khalaf) occurs twice in this line, once in the Hiphil (“you will remove them”) and once in the Qal (“they will disappear”). The repetition draws attention to the statement.
57 tn Heb “you [are] he,” or “you [are] the one.” The statement may echo the
58 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
59 tn Heb “before you will be established.”
61 tn The verb “praise” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the preceding line).
64 tn Or “redeems.”
66 tc Heb “who satisfies with the good of your ornaments.” The text as it stands makes little, if any, sense. The translation assumes an emendation of עֶדְיֵךְ (’ed’ekh, “your ornaments”) to עֹדֵכִי (’odekhiy, “your duration; your continuance”) that is, “your life” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 18).
67 sn The expression your youth is renewed like an eagle’s may allude to the phenomenon of molting, whereby the eagle grows new feathers.
68 tn Heb “the
69 tn Heb “made known his ways.” God’s “ways” in this context are his protective and salvific acts in fulfillment of his promise (see also Deut 32:4; Pss 18:30; 67:2; 77:13 [note vv. 11-12, 14]; 138:5; 145:17).
72 tn The Hebrew verb נָטַר (natar) is usually taken to mean “to keep; to guard,” with “anger” being understood by ellipsis. The idiom “to guard anger” is then understood to mean “to remain angry” (see Lev 19:18; Jer 3:5, 12; Nah 1:2). However, it is possible that this is a homonymic root meaning “to be angry” (see HALOT 695 s.v. נטר).
73 tn Heb “not according to our sins does he do to us.”
74 tn Heb “and not according to our misdeeds does he repay us.”
76 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
77 tn Heb “sunrise.”
78 tn Or “sunset.”
79 tn The Hebrew term פֶּשַׁע (pesha’, rebellious act”) is here used metonymically for the guilt such actions produce.
80 tn Or “sons,” but the Hebrew term sometimes refers to children in general.
81 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
82 tn Heb “our form.”
83 tn Heb “remembers.”
84 tn Heb “we [are] clay.”
85 tn Heb “[as for] mankind, like grass [are] his days.” The Hebrew noun אֱנוֹשׁ (’enosh) is used here generically of human beings. What is said is true of all mankind.
86 tn Heb “[the] wind.” The word “hot” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
87 tn Heb “but the loyal love of the
88 tn Heb “and his righteousness to sons of sons.”
89 tn Heb “to those who remember his precepts to do them.”
90 tn Heb “his kingdom rules over all.”
91 tn Heb “[you] mighty ones of strength, doers of his word, by listening to the voice of his word.”
92 tn Heb “all his hosts.”
93 tn Heb “his attendants, doers of his desire.”
94 tn Heb “all his works,” which includes mankind.
95 tn Heb “places.”
97 tn Heb “very great.”
98 tn Heb “one who lays the beams on water [in] his upper rooms.” The “water” mentioned here corresponds to the “waters above” mentioned in Gen 1:7. For a discussion of the picture envisioned by the psalmist, see L. I. J. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World, 44-45.
99 sn Verse 3 may depict the Lord riding a cherub, which is in turn propelled by the wind current. Another option is that the wind is personified as a cherub. See Ps 18:10 and the discussion of ancient Near Eastern parallels to the imagery in M. Weinfeld, “‘Rider of the Clouds’ and ‘Gatherer of the Clouds’,” JANESCU 5 (1973): 422-24.
100 tc Heb “and his attendants a flaming fire.” The lack of agreement between the singular “fire” and plural “attendants” has prompted various emendations. Some read “fire and flame.” The present translation assumes an emendation to “his attendant” (יו in the Hebrew text being virtually dittographic).
sn In Ugaritic mythology Yam’s messengers appear as flaming fire before the assembly of the gods. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 42.
101 tc Heb “you covered it.” The masculine suffix is problematic if the grammatically feminine noun “earth” is the antecedent. For this reason some emend the form to a feminine verb with feminine suffix, כִּסַּתָּה (kisattah, “[the watery deep] covered it [i.e., the earth]”), a reading assumed by the present translation.
102 tn Heb “stood.”
104 tn Heb “from your shout they fled, from the sound of your thunder they hurried off.”
105 tn Heb “a boundary you set up, they will not cross, they will not return to cover the earth.”
106 tn Heb “[the] one who sends springs into streams.” Another option is to translate, “he sends streams [i.e., streams that originate from springs] into the valleys” (cf. NIV).
107 tn Heb “among the thick foliage they give a sound.”
108 tn Heb “from his upper rooms.”
109 tn Heb “from the fruit of your works the earth is full.” The translation assumes that “fruit” is literal here. If “fruit” is understood more abstractly as “product; result,” then one could translate, “the earth flourishes as a result of your deeds” (cf. NIV, NRSV, REB).
110 tn Heb “causes the grass to sprout up.”
112 tn Heb “to cause food to come out from the earth.”
113 tn Heb “and wine [that] makes the heart of man happy.”
114 tn Heb “to make [the] face shine from oil.” The Hebrew verb צָהַל (tsahal, “to shine”) occurs only here in the OT. It appears to be an alternate form of צָהַר (tsahar), a derivative from צָהָרִים (tsaharim, “noon”).
115 tn Heb “and food [that] sustains the heart of man.”
116 sn The trees of the
118 tn Heb “[the] heron [in the] evergreens [is] its home.”
119 tn Heb “the high mountains [are] for the goats.”
120 tn Heb “he made [the] moon for appointed times.” The phrase “appointed times” probably refers to the months of the Hebrew lunar calendar.
121 tn Heb more metaphorically, “knows its setting.”
122 tn Heb “you make darkness, so that it might be night.”
123 sn The lions’ roaring is viewed as a request for food from God.
124 tn Heb “lie down.”
125 tn Heb “man goes out to his work, and to his labor until evening.”
126 tn Heb “How many [are] your works, O
127 tn Heb “all of them with wisdom you have made.”
128 tn Heb “this [is] the sea, great and broad of hands [i.e., “sides” or “shores”].”
129 tn Heb “where [there are] swimming things, and without number.”
130 tn Heb “[and] this Leviathan, [which] you formed to play in it.” Elsewhere Leviathan is a multiheaded sea monster that symbolizes forces hostile to God (see Ps 74:14; Isa 27:1), but here it appears to be an actual marine creature created by God, probably some type of whale.
131 tn Heb “All of them.” The pronoun “them” refers not just to the sea creatures mentioned in vv. 25-26, but to all living things (see v. 24). This has been specified in the translation as “all of your creatures” for clarity.
132 tn Heb “to give their food in its time.”
133 tn Heb “they are satisfied [with] good.”
134 tn Heb “you hide your face, they are terrified.”
135 tn Heb “be forever.”
136 tn Or “rejoice in his works.”
137 tn Heb “in my duration.”
138 tn That is, the psalmist’s thoughts as expressed in his songs of praise.
139 tn Or “be destroyed.”
140 sn Psalm 105. The psalmist summons Israel to praise God because he delivered his people from Egypt in fulfillment of his covenantal promises to Abraham. A parallel version of vv. 1-15 appears in 1 Chr 16:8-22.
141 tn Heb “and the judgments of his mouth.”
142 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
144 tn Heb “his”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
145 tn Heb “sons.”
146 tn Heb “his”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
147 tn Heb “in all the earth [are] his judgments.”
149 tn Heb “which.”
150 tn Or “eternal covenant.”
151 tn Heb “and from a kingdom to another nation.”
152 tn The word “saying” is supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
153 tn Heb “anointed.”
156 tn Heb “they afflicted his feet with shackles.”
157 tn Heb “his neck came [into] iron.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with the suffix could mean simply “he” or “his life.” But the nuance “neck” makes good sense here (note the reference to his “feet” in the preceding line). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 38.
159 tn This line may refer to Joseph’s prediction of the famine in response to Pharaoh’s dream. Joseph emphasized to Pharaoh that the interpretation of the dream came from God (see Gen 41:16, 25, 28, 32, 39).
160 tn Heb “refined him.”
161 tn Heb “[the] king sent and set him free.”
162 tn Heb “he made him master of his house.”
163 tn Heb “to bind his officials by his will.”
164 tn Heb “and his elders he taught wisdom.”
165 tn Heb “entered.”
166 tn Heb “lived as a resident alien.”
167 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (the
168 tn Heb “him,” referring to “his people.”
169 tn Heb “his,” referring to “his people.”
170 tn Heb “their heart.”
173 tn Heb “he sent darkness and made it dark.”
sn He made it dark. The psalmist begins with the ninth plague (see Exod 10:21-29).
174 tn Heb “they did not rebel against his words.” Apparently this refers to Moses and Aaron, who obediently carried out God’s orders.
175 tn Heb “he spoke and flies came.”
176 tn Heb “he gave their rains hail.”
177 tn Heb “fire of flames [was] in their land.”
178 tn Heb “he spoke and locusts came.”
179 tn Heb “the fruit of their ground.”
sn Verses 28-36 recall the plagues in a different order than the one presented in Exodus: v. 28 (plague 9), v. 29 (plague 1), v. 30 (plague 2), v. 31a (plague 4), v. 31b (plague 3), vv. 32-33 (plague 7), vv. 34-35 (plague 8), v. 36 (plague 10). No reference is made in Ps 105 to plagues 5 and 6.
181 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the
182 tn The word “enriched” is supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
183 tn Heb “for fear of them had fallen upon them.”
184 tn Or “curtain.”
185 tn Heb “he [i.e., his people] asked.” The singular form should probably be emended to a plural שָׁאֲלוּ (sha’alu, “they asked”), the vav (ו) having fallen off by haplography (note the vav at the beginning of the following form).
187 tn Or “for.”
188 tn Heb “his holy word.”
189 tn Heb “and he led his people out with joy, with a ringing cry, his chosen ones.”
190 tn Heb “and the [product of the] work of peoples they possessed.”
191 tn Heb “guard.”
193 tn Heb “for forever [is] his loyal love.”
194 tn Heb “[or] cause to be heard all his praise.”
195 tn Heb “good.”
196 tn Heb “in order that [I may] rejoice with the rejoicing of your nation.”
197 tn Heb “with your inheritance.”
198 tn Heb “with.”
200 tn Heb “Reed Sea” (also in vv. 9, 22). “Reed Sea” (or “Sea of Reeds”) is a more accurate rendering of the Hebrew expression יָם סוּף (yam suf), traditionally translated “Red Sea.” See the note on the term “Red Sea” in Exod 13:18.
sn They rebelled. The psalmist recalls the people’s complaint recorded in Exod 14:12.
201 tn Heb “his name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.
202 tn Or “rebuked.”
203 tn Heb “hand.”
204 tn Or “redeemed.”
205 tn Heb “hand.”
206 tn Heb “remained.”
207 tn Heb “his words.”
208 tn Heb “his works.”
209 tn Heb “his counsel.”
211 tn Heb “they craved [with] a craving.”
212 tn Heb “they tested God.”
213 tn Heb “and he sent leanness into their being.”
sn Disease. See Num 11:33-34, where this plague is described.
214 tn Or “envied.”
215 tn Heb “the holy one of the
216 tn Or “covered.”
217 tn Or “the assembly of Abiram.”
219 tn Heb “their glory.” According to an ancient Hebrew scribal tradition, the text originally read “his glory” or “my glory.” In Jer 2:11 the
220 tn Heb “forgot.”
221 tn Or “awe-inspiring.”
222 tn Heb “and he said.”
223 tn Heb “if not,” that is, “[and would have] if [Moses] had not.”
224 tn Heb “stood in the gap before him.”
225 tn Heb “to turn back his anger from destroying.”
227 tn Heb “his word.”
229 tn Heb “did not listen to the voice of.”
230 tn Heb “and he lifted his hand to [or “concerning”] them.” The idiom “to lift a hand” here refers to swearing an oath. One would sometimes solemnly lift one’s hand when making such a vow (see Ezek 20:5-6, 15).
231 tn Heb “to cause them to fall.”
232 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
233 tn Heb “and to cause their offspring to fall.” Some emend the verb to “scatter” to form tighter parallelism with the following line (cf. NRSV “disperse”).
234 tn Heb “among the lands.” The word “foreign” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
235 tn Heb “joined themselves to.”
sn They worshiped Baal of Peor. See Num 25:3, 5. Baal of Peor was a local manifestation of the Canaanite deity Baal located at Peor.
236 tn Here “the dead” may refer to deceased ancestors (see Deut 26:14). Another option is to understand the term as a derogatory reference to the various deities which the Israelites worshiped at Peor along with Baal (see Num 25:2 and L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 49).
237 tn Heb “They made angry [him].” The pronominal suffix is omitted here, but does appear in a few medieval Hebrew
239 tn Heb “and it was reckoned to him for righteousness, to a generation and a generation forever.” The verb חָשַׁב (khashav, “to reckon”) is collocated with צְדָקָה (tsÿdaqah, “righteousness”) only in Ps 106:31 and Gen 15:6, where God rewards Abram’s faith with a land grant.
sn Brought him a reward. See Num 25:12-13.
240 tn Heb “there was harm to Moses.”
241 tn The Hebrew text vocalizes the form as הִמְרוּ (himru), a Hiphil from מָרָה (marah, “to behave rebelliously”), but the verb fits better with the object (“his spirit”) if it is revocalized as הֵמֵרוּ (hemeru), a Hiphil from מָרַר (marar, “to be bitter”). The Israelites “embittered” Moses’ “spirit” in the sense that they aroused his temper with their complaints.
242 tn Heb “his spirit.”
243 tn The Hebrew text adds “with his lips,” but this has not been included in the translation for stylistic reasons.
244 tn That is, the nations of Canaan.
245 tn Heb “their deeds.”
246 tn Or “served.”
251 tn Heb “the anger of the
252 tn Heb “his inheritance.”
253 tn Heb “gave them into the hand of.”
254 tn Heb “they were subdued under their hand.”
255 tn The prefixed verbal form is either preterite or imperfect, in which case it is customary, describing repeated action in past time (“he would deliver”).
256 tn Heb “but they rebelled in their counsel.” The prefixed verbal form is either preterite or imperfect, in which case it is customary, describing repeated action in past time (“they would have a rebellious attitude”).
257 tn Heb “they sank down.” The Hebrew verb מָכַךְ (makhakh, “to lower; to sink”) occurs only here in the Qal.
258 tn The Niphal of נָחַם (nakham) refers here to God relenting from a punishment already underway.
259 tn Or “captors.”
260 tn Heb “to give thanks.” The infinitive construct indicates result after the imperative.
261 tn Heb “to boast in your praise.”
263 tn Heb “from everlasting to everlasting.”
264 tn Heb “surely” (אָמֵן, ’amen), traditionally transliterated “amen.”
265 sn The final verse (v. 48) is a conclusion to this fourth “book” (or major editorial division) of the Psalter. Similar statements appear at or near the end of each of the first, second and third “books” of the Psalter (see Pss 41:13; 72:18-19; 89:52, respectively).
267 tn Heb “for forever [is] his loyal love.”
268 tn Or “let the redeemed of the
269 tn Or “redeemed.”
270 tn Heb “hand.”
271 tn Heb “from lands.” The word “foreign” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
272 tn Heb “and their soul in them fainted.”
274 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.”
275 tn Heb “[the] longing throat.” The noun נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), which frequently refers to one’s very being or soul, here probably refers to one’s parched “throat” (note the parallelism with נֶפֱשׁ רְעֵבָה, nefesh rÿ’evah, “hungry throat”).
276 tn Heb “and [the] hungry throat he has filled [with] good.”
277 tn Heb “those who sat in darkness and deep darkness.” Synonyms are joined here to emphasize the degree of “darkness” experienced by the exiles. The Hebrew term צַלְמָוֶת (tsalmavet, “deep darkness”) has traditionally been understood as a compound noun, meaning “shadow of death” (צֵל + מָוֶת [tsel + mavet]; see BDB 853 s.v. צַלְמָוֶת; cf. NASB). Other authorities prefer to vocalize the form צַלְמוּת (tsalmut) and understand it as an abstract noun (from the root צלם) meaning “darkness.” An examination of the word’s usage favors the latter derivation. It is frequently associated with darkness/night and contrasted with light/morning (see Job 3:5; 10:21-22; 12:22; 24:17; 28:3; 34:22; Ps 107:10, 14; Isa 9:1; Jer 13:16; Amos 5:8). In some cases the darkness described is associated with the realm of death (Job 10:21-22; 38:17), but this is a metaphorical application of the word and does not reflect its inherent meaning. In Ps 107:10 the word refers metonymically to a dungeon, which in turn metaphorically depicts the place of Israel’s exile (see vv. 2-3).
278 tn Heb “those bound in suffering and iron.” “Suffering and iron” is a hendiadys (like English “good and angry”), where both words contribute to one idea. In this case the first word characterizes the second; the iron (chains) contribute to the prisoners’ pain and suffering.
279 tn Heb “the words of God.”
280 tn Heb “the counsel of the Most High.”
281 tn Heb “and he subdued with suffering their heart.”
285 tn Heb “fools [they were] because of the way of their rebellion.”
286 tn Heb “all food their appetite loathed.”
288 tn Heb “he rescued from their traps.” The Hebrew word שְׁחִית (shekhit, “trap”) occurs only here and in Lam 4:20, where it refers to a trap or pit in which one is captured. Because of the rarity of the term and the absence of an object with the verb “rescued,” some prefer to emend the text of Ps 107:20, reading מִשַׁחַת חַיָּתָם (mishakhat khayyatam, “[he rescued] their lives from the pit”). Note also NIV “from the grave,” which interprets the “pit” as Sheol or the grave.
290 tn Heb “and let them proclaim his works with a ringing cry.”
291 sn Verses 23-30, which depict the Lord rescuing sailors from a storm at sea, do not seem to describe the exiles’ situation, unless the word picture is metaphorical. Perhaps the psalmist here broadens his scope and offers an example of God’s kindness to the needy beyond the covenant community.
292 tn Heb “those going down [into].”
293 tn Heb “doers of work on the mighty waters.”
294 tn Heb “he spoke and caused to stand a stormy wind.”
297 tn Heb “their being”; traditionally “their soul” (referring to that of the sailors). This is sometimes translated “courage” (cf. NIV, NRSV).
298 tn Or “melted.”
299 tn Heb “from danger.”
300 tn Only here does the Hebrew verb חָגַג (khagag; normally meaning “to celebrate”) carry the nuance “to sway.”
301 tn The Hitpael of בָלַע (vala’) occurs only here in the OT. Traditionally the form is derived from the verbal root בלע (“to swallow”), but HALOT 135 s.v. III בלע understands a homonym here with the meaning “to be confused.”
302 tn Heb “he raised [the] storm to calm.”
304 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the sailors) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
305 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the waves) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
306 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT.
308 tn Heb “in the seat of the elders.”
309 tn The verbal form appears to be a preterite, which is most naturally taken as narrational. (The use of prefixed forms with vav [ו] consecutive in vv. 36-37 favor this.) The psalmist may return to the theme of God’s intervention for the exiles (see vv. 4-22, especially vv. 4-9). However, many regard vv. 33-41 as a hymnic description which generalizes about God’s activities among men. In this case it would be preferable to use the English present tense throughout (cf. NEB, NRSV).
310 tn Heb “a salty land.”
311 tn The words “As for his people” are not included in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity. The psalmist contrasts God’s judgment on his enemies with his blessing of his people. See the note on the word “enemies” in v. 39 for further discussion.
313 tn Heb “sowed seed in.”
314 tn Heb “fruit [as] produce.”
315 tn “Bless” here carries the nuance “endue with sexual potency, make fertile.” See Gen 1:28, where the statement “he blessed them” directly precedes the command “be fruitful and populate the earth” (see also 1:22). The verb “bless” carries this same nuance in Gen 17:16 (where God’s blessing of Sarai imparts to her the capacity to bear a child); 48:16 (where God’s blessing of Joseph’s sons is closely associated with their having numerous descendants); and Deut 7:13 (where God’s blessing is associated with fertility in general, including numerous descendants). See also Gen 49:25 (where Jacob uses the noun derivative in referring to “blessings of the breast and womb,” an obvious reference to fertility) and Gen 27:27 (where the verb is used of a field to which God has given the capacity to produce vegetation).
316 tn The verbal form in this line appears to be an imperfect, which may be taken as customary (drawing attention to typical action in a past time frame) or as generalizing (in which case one should use the English present tense, understanding a move from narrative to present reality).
317 tn The words “As for their enemies” are not included in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity. Without such clarification, one might think that v. 39 refers to those just mentioned in v. 38 as objects of divine blessing, which would contradict the point just emphasized by the psalmist. The structure of vv. 33-42 is paneled (A-B-A-B). In vv. 33-34 the psalmist describes God’s judgment upon his enemies (perhaps those who had enslaved his people). In vv. 35-38 he contrasts this judgment with the divine blessing poured out on God’s people. (See the note on the word “people” in v. 35.) In vv. 39-40 he contrasts this blessing with the judgment experienced by enemies, before returning in vv. 41-42 to the blessing experienced by God’s people.
318 tn Heb “from the oppression of calamity.”
319 tn The active participle is understood as past durative here, drawing attention to typical action in a past time frame. However, it could be taken as generalizing (in which case one should translate using the English present tense), in which case the psalmist moves from narrative to present reality. Perhaps the participial form appears because the statement is lifted from Job 12:21.
320 tn Heb “set on high.”
321 tn Heb “all evil,” which stands metonymically for those who do evil.
323 tn Or perhaps “confident”; Heb “my heart is steadfast.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and/or emotions.
324 tn Heb “also my glory,” but this makes little sense in the context. Some view the term כָּבוֹד (“glory”) here as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kÿvodiy, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 16:9; 30:12; 57:9; as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 3:93. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.”
325 tn BDB 1007 s.v. שַׁחַר takes “dawn” as an adverbial accusative, though others understand it as a personified direct object. “Dawn” is used metaphorically for the time of deliverance and vindication the psalmist anticipates. When salvation “dawns,” the psalmist will “wake up” in praise.
326 tn Or “the peoples.”
327 tn Heb “for great upon the sky [or “heavens”] [is] your loyal love.”
328 tn Or “be exalted.”
329 tn Heb “over all the earth [be] your splendor.” Though no verb appears, the tone of the statement is a prayer or wish. (Note the imperative form in the preceding line.)
330 tn Heb “right hand.”
331 tn Or “may be rescued.” The lines are actually reversed in the Hebrew text: “So that the ones you love may be rescued, deliver by your power and answer me.”
332 tn Heb “in his holy place.”
333 sn Shechem stands for the territory west of the Jordan River; the valley of Succoth represents the region east of the Jordan.
334 tn Gilead was located east of the Jordan River. Half of the tribe of Manasseh lived east of the Jordan in the region of Bashan.
335 tn Heb “the protection of my head.”
sn Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, was one of two major tribes located west of the Jordan River. By comparing Ephraim to a helmet, the Lord suggests that the Ephraimites played a primary role in the defense of his land.
336 sn Judah, like Ephraim, was the other major tribe west of the Jordan River. The Davidic king, symbolized here by the royal scepter, came from this tribe.
338 tn Heb “over Edom I will throw my sandal.” The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. Some interpret this as idiomatic for “taking possession of.” Others translate עַל (’al) as “to” and understand this as referring to a master throwing his dirty sandal to a servant so that the latter might dust it off.
339 sn The psalmist speaks again and acknowledges his need for help in battle. He hopes God will volunteer, based on the affirmation of sovereignty over Edom in v. 9, but he is also aware that God has seemingly rejected the nation of Israel (v. 11).
340 tn Heb “and futile [is] the deliverance of man.”
344 tn Heb “do not be deaf.”
345 tn Heb “for a mouth of evil and a mouth of deceit against me they open, they speak with me [with] a tongue of falsehood.”
346 tn Heb “and [with] words of hatred they surround me.”
347 tn Heb “in place of my love they oppose me.”
348 tn Heb “and I, prayer.”
349 tn Heb “and they set upon me evil in place of good.”
350 sn In vv. 6-19 the psalmist calls on God to judge his enemies severely. Some attribute this curse-list to the psalmist’s enemies rather than the psalmist. In this case one should paraphrase v. 6: “They say about me, ‘Appoint an evil man, etc.’” Those supporting this line of interpretation point out that vv. 2-5 and 20 refer to the enemies’ attack on the psalmist being a verbal one. Furthermore in vv. 1-5, 20 the psalmist speaks of his enemies in the plural, while vv. 6-19 refer to an individual. This use of the singular in vv. 6-19 could be readily explained if this is the psalmist’s enemies’ curse on him. However, it is much more natural to understand vv. 6-19 as the psalmist’s prayer against his enemies. There is no introductory quotation formula in v. 6 to indicate that the psalmist is quoting anyone, and the statement “may the
351 tn Heb “appoint against him an evil [man].”
352 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive here (note the imperative in the preceding line).
354 tn Heb “he will go out [as] a criminal” (that is, guilty).
356 tn The Hebrew noun פְּקֻדָּה (pÿquddah) can mean “charge” or “office,” though BDB 824 s.v. suggests that here it refers to his possessions.
357 tn Or “sons.”
358 tn Or “sons.”
359 tn Heb “and roaming, may his children roam and beg, and seek from their ruins.” Some, following the LXX, emend the term וְדָרְשׁוּ (vÿdoreshu, “and seek”) to יְגֹרְשׁוּ (yÿgoreshu; a Pual jussive, “may they be driven away” [see Job 30:5; cf. NIV, NRSV]), but דָּרַשׁ (darash) nicely parallels שִׁאֵלוּ (shi’elu, “and beg”) in the preceding line.
361 tn Heb “the product of his labor.”
362 tn Heb “may there not be for him one who extends loyal love.”
364 tn Or “offspring.”
366 tn Heb “in another generation may their name be wiped out.”
367 tn Or “fathers’ sins.”
368 tn Heb “not be wiped out.”
sn According to ancient Israelite theology and its doctrine of corporate solidarity and responsibility, children could be and often were punished for the sins of their parents. For a discussion of this issue see J. Kaminsky, Corporate Responsibility in the Hebrew Bible (JSOTSup). (Kaminsky, however, does not deal with Ps 109.)
371 tn Heb “he did not remember to do loyal love.”
372 tn Heb “and he chased an oppressed and needy man, and one timid of heart to put [him] to death.”
373 sn A curse in OT times consists of a formal appeal to God to bring judgment down upon another. Curses were sometimes justified (such as the one spoken by the psalmist here in vv. 6-19), but when they were not, the one pronouncing the curse was in danger of bringing the anticipated judgment down upon himself.
374 tn Heb “and he loved a curse and it came [upon] him.” A reference to the evil man experiencing a curse seems premature here, for the psalmist is asking God to bring judgment on his enemies. For this reason some (cf. NIV, NRSV) prefer to repoint the vav (ו) on “it came” as conjunctive and translate the verb as a jussive of prayer (“may it come upon him!”). The prefixed form with vav consecutive in the next line is emended in the same way and translated, “may it be far from him.” However, the psalmist may be indicating that the evil man’s lifestyle has already begun to yield its destructive fruit.
375 tn Heb “and he did not delight in a blessing and it is far from him.”
376 tn Heb “he put on a curse as [if it were] his garment.”
377 tn Heb “and it came like water into his inner being, and like oil into his bones.” This may refer to this individual’s appetite for cursing. For him cursing was as refreshing as drinking water or massaging oneself with oil. Another option is that the destructive effects of a curse are in view. In this case a destructive curse invades his very being, like water or oil. Some who interpret the verse this way prefer to repoint the vav (ו) on “it came” to a conjunctive vav and interpret the prefixed verb as a jussive, “may it come!”
378 tn Heb “may it be for him like a garment one puts on.”
380 tn Heb “[may] this [be] the repayment to my accusers from the
381 tn Or “against.”
382 tn The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
383 tn Heb “but you,
384 tc The verb in the Hebrew text (חָלַל, khalal) appears to be a Qal form from the root חלל meaning “pierced; wounded.” However, the Qal of this root is otherwise unattested. The translation assumes an emendation to יָחִיל (yakhil), a Qal imperfect from חוּל (khul, “tremble”) or to חֹלַל (kholal), a polal perfect from חוּל (khul). See Ps 55:4, which reads לִבִּי יָחִיל בְּקִרְבִּי (libbiy yakhil bÿqirbbiy, “my heart trembles [i.e., “beats violently”] within me”).
386 tn Heb “my knees stagger from fasting.”
387 tn Heb “and my flesh is lean away from fatness [i.e., “lean so as not to be fat”].”
388 tn Heb “as for me, I am a reproach to them.”
390 tn Heb “deliver me according to your faithfulness.”
391 tn After the preceding imperative, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose or result.
392 tn Heb “that your hand [is] this.”
393 tn Another option is to translate the imperfect as a prayer/request (“may you bless”).
394 tn The verbal sequence is perfect + prefixed form with vav (ו) consecutive. Since the psalmist seems to be anticipating the demise of his enemies, he may be using these forms rhetorically to describe the enemies’ defeat as if it were already accomplished. Some emend the text to קָמוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ (qamu yevoshu, “may those who attack me be humiliated”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 75.
395 tn Heb “clothed.” Another option is to translate the prefixed verbal forms in this line and the next as jussives (“may my accusers be covered with shame”).
396 tn Heb “I will thank the
397 tn Heb “many.”
398 tn Heb “judge.”
399 sn Psalm 110. In this royal psalm the psalmist announces God’s oracle to the Davidic king. The first part of the oracle appears in v. 1, the second in v. 4. In vv. 2-3 the psalmist addresses the king, while in vv. 5-7 he appears to address God.
400 tn The word נְאֻם (nÿ’um) is used frequently in the OT of a formal divine announcement through a prophet.
401 sn My lord. In the psalm’s original context the speaker is an unidentified prophetic voice in the royal court. In the course of time the psalm is applied to each successive king in the dynasty and ultimately to the ideal Davidic king. NT references to the psalm understand David to be speaking about his “lord,” the Messiah. (See Matt 22:43-45; Mark 12:36-37; Luke 20:42-44; Acts 2:34-35).
402 tn To sit at the “right hand” of the king was an honor (see 1 Kgs 2:19). In Ugaritic myth (CTA 4 v. 108-10) the artisan god Kothar-and Khasis is described as sitting at the right hand of the storm god Baal. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 61-62.
sn The Lord’s invitation to the Davidic king to sit down at his right hand reflects the king’s position as the Lord’s vice-regent.
404 tn Since the
405 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing, though it could be taken as future.
406 tn Heb “your strong scepter,” symbolic of the king’s royal authority and dominion.
407 tn Heb “your people, free will offerings.” Perhaps the people, in their willingness to volunteer, are compared metaphorically to freewill offerings. Following the LXX, some revocalize the text and read “with you is nobility.”
408 tn Heb “in the day of your power.”
409 tc Heb “in splendor of holiness.” The plural construct form הַדְרֵי (hadrey, from הָדַר, hadar, “splendor”) occurs only here; it may indicate degree or perhaps refer by metonymy to garments (see Pss 29:2 and 96:9, where the phrase הַדְרַת קֹדֶשׁ [hadrat qodesh] refers to “holy attire”). If one retains the reading of the MT, this phrase should probably be taken with the preceding line. However, because of the subsequent references to “dawn” and to “dew,” it is better to emend the text to הַרְרֵי קֹדֶשׁ (harrey qodesh, “mountains of holiness”), a reading found in many medieval Hebrew
410 tn Heb “from the womb of dawn.” The Hebrew noun רֶחֶם (rekhem, “womb”) is probably used here metonymically for “birth.” The form מִשְׁחָר (mishkhar) occurs only here and should be emended to שַׁחַר (shakhar, “dawn”) with the mem (מ) being understood as dittographic (note the final mem [ם] on the preceding word). The phrase “womb [i.e., “birth”] of dawn” refers to sunrise.
411 sn The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. The dew may symbolize the king’s youthful vitality or, more likely (note the parallelism), may refer to his army of strong, youthful warriors.
412 tn Heb “to you [is].”
413 tn Or “swears, vows.”
414 tn Or “will not change his mind.” The negated Niphal imperfect of נָחַם (nakham) is a way of marking an announcement as an irrevocable decree. See 1 Sam 15:29; Ezek 24:14, as well as R. B. Chisholm, “Does God ‘Change His Mind’?” BSac 152 (1995): 387-99.
415 sn You are an eternal priest. The Davidic king exercised a non-Levitical priestly role. The king superintended Judah’s cultic ritual, had authority over the Levites, and sometimes led in formal worship. David himself instructed the Levites to bring the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem (1 Chr 15:11-15), joined the procession, offered sacrifices, wore a priestly ephod, and blessed the people (2 Sam 6:12-19). At the dedication of the temple Solomon led the ceremony, offering sacrifices and praying on behalf of the people (1 Kgs 8).
416 tn The phrase עַל־דִּבְרָתִי (’al-divratiy) is a variant of עַל־דִּבְרָת (’al-divrat; the final yod [י] being an archaic genitival ending), which in turn is a variant of עַל דָּבַר (’al davar). Both phrases can mean “concerning” or “because of,” but neither of these nuances fits the use of עַל־דִּבְרָתִי in Ps 110:4. Here the phrase probably carries the sense “according to the manner of.” See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 81.
417 sn The Davidic king’s priestly role is analogous to that of Melchizedek, who was both “king of Salem” (i.e., Jerusalem) and a “priest of God Most High” in the time of Abraham (Gen 14:18-20). Like Melchizedek, the Davidic king was a royal priest, distinct from the Aaronic line (see Heb 7). The analogy focuses on the king’s priestly role; the language need not imply that Melchizedek himself was “an eternal priest.”
418 tn As pointed in the Hebrew text, this title refers to God (many medieval Hebrew
419 tn The perfect verbal forms in vv. 5-6 are understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing. Another option is to take them as rhetorical. In this case the psalmist describes anticipated events as if they had already taken place.
420 tn Heb “in the day of his anger.”
422 tn Or “among.”
423 tn Heb “he fills [with] corpses,” but one expects a double accusative here. The translation assumes an emendation to גְוִיּוֹת גֵאָיוֹת(בִּ) מִלֵּא or מִלֵּא גֵאָיוֹת גְּוִיוֹת (for a similar construction see Ezek 32:5). In the former case גֵאָיוֹת(ge’ayot) has accidentally dropped from the text due to homoioteleuton; in the latter case it has dropped out due to homoioarcton.
424 tn Heb “he strikes [the verb is מָחַץ (makhats), translated “strikes down” in v. 5] head[s] over a great land.” The Hebrew term רַבָּה (rabbah, “great”) is here used of distance or spatial measurement (see 1 Sam 26:13).
425 tn Here the expression “lifts up the head” refers to the renewed physical strength and emotional vigor (see Ps 3:3) provided by the refreshing water. For another example of a victorious warrior being energized by water in the aftermath of battle, see Judg 15:18-19 (see also 1 Sam 30:11-12, where the setting is different, however).
426 sn Psalm 111. The psalmist praises God for his marvelous deeds, especially the way in which he provides for and delivers his people. The psalm is an acrostic. After the introductory call to praise, every poetic line (twenty-two in all) begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
427 tn Heb “sought out.”
429 tn Or “stands.”
431 tn Heb “a memorial he had made for his amazing deeds.”
433 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
435 tn Heb “the strength of his deeds he proclaimed to his people, to give to them an inheritance of nations.”
436 tn Heb “the deeds of his hands [are].”
437 tn That is, fair and for man’s good.
439 tn Heb “redemption he sent for his people.”
440 tn Heb “he commanded forever his covenant.”
441 tn Heb “the beginning of wisdom [is] the fear of the
442 tn Heb “good sense [is] to all who do them.” The third masculine plural pronominal suffix must refer back to the “precepts” mentioned in v. 7. In the translation the referent has been specified for clarity. The phrase שֵׂכֶל טוֹב (shekhel tov) also occurs in Prov 3:4; 13:15 and 2 Chr 30:22.
443 tn Heb “his praise stands forever.”
444 sn Psalm 112. This wisdom psalm lists some of the benefits of living a godly life. The psalm is an acrostic. After the introductory call to praise, every poetic line (twenty-two in all) begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
445 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The individual is representative of a larger group, called the “godly” in vv. 3-4. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender specific “man” with the more neutral “one.” The generic masculine pronoun is used in the following verses.
446 tn Heb “fears.”
447 tn Heb “in his commands he delights very much.” The words “in keeping” are supplied in the translation for clarification. Taking delight in the law is metonymic here for obeying God’s moral will. See Ps 1:2.
448 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
449 tn Heb “His seed will be mighty on the earth, the generation of the godly.” The Hebrew term דוֹר (dor, “generation”) could be taken as parallel to “offspring” and translated “posterity,” but the singular more likely refers to the godly as a class. See BDB 189-90 s.v. for other examples where “generation” refers to a class of people.
450 tn Heb “stands forever.”
452 tn Heb “merciful and compassionate and just.” The Hebrew text has three singular adjectives, which are probably substantival and in apposition to the “godly” (which is plural, however). By switching to the singular, the psalmist focuses on each individual member of the group known as the “godly.” Note how vv. 5-9, like vv. 1-2a, use the singular to describe the representative godly individual who typifies the whole group.
453 tn Heb “man.”
454 tn Heb “he sustains his matters with justice.”
455 tn Heb “for an eternal memorial a just [one] will be.”
458 tn Heb “his heart,” viewed here as the seat of the volition.
459 tn Heb “he scatters, he gives.”
460 tn Heb “stands forever.”
461 tn Heb “his horn will be lifted up in honor.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17).
464 tn This could mean that the desires of the wicked will go unfulfilled. Another possibility is that “desire” refers by metonymy to the object desired and acquired. In this case the point is that the wicked will lose what they desired so badly and acquired by evil means (see Ps 10:3).
466 tn Heb “from the rising of the sun to its setting.” The extent is not temporal (“from sunrise to sunset”) but spatial (“from the place where the sun rises [the east] to the place where it sets [the west].” In the phenomenological language of OT cosmology, the sun was described as rising in the east and setting in the west.
467 tn Heb “above the sky [is] his splendor.”
468 tn Heb “the one who makes high to sit.”
469 tn Heb “the one who makes low to see.”
471 tn Heb “of the house.”
472 tn Heb “sons.”
474 tn Heb “the house of Jacob from a nation speaking a foreign language.” The Hebrew verb לָעַז (la’at, “to speak a foreign language”) occurs only here in the OT.
481 tn Or “give glory.”
482 sn The psalmist asks the
485 tn Heb “the work of the hands of man.”
487 tn Heb “will be.” Another option is to take the prefixed verbal form as a prayer, “may those who make them end up like them.”
sn Because the idols are lifeless, they cannot help their worshipers in times of crisis. Consequently the worshipers end up as dead as the gods in which they trust.
488 tn Or “[source of] help.”
489 tn Heb “and their shield.”
490 tn Heb “house.”
491 tn Or “[source of] help.”
492 tn Heb “and their shield.”
494 tn Or “[source of] help.”
495 tn Heb “and their shield.”
496 tn Or “remembers us.”
498 tn Heb “house.”
499 tn Heb “the fearers of the
500 tn Heb “the small along with the great.” The translation assumes that “small” and “great” here refer to age (see 2 Chr 15:13). Another option is to translate “both the insignificant and the prominent” (see Job 3:19; cf. NEB “high and low alike”).
501 tn Heb “may he add to you, to you and your sons.” The prefixed verbal form is jussive, indicating this is a prayer.
502 tn Or “maker.”
503 tn Heb “the heavens [are] heavens to the
504 tn Heb “to the sons of man.”
507 tn Heb “I love because the
508 tn Heb “because he turned his ear to me.”
509 tn Heb “and in my days I will cry out.”
510 tn Heb “surrounded me.”
511 tn The Hebrew noun מצר (“straits; distress”) occurs only here, Ps 118:5 and Lam 1:3. If retained, it refers to Sheol as a place where one is confined or severely restricted (cf. BDB 865 s.v. מֵצַר, “the straits of Sheol”; NIV “the anguish of the grave”; NRSV “the pangs of Sheol”). However, HALOT 624 s.v. מֵצַר suggests an emendation to מְצָדֵי (mÿtsadey, “snares of”), a rare noun attested in Job 19:6 and Eccl 7:26. This proposal, which is reflected in the translation, produces better parallelism with “ropes” in the preceding line.
512 tn The translation assumes the prefixed verbal form is a preterite. The psalmist recalls the crisis from which the Lord delivered him.
513 tn Heb “guards.” The active participle indicates this is a characteristic of the
515 tn Heb “I was low.”
516 tn Heb “return, my soul, to your place of rest.”
518 tn Or “for.”
519 tn “
521 tn Heb “lands, regions.”
522 tn Heb “I said in my haste.”
524 tn Heb “precious in the eyes of the
525 tn Heb “I am your servant, the son of your female servant.” The phrase “son of a female servant” (see also Ps 86:16) is used of a son born to a secondary wife or concubine (Exod 23:12). In some cases the child’s father is the master of the house (see Gen 21:10, 13; Judg 9:18). The use of the expression here certainly does not imply that the
531 tn Or “is forever.”
532 tn Heb “house.”
535 tn Heb “the
536 tn Heb “for me.”
538 tn Heb “for me.”
539 tn Heb “among my helpers.” The preposition may indicate identity here, while the plural may be one of majesty or respect.
540 tn “Taking shelter” in the
541 sn The reference to an attack by the nations suggests the psalmist may have been a military leader.
542 tn In this context the phrase “in the name of the
543 tn Traditionally the verb has been derived from מוּל (mul, “to circumcise”) and translated “[I] cut [them] off” (see BDB 557-58 s.v. II מוּל). However, it is likely that this is a homonym meaning “to fend off” (see HALOT 556 s.v. II מול) or “to push away.” In this context, where the psalmist is reporting his past experience, the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite. The phrase also occurs in vv. 11, 12.
544 tn Heb “were extinguished.”
545 tn The point seems to be that the hostility of the nations (v. 10) is short-lived, like a fire that quickly devours thorns and then burns out. Some, attempting to create a better parallel with the preceding line, emend דֹּעֲכוּ (do’akhu, “they were extinguished”) to בָּעֲרוּ (ba’aru, “they burned”). In this case the statement emphasizes their hostility.
546 tn Heb “pushing, you pushed me.” The infinitive absolute emphasizes the following verbal idea. The psalmist appears to address the nations as if they were an individual enemy. Some find this problematic and emend the verb form (which is a Qal perfect second masculine singular with a first person singular suffix) to נִדְחֵיתִי (nidkheti), a Niphal perfect first common singular, “I was pushed.”
547 tn Heb “to fall,” i.e., “that [I] might fall.”
548 tn Heb “my strength and protection [is] the
549 tn Or “salvation.”
550 tn Heb “the sound of a ringing shout and deliverance [is] in the tents of the godly.”
552 tn Heb “exalts.”
553 tn Heb “the works of the
554 tn The infinitive absolute emphasizes the following verbal idea.
555 tn Heb “the gates of justice.” The gates of the
556 tn Or “rejected.”
557 tn Heb “the head of the corner.”
sn The metaphor of the stone…the builders discarded describes the way in which God’s deliverance reversed the psalmist’s circumstances. When he was in distress, he was like a stone which was discarded by builders as useless, but now that he has been vindicated by God, all can see that he is of special importance to God, like the cornerstone of the building.
558 tn Heb “it is amazing in our eyes.” The use of the plural pronoun here and in vv. 24-27 suggests that the psalmist may be speaking for the entire nation. However, it is more likely that vv. 22-27 are the people’s response to the psalmist’s thanksgiving song (see especially v. 26). They rejoice with him because his deliverance on the battlefield (see vv. 10-12) had national repercussions.
559 tn Heb “this is the day the
560 sn A petition for deliverance and success seems odd in a psalm thanking God for deliverance, but it is not unique (see Ps 9:19-20). The people ask God to continue to intervene for them as he has for the psalmist.
562 tn The pronominal suffix is second masculine plural, but the final mem (ם) is probably dittographic (note the mem [מ] at the beginning of the following form) or enclitic, in which case the suffix may be taken as second masculine singular, referring to the psalmist.
563 tn Heb “from the house of the
564 tn Heb “and he has given us light.” This may be an elliptical expression, with “his face” being implied as the object (see Num 6:25; Pss 31:16; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19). In this case, “his face has given us light” = “he has smiled on us,” or “he has shown us his favor.” Another option (the one reflected in the translation) is that “light” here symbolizes divine blessing in the form of deliverance. “Light” is often used as a metaphor for deliverance and the life/blessings it brings. See Pss 37:6; 97:11; 112:4; Isa 49:6; 51:4; Mic 7:8. Some prefer to repoint the form וְיָאֵר (vÿya’er; vav [ו] conjunctive + jussive) and translate the statement as a prayer, “may he give us light.”
565 tn The Hebrew noun חַג (khag) normally means “festival,” but here it apparently refers metonymically to an offering made at the festival. BDB 291 s.v. חַג 2 interprets the word in this way here, citing as comparable the use of later Hebrew חֲגִיגָה, which can refer to both a festival and a festival offering (see Jastrow 424 s.v. חֲגִיגָה).
568 tn Or “is forever.”
569 sn Psalm 119. The psalmist celebrates God’s law and the guidance it provides his people. He expresses his desire to know God’s law thoroughly so that he might experience the blessings that come to those who obey it. This lengthy psalm exhibits an elaborate acrostic pattern. The psalm is divided into twenty-two sections (corresponding to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet), each of which is comprised of eight verses. Each of the verses in the first section (vv. 1-8) begins with the letter alef (א), the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. This pattern continues throughout the psalm as each new section highlights a successive letter of the alphabet. Each verse in section two (vv. 9-16) begins with the second letter of the alphabet, each verse in section three (vv. 17-24) with the third letter, etc. This rigid pattern creates a sense of order and completeness and may have facilitated memorization.
570 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness of those who are blameless of way.”
571 tn Heb “walk in.”
572 tn Heb “walk in his ways.”
573 tn Heb “you, you commanded your precepts, to keep, very much.”
574 tn Heb “if only my ways were established.”
575 tn Or “when.”
576 tn Heb “I gaze at.”
577 tn Heb “I will give you thanks with an upright heart.”
579 tn Heb “young man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, the gender specific “young man” has been translated with the more neutral “young person.”
580 tn Heb “purify his path.”
581 tn Heb “by keeping according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
582 tn Or “hide.”
583 tn Heb “your word.” Some medieval Hebrew
584 tn Heb “[are] blessed.”
585 tn Heb “of your mouth.”
586 tn Heb “in the way of your rules.”
589 tn The cohortative verbal forms in this verse express the psalmist’s resolve.
590 tn Heb “gaze [at].”
591 tn Heb “ways” (referring figuratively to God’s behavior here).
592 tn The imperfects in this verse emphasize the attitude the psalmist maintains toward God’s law. Another option is to translate with the future tense, “I will find delight…I will not forget.”
593 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
594 tn The prefixed verbal form is probably a cohortative indicating purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
595 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the imperative that begins the verse.
596 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
597 tn Heb “uncover.” The verb form גַּל (gal) is an apocopated Piel imperative from גָּלָה (galah, see GKC 214 §75.cc).
598 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
599 tn Heb “I am a resident alien in the land.” Resident aliens were especially vulnerable and in need of help. They needed to know the social and legal customs of the land to avoid getting into trouble. The translation (note the addition of “like”) assumes the psalmist is speaking metaphorically, not literally.
600 tn Heb “my soul languishes for longing for.”
601 tn Heb “accursed.” The traditional punctuation of the Hebrew text takes “accursed” with the previous line (“arrogant, accursed ones”), but it is preferable to take it with the second line as the predicate of the statement.
602 tn Heb “roll away from upon me.” Some derive the imperatival form גַּל (gal) from גָּלָה (galah, “uncover,” as in v. 18), but here the form is from גָּלַל (galal, “roll”; see Josh 5:9, where חֶרְפָּה [kherpah, “shame; reproach”] also appears as object of the verb). Some, following the lead of a Dead Sea scroll (11QPsa), emend the form to גֹּל (gol).
604 tn Heb “men of my counsel.” That is, God’s rules are like advisers to the psalmist, for they teach him how to live in a godly manner that refutes the accusations of his enemies.
605 tn Heb “my soul clings to the dirt.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
606 tn Heb “according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
607 tn Heb “my ways I proclaimed.”
608 tn Heb “the way of your precepts make me understand.”
609 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
611 tn Some translate “my soul weeps,” taking the verb דָלַף (dalaf) from a root meaning “to drip; to drop” (BDB 196 s.v. דֶּלַף). On the basis of cognate evidence from Arabic and Akkadian, HALOT 223 s.v. II דלף proposes a homonymic root here, meaning “be sleepless.” Following L. C. Allen (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 127, 135) the translation assumes that the verb is cognate with Ugaritic dlp, “to collapse; to crumple” in CTA 2 iv. 17, 26. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 44, 144.
612 tn Heb “according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
614 tn Heb “be gracious to me.” The verb is used metonymically here for “graciously giving” the law. (See Gen 33:5, where Jacob uses this verb in describing how God had graciously given him children.)
615 tn BDB 1000-1001 s.v. I שָׁוָה derives the verb from the first homonym listed, meaning “to agree with; to be like; to resemble.” It here means (in the Piel stem) “to be accounted suitable,” which in turn would mean by metonymy “to accept; to be committed to.” Some prefer to derive the verb from a homonym meaning “to place; to set,” but in this case an elliptical prepositional phrase must be understood, “I place your regulations [before me]” (see Ps 16:8).
616 tn Or “cling to.”
617 tn Heb “for you make wide my heart.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and understanding. The
618 tn Heb “the way of your statutes.”
619 tn Heb “and I will keep it to the end.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative. The Hebrew term עֵקֶב (’eqev) is understood to mean “end” here. Another option is to take עֵקֶב (’eqev) as meaning “reward” here (see Ps 19:11) and to translate, “so that I might observe it and be rewarded.”
620 tn The two prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose/result after the introductory imperative.
621 tn Or “make me walk.”
622 tn Heb “for in it I delight.”
623 tn Heb “turn my heart to your rules.”
624 tn Heb “and not unjust gain.”
625 tn Heb “Make my eyes pass by from looking at what is worthless.”
626 tn Heb “by your word.”
627 tn Heb “word.”
628 tn Heb “which [is] for your fear,” that is, the promise made to those who exhibit fear of God.
629 tn Heb “my reproach that I fear.”
630 tn Or “for.”
631 tn Or “righteousness.”
632 tn Heb “and may your loyal love come to me.”
633 tn Or “salvation” (so many English versions).
634 tn Heb “according to your word.”
636 tn Heb “do not snatch from my mouth a word of truth to excess.” The psalmist wants to be able to give a reliable testimony about the
638 tn Or “forever and ever.”
639 tn Heb “and I will walk about in a wide place.” The cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive gives a further consequence of the anticipated positive divine response (see vv. 43-44). Another option is to take the cohortative as expressing the psalmist’s request. In this case one could translate, “and please give me security.”
641 tn Lifting the hands is often associated with prayer (Pss 28:2; 63:4; Lam 2:19). (1) Because praying to God’s law borders on the extreme, some prefer to emend the text to “I lift up my hands to you,” eliminating “your commands, which I love” as dittographic. In this view these words were accidentally repeated from the previous verse. (2) However, it is possible that the psalmist closely associates the law with God himself because he views the law as the expression of the divine will. (3) Another option is that “lifting the hands” does not refer to prayer here, but to the psalmist’s desire to receive and appropriate the law. (4) Still others understand this to be an action praising God’s commands (so NCV; cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).
642 tn The demonstrative “this” refers back to the hope just mentioned or forward to the statement in the second line concerning the promise’s power to revive. See the note on the word “me” at the end of the verse for further discussion.
643 tn The hope generated by the promise (see v. 49b) brings comfort because (note “for” at the beginning of the line) the promise revives the psalmist’s spirits. Another option is to take כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line in the sense of “that,” in which case “this” refers to the promise’s power to revive.
644 tn Heb “scoff at me to excess.”
645 tn Heb “I remember your regulations from of old.” The prepositional phrase “from of old” apparently modifies “your regulations,” alluding to the fact that God revealed them to Israel in the distant past. Another option is to understand the prepositional phrase as modifying the verb, in which case one might translate, “I have long remembered your regulations.”
646 tn Or “find comfort.”
647 tn Heb “songs were your statutes to me.”
648 tn Heb “in the house of my dwelling place.” Some take the Hebrew noun מָגוֹר (magor) in the sense of “temporary abode,” and see this as a reference to the psalmist’s status as a resident alien (see v. 19). But the noun can refer to a dwelling place in general (see Ps 55:15).
649 tn The cohortative verbal form expresses the psalmist’s resolve to obey the law.
650 tn Heb “this has been to me.” The demonstrative “this” (1) refers back to the practices mentioned in vv. 54-55, or (2) looks forward to the statement in the second line, in which case the כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line should be translated “that.”
652 tn Heb “I said.”
654 tn Heb “I appease your face.”
655 tn Heb “according to your word.”
656 tn Heb “my ways.”
657 tn Heb “and I turn my feet toward.”
658 tn Heb “I hurry and I do not delay to keep your commands.”
659 tn Heb “surround.”
660 tn The psalmist uses an imperfect verbal form to emphasize that this is his continuing practice.
661 tn Heb “to all who fear you.”
662 tn Heb “do good.”
663 tn Heb “according to your word.”
664 tn Heb “goodness of taste.” Here “taste” refers to moral and ethical discernment.
665 tn Heb “for I believe in your commands.”
666 tn Heb “before I suffered, I was straying off.”
667 tn Heb “your word.”
668 tn Heb “smear over me a lie.”
669 tn Heb “their heart is insensitive like fat.”
670 tn Heb “better to me [is] the law of your mouth than thousands of gold and silver.”
672 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
673 tn Heb “those who fear you will see me and rejoice.”
674 tn In this context (note the second line) the Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim), which so often refers to the regulations of God’s law elsewhere in this psalm, may refer instead to his decisions or disciplinary judgment.
675 tn Heb “and [in] faithfulness you afflicted me.”
676 tn Heb “according to your word to your servant.”
677 tn Heb “and may your compassion come to me.”
678 tn Heb “for [with] falsehood they have denied me justice.”
679 tn Heb “those who fear you.”
680 tn Heb “may my heart be complete in your statutes.”
683 tn Heb “saying.”
684 tn Or “even though.”
686 tn Heb “in the smoke.”
687 tn Heb “How long are the days of your servant?”
688 tn Heb “for me.”
689 tn Heb “which [is] not according to your law.”
690 sn God’s commands are a reliable guide to right and wrong. By keeping them the psalmist is doing what is right, yet he is still persecuted.
691 tn Heb “according to.”
692 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
693 tn Heb “of your mouth.”
694 tn Heb “Forever, O
695 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation [is] your faithfulness.”
696 tn Heb “if your law had not been my delight.”
697 tn Or “my suffering.”
698 tn Heb “the wicked wait for me to kill me.”
700 tn The plural form needs to be revocalized as a singular in order to agree with the preceding singular verb and the singular pronoun in the next line. The
701 tn Heb “I hold back my feet.”
702 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
703 tn Heb “How smooth they are to my palate, your word, more than honey to my mouth.” A few medieval Hebrew
704 tn Heb “every false path.”
705 tn Many medieval Hebrew
706 tn Heb “[is] a lamp for my foot and a light for my path.”
707 tn Heb “according to your word.”
708 tn Heb “of my mouth.”
709 tn Heb “my life [is] in my hands continually.”
710 tn Heb “for the joy of my heart [are] they.”
711 tn Heb “I turn my heart to do.”
712 tn Heb “divided ones.” The word occurs only here; it appears to be derived from a verbal root, attested in Arabic, meaning “to split” (see HALOT 762 s.v. *סֵעֵף). Since the psalmist is emphasizing his unswerving allegiance to God and his law, the term probably refers to those who lack such loyalty. The translation is similar to that suggested by L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 131.
713 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
714 tn The psalmist has already declared that he observes God’s commands despite persecution, so here the idea must be “so that I might observe the commands of my God unhindered by threats.”
715 tn Heb “according to your word.”
716 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
717 tn Heb “do not make me ashamed of my hope.” After the Hebrew verb בּוֹשׁ (bosh, “to be ashamed”) the preposition מִן (min, “from”) often introduces the reason for shame.
718 tn Or “and that I might focus.” The two cohortatives with vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose/result after the imperative at the beginning of the verse.
719 tn The Hebrew verb סָלָה (salah, “to disdain”) occurs only here and in Lam 1:15. Cognate usage in Aramaic and Akkadian, as well as Lam 1:15, suggest it may have a concrete nuance of “to throw away.”
720 tn Heb “for their deceit [is] falsehood.”
721 sn Traditionally “dross” (so KJV, ASV, NIV). The metaphor comes from metallurgy; “slag” is the substance left over after the metallic ore has been refined.
722 sn As he explains in the next verse, the psalmist’s fear of judgment motivates him to obey God’s rules.
723 tn Heb “my flesh.”
725 tn Heb “from fear of you.” The pronominal suffix on the noun is an objective genitive.
726 tn Heb “do justice and righteousness.”
727 tn Heb “be surety for your servant for good.”
728 tn Heb “my eyes fail for your deliverance.” The psalmist has intently kept his eyes open, looking for God to intervene, but now his eyes are watery and bloodshot, impairing his vision. See the similar phrase in v. 82.
729 tn Heb “and for the word of your faithfulness.”
730 tn Heb “do with your servant according to your loyal love.”
731 tn or “know.” The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
733 tn Heb “for this reason all the precepts of everything I regard as right.” The phrase “precepts of everything” is odd. It is preferable to take the kaf (כ) on כֹּל (kol, “everything) with the preceding form as a pronominal suffix, “your precepts,” and the lamed (ל) with the following verb as an emphatic particle. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 138.
734 tn Heb “every false path.”
736 tn Heb “it [i.e., the doorway] gives.”
738 tn The verb occurs only here in the OT.
741 tn Or “redeem me.”
742 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
743 tn Heb “cause your face to shine.”
744 tn Heb “[with] flowing streams my eyes go down.”
745 tn Heb “they”; even though somewhat generic, the referent (people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
746 tn Heb “you commanded [in] justice your rules.”
747 tn or “zeal.”
748 tn Heb “destroys,” in a hyperbolic sense.
749 tn Heb “your words.”
750 tn Heb “your justice [is] justice forever.”
751 tn Or “truth.”
752 tn Heb “find.”
753 tn Heb “just are your rules forever.”
754 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
755 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
756 tn Heb “my voice.”
757 tn Heb “according to.”
758 tn Heb “according to your custom.”
759 tn Heb “those who pursue.”
760 tn Or “truth.”
761 tn Heb “long ago I knew concerning your rules, that forever you established them.” See v. 89 for the same idea. The translation assumes that the preposition מִן (min) prefixed to “your rules” introduces the object of the verb יָדַע (yada’), as in 1 Sam 23:23. Another option is that the preposition indicates source, in which case one might translate, “Long ago I realized from your rules that forever you established them” (cf. NIV, NRSV).
762 tn Or “argue my case.”
764 tn Heb “far from the wicked [is] deliverance.”
765 tn Heb “according to your customs.”
766 tn Heb “many [are] those who chase me and my enemies.”
767 tn Heb “your word.”
768 tn Heb “the head of your word is truth, and forever [is] all your just regulation.” The term “head” is used here of the “sum total” of God’s instructions.
771 tn The number “seven” is use rhetorically to suggest thoroughness.
772 tn Heb “great peace [is] to the lovers of your law.”
773 tn Heb “and there is no stumbling to them.”
774 tn Heb “do.”
775 tn Heb “for all my ways [are] before you.”
776 tn Heb “may my cry approach before you.”
777 tn Heb “may my appeal for mercy come before you.”
778 tn Heb “according to your speech.”
779 tn Heb “your word.”
780 tn The words “to obey” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarity.
781 tn Heb “my life.”
782 tn God’s regulations will “help” the psalmist by giving him moral and ethical guidance.
783 tn Heb “I stray like a lost sheep.” It is possible that the point of the metaphor is vulnerability: The psalmist, who is threatened by his enemies, feels as vulnerable as a straying, lost sheep. This would not suggest, however, that he has wandered from God’s path (see the second half of the verse, as well as v. 110).
784 sn Psalm 120. The genre and structure of this psalm are uncertain. It begins like a thanksgiving psalm, with a brief notice that God has heard the psalmist’s prayer for help and has intervened. But v. 2 is a petition for help, followed by a taunt directed toward enemies (vv. 3-4) and a lament (vv. 5-7). Perhaps vv. 2-7 recall the psalmist’s prayer when he cried out to the Lord.
785 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
786 tn The words “I said” are supplied in the translation for clarification. See the introductory note for this psalm.
787 tn Or “my life.”
788 tn Heb “from a lip of falsehood.”
789 tn Heb “from a tongue of deception.”
790 tn Heb “What will he give to you, and what will he add to you, O tongue of deception?” The psalmist addresses his deceptive enemies. The
792 tn Heb “with coals of the wood of the broom plant.” The wood of the broom plant was used to make charcoal, which in turn was used to fuel the fire used to forge the arrowheads.
793 tn Or “woe to me.” The Hebrew term אוֹיָה (’oyah, “woe”) which occurs only here, is an alternate form of אוֹי (’oy).
794 tn Heb “I live as a resident alien.”
795 sn Meshech was located in central Anatolia (modern Turkey). Kedar was located in the desert to east-southeast of Israel. Because of the reference to Kedar, it is possible that Ps 120:5 refers to a different Meshech, perhaps one associated with the individual mentioned as a descendant of Aram in 1 Chr 1:17. (However, the LXX in 1 Chr 1:17 follows the parallel text in Gen 10:23, which reads “Mash,” not Meshech.) It is, of course, impossible that the psalmist could have been living in both the far north and the east at the same time. For this reason one must assume that he is recalling his experience as a wanderer among the nations or that he is using the geographical terms metaphorically and sarcastically to suggest that the enemies who surround him are like the barbarians who live in these distant regions. For a discussion of the problem, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 146.
796 tn The singular participial form probably has a representative function here. The psalmist envisions the typical hater of peace who represents the entire category of such individuals.
797 tn Heb “I, peace.”
798 tn Heb “they [are] for war.”
799 sn Psalm 121. The psalm affirms that the Lord protects his people Israel. Unless the psalmist addresses an observer (note the second person singular forms in vv. 3-8), it appears there are two or three speakers represented in the psalm, depending on how one takes v. 3. The translation assumes that speaker one talks in vv. 1-2, that speaker two responds to him with a prayer in v. 3 (this assumes the verbs are true jussives of prayer), and that speaker three responds with words of assurance in vv. 4-8. If the verbs in v. 3 are taken as a rhetorical use of the jussive, then there are two speakers. Verses 3-8 are speaker two’s response to the words of speaker one. See the note on the word “sleep” at the end of v. 3.
800 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
801 tn Heb “I lift my eyes.”
802 tn The Hebrew term מֵאַיִן (me’ayin) is interrogative, not relative, in function. Rather than directly stating that his source of help descends from the hills, the psalmist is asking, “From where does my help come?” Nevertheless, the first line does indicate that he is looking toward the hills for help, probably indicating that he is looking up toward the sky in anticipation of supernatural intervention. The psalmist assumes the dramatic role of one needing help. He answers his own question in v. 2.
803 tn Heb “my help [is] from with the
804 tn Or “Maker.”
805 tn Heb “the one who guards you.”
806 tn The prefixed verbal forms following the negative particle אל appear to be jussives. As noted above, if they are taken as true jussives of prayer, then the speaker in v. 3 would appear to be distinct from both the speaker in vv. 1-2 and the speaker in vv. 4-8. However, according to GKC 322 §109.e), the jussives are used rhetorically here “to express the conviction that something cannot or should not happen.” In this case one should probably translate, “he will not allow your foot to slip, your protector will not sleep,” and understand just one speaker in vv. 4-8.
807 tn Heb “the one who guards Israel.”
808 sn One hardly thinks of the moon’s rays as being physically harmful, like those of the sun. The reference to the moon may simply lend poetic balance to the verse, but it is likely that the verse reflects an ancient, primitive belief that the moon could have an adverse effect on the mind (note the English expression “moonstruck,” which reflects such a belief). Another possibility is that the sun and moon stand by metonymy for harmful forces characteristic of the day and night, respectively.
809 tn Heb “your going out and your coming in.”
811 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
812 tn Heb “in the ones saying to me.” After the verb שָׂמַח (samakh), the preposition בְּ (bet) usually introduces the reason for joy.
813 tn Or “were.”
815 tc Heb “Jerusalem, which is built like a city which is joined to her together.” The meaning of the Hebrew text is unclear. Many regard this as a description of the compact way in which the city was designed or constructed. The translation assumes an emendation of the verb חֻבְּרָה (khubbÿrah, “is joined”) to a noun חֶבְרָה (khevrah, “association; company”). The text then reads literally, “Jerusalem, which is built like a city which has a company together.” This in turn can be taken as a reference to Jerusalem’s role as a city where people congregated for religious festivals and other civic occasions (see vv. 4-5).
816 tn Or “went up.”
817 tn Heb “which is where the tribes go up.”
818 tn Heb “[it is] a statute for Israel to give thanks to the name of the
819 tn Or “for.”
820 tn Or “sat.”
821 tn Heb “Indeed, there they sit [on] thrones for judgment, [on] thrones [belonging] to the house of David.”
822 tn Heb “ask [for].”
823 tn Or “be secure.”
824 tn or “security.”
825 tn The psalmist uses second feminine singular pronominal forms to address personified Jerusalem.
826 tn Heb “I will seek good for you.” The psalmist will seek Jerusalem’s “good” through prayer.
828 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
829 tn Heb “I lift my eyes.”
831 sn Servants look to their master for food, shelter, and other basic needs.
832 tn Heb “for greatly we are filled [with] humiliation.”
833 tn Heb “greatly our soul is full to it.”
835 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
836 tn Heb “rose up against us.”
837 tn Or “stream.”
838 tn Heb “would have passed over.”
839 tn Heb “our being.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
840 tn Heb “then they would have passed over our being, the raging waters.”
841 tn Heb “blessed [be] the
842 tn Heb “[the one] who.”
843 tn Heb “our life escaped.”
844 tn Heb “our help [is] in the name of the
845 tn Or “Maker.”
847 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
849 tn Or “for.”
850 tn Heb “a scepter of wickedness.” The “scepter” symbolizes royal authority; when collocated with “wickedness” the phrase refers to an oppressive foreign conqueror.
851 tn Or “rest.”
852 tn Heb “so that the godly might not stretch out their hands in wrongdoing.” A wicked king who sets a sinful example can have an adverse moral and ethical effect on the people he rules.
853 tn Heb “pure of heart.” The “heart” is here viewed as the seat of one’s moral character and motives. The “pure of heart” are God’s faithful followers who trust in and love the
854 tn Heb “and the ones making their paths twisted.” A sinful lifestyle is compared to a twisting, winding road.
855 tn Heb “lead them away.” The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer here (note the prayers directly before and after this). Another option is to translate, “the
856 tn Heb “the workers of wickedness.”
859 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
860 tn Heb “turns with a turning [toward] his people.” The Hebrew noun שִׁיבַת (shivat) occurs only here in the OT. For this reason many prefer to emend the form to the more common שְׁבִית (shevit) or שְׁבוּת (shÿvut), both of which are used as a cognate accusative of שׁוּב (shuv; see Ps 14:7). However an Aramaic cognate of שְׁבִית appears in an eighth century
861 tn Heb “we were like dreamers.” This could mean the speakers were so overcome with ecstatic joy (see v. 3b) that they were like those who fantasize about pleasurable experiences in their sleep (see Isa 29:7-8). Since dreams are more commonly associated in the OT with prophetic visions, the community may be comparing their experience of God’s renewed favor to a prophet’s receiving divine visions. Just as a prophetic dream sweeps the individual into a different dimension and sometimes brings one face-to-face with God himself (see Gen 28:11-15; 1 Kgs 3:5-15), so the community was aware of God’s presence in a special way in the day of Zion’s restoration. Though the MT as it stands makes good sense, some choose to understand a homonymic root here meaning “to be healthy; to be strong” (see BDB 321 s.v. I חָלַם) and translate, “we were like those restored to health.” This reading appears to have the support of several ancient translations as well as 11QPsa. See L. C. Allen (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 170-71) for a discussion of the viewpoints.
862 tn Heb “then our mouth was filled with laughter, and our tongue with a shout.”
863 tn Heb “they said among the nations.”
864 tn Heb “like the streams in the Negev.”
sn The streams in the arid south. Y. Aharoni writes of the streams in the Negev: “These usually dry wadis collect water on rainy days from vast areas. The situation is also aggravated by floods from the desert mountains and southern Judah. For a day or two or, more frequently, for only a few hours they turn into dangerous torrents” (Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 26). God’s people were experiencing a “dry season” after a time of past blessing; they pray here for a “flash flood” of his renewed blessing. This does not imply that they are requesting only a brief display of God’s blessing. Rather the point of comparison is the suddenness with which the wadis swell during a rain, as well as the depth and power of these raging waters. The community desires a sudden display of divine favor in which God overwhelms them with blessings.
865 sn O. Borowski says regarding this passage: “The dependence on rain for watering plants, the uncertainty of the quantity and timing of the rains, and the possibility of crop failure due to pests and diseases appear to have kept the farmer in a gloomy mood during sowing” (Agriculture in Iron Age Israel, 54). Perhaps the people were experiencing a literal drought, the effects of which cause them to lament their plight as they plant their seed in hopes that the rain would come. However, most take the language as metaphorical. Like a farmer sowing his seed, the covenant community was enduring hardship as they waited for a new outpouring of divine blessing. Yet they are confident that a time of restoration will come and relieve their anxiety, just as the harvest brings relief and joy to the farmer.
869 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
870 sn The expression build a house may have a double meaning here. It may refer on the surface level to a literal physical structure in which a family lives, but at a deeper, metaphorical level it refers to building, perpetuating, and maintaining a family line. See Deut 25:9; Ruth 4:11; 1 Sam 2:35; 2 Sam 7:27; 1 Kgs 11:38; 1 Chr 17:10, 25. Having a family line provided security in ancient Israel.
871 sn The city symbolizes community security, which is the necessary framework for family security.
872 tn Heb “[it is] vain for you, you who are early to rise, who delay sitting, who eat the food of hard work.” The three substantival participles are parallel and stand in apposition to the pronominal suffix on the preposition. See לָכֶם (lakhem, “for you”).
874 tn Heb “he gives to his beloved, sleep.” The translation assumes that the Hebrew term שֵׁנָא (shena’, “sleep,” an alternate form of שֵׁנָה, shenah) is an adverbial accusative. The point seems to be this: Hard work by itself is not what counts, but one’s relationship to God, for God is able to bless an individual even while he sleeps. (There may even be a subtle allusion to the miracle of conception following sexual intercourse; see the reference to the gift of sons in the following verse.) The statement is not advocating laziness, but utilizing hyperbole to give perspective and to remind the addressees that God must be one’s first priority. Another option is to take “sleep” as the direct object: “yes, he gives sleep to his beloved” (cf. NIV, NRSV). In this case the point is this: Hard work by itself is futile, for only God is able to bless one with sleep, which metonymically refers to having one’s needs met. He blesses on the basis of one’s relationship to him, not on the basis of physical energy expended.
875 tn or “look.”
876 tn Some prefer to translate this term with the gender neutral “children,” but “sons” are plainly in view here, as the following verses make clear. Daughters are certainly wonderful additions to a family, but in ancient Israelite culture sons were the “arrows” that gave a man security in his old age, for they could defend the family interests at the city gate, where the legal and economic issues of the community were settled.
877 tn Heb “like arrows in the hand of a warrior, so [are] sons of youth.” Arrows are used in combat to defend oneself against enemies; sons are viewed here as providing social security and protection (see v. 5). The phrase “sons of youth” is elliptical, meaning “sons [born during the father’s] youth.” Such sons will have grown up to be mature adults and will have children of their own by the time the father reaches old age and becomes vulnerable to enemies. Contrast the phrase “son of old age” in Gen 37:3 (see also 44:20), which refers to Jacob’s age when Joseph was born.
878 tn Being “put to shame” is here metonymic for being defeated, probably in a legal context, as the reference to the city gate suggests. One could be humiliated (Ps 69:12) or deprived of justice (Amos 5:12) at the gate, but with strong sons to defend the family interests this was less likely to happen.
879 tn Heb “speak with.”
881 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
882 tn Heb “every fearer of the
883 tn Heb “the one who walks in his ways.”
884 tn The psalmist addresses the representative God-fearing man, as indicated by the references to “your wife” (v. 3) and “the man” (v. 4), as well as the second masculine singular pronominal and verbal forms in vv. 2-6.
885 tn Heb “the work of your hands, indeed you will eat.”
886 tn Heb “how blessed you [will be] and it will be good for you.”
887 sn The metaphor of the fruitful vine pictures the wife as fertile; she will give her husband numerous children (see the next line).
889 tn Heb “look, indeed thus will the man, the fearer of the
890 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer (note the imperatives that are subordinated to this clause in vv. 5b-6a). Having described the blessings that typically come to the godly, the psalmist concludes by praying that this ideal may become reality for the representative godly man being addressed.
891 tn The imperative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding jussive.
894 tn Heb “sons to your sons.”
897 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
898 tn The background of the metaphor is not entirely clear. Perhaps the “ropes” are those used to harness the ox for plowing (see Job 39:10). Verse 3 pictures the wicked plowing God’s people as if they were a field. But when God “cut the ropes” of their ox, as it were, they could no longer plow. The point of the metaphor seems to be that God took away the enemies’ ability to oppress his people. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 187.
899 tn The Hebrew verb שָׁלַף (shalaf) normally means “to draw [a sword]” or “to pull.” BDB 1025 s.v. suggests the meaning “to shoot up” here, but it is more likely that the verb here means “to pluck; to pull up,” a nuance attested for this word in later Hebrew and Aramaic (see Jastrow 1587 s.v. שָׁלַף).
900 tn The perfect verbal form is used for rhetorical effect; it describes an anticipated development as if it were already reality.
902 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
904 tn Heb “my voice.”
905 tn Heb “may your ears be attentive to the voice of.”
906 tn Heb “observe.”
907 tn The words “before you” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The psalmist must be referring to standing before God’s judgment seat. The rhetorical question expects the answer, “No one.”
908 tn Or “surely.”
909 tn Heb “for with you [there is] forgiveness.”
910 tn Or “consequently you are.”
911 tn Heb “feared.”
912 tn Or “wait for.”
913 tn Heb “my soul waits.”
914 tn Heb “his word.”
915 tn Heb “my soul for the master.”
916 tn Heb “more than watchmen for the morning, watchmen for the morning.” The words “yes, more” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
917 tn Heb “for with the
918 tn Heb “and abundantly with him [is] redemption.”
919 tn Or “redeem.”
920 tn The Hebrew noun עָוֹן (’avon) can refer to sin, the guilt sin produces, or the consequences of sin. Only here is the noun collocated with the verb פָּדָה (padah, “to redeem; to deliver”). The psalmist may refer to forgiveness per se (v. 4), but the emphasis in this context is likely on deliverance from the national consequences of sin. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 192.
922 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
923 tn Heb “and my eyes are not lifted up.”
924 tn Heb “I do not walk in great things, and in things too marvelous for me.”
925 tn Or “but.”
926 tn Heb “I make level and make quiet my soul.”
927 tn Heb “like a weaned [one] upon his mother.”
928 tn Heb “like the weaned [one] upon me, my soul.”
930 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
931 tn Heb “all his affliction.” This may refer to David’s strenuous and tireless efforts to make provision for the building of the temple (see 1 Chr 22:14). Some prefer to revocalize the text as עַנַוָתוֹ (’anavato, “his humility”).
932 tn Heb “the powerful [one] of Jacob.”
933 tn The words “he said” are supplied in the translation to clarify that what follows is David’s vow.
934 tn Heb “the tent of my house.”
935 tn Heb “go up upon the bed of my couch.”
937 tn Heb “the powerful [one] of Jacob.”
938 tn Rather than having an antecedent, the third feminine singular pronominal suffix here (and in the next line) appears to refer to the ark of the covenant, mentioned in v. 8. (The Hebrew term אָרוֹן [’aron, “ark”] is sometimes construed as grammatically feminine. See 1 Sam 4:17; 2 Chr 8:11.)
939 sn Some understand Ephrathah as a reference to Kiriath-jearim because of the apparent allusion to this site in the next line (see the note on “Jaar”). The ark was kept in Kiriath-jearim after the Philistines released it (see 1 Sam 6:21-7:2). However, the switch in verbs from “heard about” to “found” suggests that Ephrathah not be equated with Jair. The group who is speaking heard about the ark while they were in Ephrath. They then went to retrieve it from Kiriath-jearim (“Jaar”). It is more likely that Ephrathah refers to a site near Bethel (Gen 35:16, 19; 48:7) or to Bethlehem (Ruth 4:11; Mic 5:2).
940 tn Heb “fields of the forest.” The Hebrew term יָעַר (ya’ad, “forest”) is apparently a shortened alternative name for קִרְיַת יְעָרִים (qiryat yÿ’arim, “Kiriath-jearim”), the place where the ark was kept after it was released by the Philistines and from which David and his men retrieved it (see 1 Chr 13:6).
941 tn Or “bow down.”
942 tn Or “righteousness.”
943 tn Heb “do not turn away the face of your anointed one.”
944 tn Heb “the
945 tn Heb “he will not turn back from it.”
946 tn The words “he said” are supplied in the translation to clarify that what follows are the
947 tn Heb “the fruit of your body.”
948 tn Or “for.”
949 tn Heb “he desired it for his dwelling place.”
950 tn The words “he said” are added in the translation to clarify that what follows are the
951 tn Heb “for I desired it.”
952 tn Heb “I will greatly bless her provision.” The infinitive absolute is used to emphasize the verb.
953 tn Heb “her poor I will satisfy [with] food.”
954 tn Heb “and her priests I will clothe [with] deliverance.”
955 tn Heb “[with] shouting they will shout.” The infinitive absolute is used to emphasize the verb.
956 tn Heb “there I will cause a horn to sprout for David.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (cf. Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Pss 18:2; 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17). In the ancient Near East powerful warrior-kings would sometimes compare themselves to a goring bull that used its horns to kill its enemies. For examples, see P. Miller, “El the Warrior,” HTR 60 (1967): 422-25, and R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 135-36.
958 tn Heb “his enemies I will clothe [with] shame.”
960 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
961 sn This statement refers to the extended family structure of ancient Israel, where brothers would often live in proximity to one another (Deut 25:5), giving the family greater social prominence and security. However, in its later application in the Israelite cult it probably envisions unity within the covenant community. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 212-15.
962 tn Heb “[it is] like the good oil on the head, going down on the beard.”
963 tn Heb “which goes down in accordance with his measured things.” The Hebrew phrase מִדּוֹתָיו (middotayv, “his measured things”) refers here to the robes worn by Aaron. HALOT 546 s.v. *מַד derives the form from מַד (midah, “robe”) rather than מִדָּה (middah, “measured thing”). Ugaritic md means “robe” and is pluralized mdt.
964 sn Hermon refers to Mount Hermon, located north of Israel.
965 sn The hills of Zion are those surrounding Zion (see Pss 87:1; 125:2). The psalmist does not intend to suggest that the dew from Mt. Hermon in the distant north actually flows down upon Zion. His point is that the same kind of heavy dew that replenishes Hermon may also be seen on Zion’s hills. See A. Cohen, Psalms (SoBB), 439. “Dew” here symbolizes divine blessing, as the next line suggests.
966 tn Or “for.”
967 tn Heb “there the
969 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
970 tn Heb “Look!”
971 tn Heb “stand.”
973 tn Heb “may the
975 tn Heb “stand.”
977 tn Or “for.”
979 tn Or “for.”
982 tn Or “is forever.”
984 tn Heb “judges,” but here the idea is that the
986 tn Heb “the work of the hands of man.”
987 tn Heb “indeed, there is not breath in their mouth.” For the collocation אַף אֵין (’af ’en, “indeed, there is not”) see Isa 41:26. Another option is to take אַף as “nose” (see Ps 115:6), in which case one might translate, “a nose, [but] they have no breath in their mouths.”
988 tn Heb “will be.” Another option is to take the prefixed verbal form as a prayer, “may those who make them end up like them.”
sn Because the idols are lifeless, they cannot help their worshipers in times of crisis. Consequently the worshipers end up as dead as the gods in which they trust.
989 tn Heb “house” (here and in the next two lines).
990 tn Heb “fearers.”
991 tn Heb “praised be the
993 sn Psalm 136. In this hymn the psalmist affirms that God is praiseworthy because of his enduring loyal love, sovereign authority, and compassion. Each verse of the psalm concludes with the refrain “for his loyal love endures.”
994 tn Or “is forever.”
995 tn Or “cut.”
996 tn Heb “Reed Sea” (also in v. 15). “Reed Sea” (or “Sea of Reeds”) is a more accurate rendering of the Hebrew expression יָם סוּף (yam suf), traditionally translated “Red Sea.” See the note on the term “Red Sea” in Exod 13:18.
997 tn Heb “into pieces.”
998 tn Or “shook off.”
999 tn Heb “who, in our low condition, remembered us.”
1000 tn Heb “to all flesh,” which can refer to all people (see Pss 65:2; 145:21) or more broadly to mankind and animals. Elsewhere the psalms view God as the provider for all living things (see Pss 104:27-28; 145:15).
1002 tn Heb “there we sit down, also we weep.”
1003 tn Heb “ask us [for] the words of a song.”
1004 tn Heb “our [?] joy.” The derivation and meaning of the Hebrew phrase תוֹלָלֵינוּ (tolalenu, “our [?]”) are uncertain. A derivation from תָּלַל (talal, “to mock”) fits contextually, but this root occurs only in the Hiphil stem. For a discussion of various proposals, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 236.
1005 tn Heb “from a song of Zion.” Most modern translations read, “one of the songs of Zion,” taking the preposition מִן (min, “from”) as partitive and “song” as collective. The present translation assumes the mem (ם) is enclitic, being misunderstood later as the prefixed preposition.
1006 tn Heb “may my right hand forget.” In this case one must supply an object, such as “how to move.” The elliptical nature of the text has prompted emendations (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 236). The translation assumes an emendation to תִּכְשַׁח (tikhshakh), from an otherwise unattested root כשׁח, meaning “to be crippled; to be lame.” See HALOT 502 s.v. כשׁח, which cites Arabic cognate evidence in support of the proposal. The corruption of the MT can be explained as an error of transposition facilitated by the use of שָׁכַח (shakhakh, “forget”) just before this.
1007 tn Heb “if I do not lift up Jerusalem over the top of my joy.”
1008 tn Heb “remember, O
1009 tn Heb “lay [it] bare, lay [it] bare.”
1010 tn Heb “O devastated daughter of Babylon.” The psalmist dramatically anticipates Babylon’s demise.
1011 tn Heb “O the happiness of the one who repays you your wage which you paid to us.”
1014 tn The referent of the Hebrew term אֱלֹהִים (’elohim) is unclear. It refers either to the angelic assembly (see Gen 3:5; Ps 8:5) or to the pagan gods (see Pss 82:1, 6; 86:8; 97:7), in which case the psalmist’s praise takes on a polemical tone.
1015 tc The MT reads, “for you have made great over all your name your word.” If retained, this must mean that God's mighty intervention, in fulfillment of his word of promise, surpassed anything he had done prior to this. However, the statement is odd and several emendations have been proposed. Some read, “for you have exalted over everything your name and your word,” while others suggest, “for you have exalted over all the heavens your name and your word.” The translation assumes an emendation of “your name” to “your heavens” (a construction that appears in Pss 8:3 and 144:5). The point is that God has been faithful to his promise and the reliability of that promise is apparent to all. For a fuller discussion of these options, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 244.
1016 tn Heb “in the day.”
1017 tn Heb “you made me bold in my soul [with] strength.”
1018 tn The prefixed verbal forms here and in the following verse are understood as jussives, for the psalmist appears to be calling upon the kings to praise God. Another option is to take them as imperfects and translate, “the kings of the earth will give thanks…and will sing.” In this case the psalmist anticipates a universal response to his thanksgiving song.
1019 tn Heb “the words of your mouth.”
1020 tn Heb “ways.”
1021 tn Heb “great.”
1022 tn Or “distress.”
1023 tn Heb “against the anger of my enemies you extend your hand.”
1024 tn Heb “avenges on my behalf.” For the meaning “to avenge” for the verb גָּמַר (gamar), see HALOT 197-98 s.v. גמר.
1025 tn Heb “the works of your hands.” Many medieval Hebrew
1027 tn The statement is understood as generalizing – the psalmist describes what God typically does.
1028 tn Heb “my traveling and my lying down you measure.” The verb זָרָה (zarah, “to measure”) is probably here a denominative from זָרָת (zarat, “a span; a measure”), though some derive it from זָרָה (zarat, “to winnow; to sift”; see BDB 279-80 s.v. זָרָה).
1029 tn Heb “all my ways.”
1030 tn Or “for.”
1031 tn Heb “look, O
1032 tn Heb “too amazing [is this] knowledge for me, it is elevated, I cannot attain to it.”
1033 tn Heb “Where can I go from your spirit, and where from your face can I flee?” God’s “spirit” may refer here (1) to his presence (note the parallel term, “your face,” and see Ps 104:29-30, where God’s “face” is his presence and his “spirit” is the life-giving breath he imparts) or (2) to his personal Spirit (see Ps 51:10).
1034 tn The Hebrew verb סָלַק (salaq, “to ascend”) occurs only here in the OT, but the word is well-attested in Aramaic literature from different time periods and displays a wide semantic range (see DNWSI 2:788-90).
1035 tn Heb “look, you.”
1036 tn Heb “rise up.”
1037 sn On the wings of the dawn. This personification of the “dawn” may find its roots in mythological traditions about the god Shachar, whose birth is described in an Ugaritic myth (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 126) and who is mentioned in Isa 14:12 as the father of Helel.
1038 tn Heb “at the end.”
1039 tn The Hebrew verb שׁוּף (shuf), which means “to crush; to wound,” in Gen 3:15 and Job 9:17, is problematic here. For a discussion of attempts to relate the verb to Arabic roots, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 251. Many emend the form to יְשׂוּכֵּנִי (yesukkeniy), from the root שׂכך (“to cover,” an alternate form of סכך), a reading assumed in the present translation.
1040 tn Heb “and night, light, around me.”
1041 tn The words “to see” are supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
1042 tn Heb “shines like.”
1043 tn Heb “like darkness, like light.”
1044 tn Or “for.”
1045 tn Heb “my kidneys.” The kidneys were sometimes viewed as the seat of one’s emotions and moral character (cf. Pss 7:9; 26:2). A number of translations, recognizing that “kidneys” does not communicate this idea to the modern reader, have generalized the concept: “inmost being” (NAB, NIV); “inward parts” (NASB, NRSV); “the delicate, inner parts of my body” (NLT). In the last instance, the focus is almost entirely on the physical body rather than the emotions or moral character. The present translation, by using a hendiadys (one concept expressed through two terms), links the concepts of emotion (heart) and moral character (mind).
1047 tc Heb “because awesome things, I am distinct, amazing [are] your works.” The text as it stands is syntactically problematic and makes little, if any, sense. The Niphal of פָּלָה (pala’) occurs elsewhere only in Exod 33:16. Many take the form from פָלָא (pala’; see GKC 216 §75.qq), which in the Niphal perfect means “to be amazing” (see 2 Sam 1:26; Ps 118:23; Prov 30:18). Some, following the LXX and some other ancient witnesses, also prefer to emend the verb from first to second person, “you are amazing” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 249, 251). The present translation assumes the text conflates two variants: נפלאים, the otherwise unattested masculine plural participle of פָלָא, and נִפְלָאוֹת (nifla’ot), the usual (feminine) plural form of the Niphal participle. The latter has been changed to a verb by later scribes in an attempt to accommodate it syntactically. The original text likely read, נוראות נפלאותים מעשׂיך (“your works [are] awesome [and] amazing”).
1048 tc Heb “and my being knows very much.” Better parallelism is achieved (see v. 15a) if one emends יֹדַעַת (yoda’at), a Qal active participle, feminine singular form, to יָדַעְתָּ (yada’ta), a Qal perfect second masculine singular perfect. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 252.
1049 tc The Hebrew term אֲשֶׁר (’asher, “which”) should probably be emended to כֲּאַשֶׁר (ka’asher, “when”). The kaf (כ) may have been lost by haplography (note the kaf at the end of the preceding form).
1050 sn The phrase depths of the earth may be metaphorical (euphemistic) or it may reflect a prescientific belief about the origins of the embryo deep beneath the earth’s surface (see H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 96-97). Job 1:21 also closely associates the mother’s womb with the earth.
1051 tn Heb “Your eyes saw my shapeless form.” The Hebrew noun גֹּלֶם (golem) occurs only here in the OT. In later Hebrew the word refers to “a lump, a shapeless or lifeless substance,” and to “unfinished matter, a vessel wanting finishing” (Jastrow 222 s.v. גּוֹלֶם). The translation employs the dynamic rendering “when I was inside the womb” to clarify that the speaker was still in his mother’s womb at the time he was “seen” by God.
1052 tn Heb “and on your scroll all of them were written, [the] days [which] were formed, and [there was] not one among them.” This “scroll” may be the “scroll of life” mentioned in Ps 69:28 (see the note on the word “living” there).
1053 tn Heb “and to me how precious are your thoughts, O God.” The Hebrew verb יָקַר (yaqar) probably has the sense of “difficult [to comprehend]” here (see HALOT 432 s.v. יקר qal.1 and note the use of Aramaic יַקִּר in Dan 2:11). Elsewhere in the immediate context the psalmist expresses his amazement at the extent of God’s knowledge about him (see vv. 1-6, 17b-18).
1054 tn Heb “how vast are their heads.” Here the Hebrew word “head” is used of the “sum total” of God’s knowledge of the psalmist.
1055 tc Heb “I awake and I [am] still with you.” A reference to the psalmist awaking from sleep makes little, if any, sense contextually. For this reason some propose an emendation to הֲקִצּוֹתִי (haqitsoti), a Hiphil perfect form from an otherwise unattested verb קָצַץ (qatsats) understood as a denominative of קֵץ (qets, “end”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 252-53.
1057 tn Heb “men of bloodshed.”
1058 tn Heb “who.”
1059 tc Heb “they speak [of] you.” The suffixed form of the verb אָמַר (’amar, “to speak”) is peculiar. The translation assumes an emendation to יַמְרֻךָ (yamrukha), a Hiphil form from מָרָה (marah, “to rebel”; see Ps 78:40).
1060 tn Heb “by deceit.”
1061 tc Heb “lifted up for emptiness, your cities.” The Hebrew text as it stands makes no sense. The form נָשֻׂא (nasu’; a Qal passive participle) should be emended to נָשְׂאוּ (nosÿu; a Qal perfect, third common plural, “[they] lift up”). Many emend עָרֶיךָ (’arekha, “your cities”) to עָלֶיךָ (’alekha, “against you”), but it is preferable to understand the noun as an Aramaism and translate “your enemies” (see Dan 4:16 and L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 253).
1062 tc Heb “who raise themselves up against you.” The form וּבִתְקוֹמְמֶיךָ (uvitqomÿmekha) should be emended to וּבְמִתְקוֹמְמֶיךָ (uvÿmitqomÿmekha), a Hitpolel participle (the prefixed mem [מ] of the participle is accidentally omitted in the MT, though a few medieval Hebrew
1063 tn Heb “[with] completeness of hatred I hate them.”
1064 tn Heb “and know my heart.”
1066 tn Many understand the Hebrew term עֹצֶב (’otsev) as a noun meaning “pain,” and translate the phrase דֶּרֶךְ עֹצֶב (derekh ’otsev) as “of pain,” but this makes little sense here. (Some interpret it to refer to actions which bring pain to others.) It is preferable to take עֹצֶב as “idol” (see HALOT 865 s.v. I עֹצֶב) and understand “way of an idol” to refer to idolatrous actions or tendency. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 253.
1067 tn Heb “in the path of antiquity.” This probably refers to the moral path prescribed by the
1071 tn Heb “they devise wicked [plans] in [their] mind.”
1072 tc Heb “they attack [for] war.” Some revocalize the verb (which is a Qal imperfect from גּוּר, gur, “to attack”) as יְגָרוּ (yÿgaru), a Piel imperfect from גָרָה (garah, “stir up strife”). This is followed in the present translation.
1073 tn Heb “they sharpen their tongue like a serpent.” Ps 64:3 reads, “they sharpen their tongues like sword.” Perhaps Ps 140:3 uses a mixed metaphor, the point being that “they sharpen their tongues [like a sword],” as it were, so that when they speak, their words wound like a serpent’s bite. Another option is that the language refers to the pointed or forked nature of a serpent’s tongue, which is viewed metaphorically as “sharpened.”
1074 tn The Hebrew term is used only here in the OT.
1075 tn Heb “under.”
1076 tn Heb “hands.”
1077 tn Heb “to push down my steps.”
1078 tn Heb “and ropes,” but many prefer to revocalize the noun as a participle (חֹבְלִים, khovÿlim) from the verb חָבַל (khaval, “act corruptly”).
1079 tn Heb “the strength of my deliverance.”
1080 tn Heb “cover.”
1081 tn Heb “do not grant the desires of the wicked.”
1083 tn Heb “his plot do not promote, they rise up.” The translation understands the final verb as being an unmarked temporal clause. Another option is to revocalize the verb as a Hiphil and take the verb with the next verse, “those who surround me lift up [their] head,” which could refer to their proud attitude as they anticipate victory (see Ps 27:6).
1084 tn Heb “harm of their lips.” The genitive here indicates the source or agent of the harm.
1085 tn The verb form in the Kethib (consonantal Hebrew text) appears to be a Hiphil imperfect from the root מוּט (mut, “to sway”), but the Hiphil occurs only here and in Ps 55:3, where it is preferable to read יַמְטִירוּ (yamtiru, “they rain down”). In Ps 140:10 the form יַמְטֵר (yamter, “let him rain down”) should probably be read.
1086 tn Heb “into bottomless pits, they will not arise.” The translation assumes that the preposition -בְּ (bet) has the nuance “from” here. Another option is to connect the line with what precedes, take the final clause as an asyndetic relative clause, and translate, “into bottomless pits [from which] they cannot arise.” The Hebrew noun מַהֲמֹרָה (mahamorah, “bottomless pit”) occurs only here in the OT.
1087 tn Heb “a man of a tongue.”
1088 tn Heb “be established in.”
1089 tn Heb “for blows.” The Hebrew noun מַדְחֵפֹה (madkhefoh, “blow”) occurs only here in the OT.
1090 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew
1091 tn Heb “and the just cause of the poor.”
1093 tn Heb “may my prayer be established [like] incense before you, the uplifting of my hands [like] an evening offering.”
1094 tn Heb “door.” The Hebrew word occurs only here in the OT.
1095 sn My mouth…my lips. The psalmist asks God to protect him from speaking inappropriately or sinfully.
1096 tn Heb “do not turn my heart toward an evil thing.”
1097 tn Heb “to act sinfully in practices in wickedness with men, doers of evil.”
1098 sn Their delicacies. This probably refers to the enjoyment that a sinful lifestyle appears to offer.
1099 tn The form יָנִי (yaniy) appears to be derived from the verbal root נוּא (nu’). Another option is to emend the form to יְנָא (yÿna’), a Piel from נָאָה (na’ah), and translate “may choice oil not adorn my head” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 271). In this case, choice oil, like delicacies in v. 4, symbolize the pleasures of sin.
1100 sn May my head not refuse choice oil. The psalmist compares the constructive criticism of the godly (see the previous line) to having refreshing olive oil poured over one’s head.
1101 tc Heb “for still, and my prayer [is] against their evil deeds.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult; the sequence -כִּי־עוֹד וּ (kiy-’od u-, “for still and”) occurs only here. The translation assumes an emendation to כִּי עֵד תְפלָּתִי (“indeed a witness [is] my prayer”). The psalmist’s lament about the evil actions of sinful men (see v. 4) testifies against the wicked in the divine court.
1102 tn Heb “they are thrown down by the hands of a cliff, their judges.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult and the meaning uncertain. The perfect verbal form is understood as rhetorical; the psalmist describes the anticipated downfall of the wicked as if it had already occurred. “Their judges” could be taken as the subject of the verb, but this makes little, if any, sense. The translation assumes the judges are the agents and that the wicked, mentioned earlier in the psalm, are the subjects of the verb.
1103 tn It is unclear how this statement relates to the preceding sentence. Perhaps the judges are the referent of the pronominal subject (“they”) of the verb “will listen,” and “my words” are the referent of the pronominal subject (“they”) of the phrase “are pleasant.” The psalmist may be affirming here his confidence that he will be vindicated when he presents his case before the judges, while the wicked will be punished.
1104 tn Heb “like splitting and breaking open in the earth.” The meaning of the statement and the point of the comparison are not entirely clear. Perhaps the psalmist is suggesting that he and other godly individuals are as good as dead; their bones are scattered about like dirt that is dug up and tossed aside.
1105 tn Heb “my eyes [are] toward you.”
1106 tn Heb “do not lay bare my life.” Only here is the Piel form of the verb collocated with the term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “life”). In Isa 53:12 the Lord’s servant “lays bare (the Hiphil form of the verb is used) his life to death.”
1107 tn Heb “and the traps of the doers of evil.”
1108 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer. Another option is to translate, “the wicked will fall.”
1109 tn Heb “his.”
1110 tn Heb “at the same [that] I, until I pass by.” Another option is to take יַחַד (yakhad) with the preceding line, “let the wicked fall together into their own nets.”
1112 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
1113 sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm while in “the cave.” This probably refers to either the incident recorded in 1 Sam 22:1 or to the one recorded in 1 Sam 24:3. See the superscription of Ps 57.
1114 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the
1115 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the
1116 tn Heb “my trouble before him I declare.”
1117 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”
1118 tn Heb “you know my path.”
1119 tn Heb “there is no one who recognizes me.”
1120 tn Heb “ a place of refuge perishes from me.”
1121 tn Heb “there is no one who seeks for the sake of my life.”
1122 tn Heb “my portion.” The psalmist compares the
1123 tn Heb “for I am very low.”
1124 tn Heb “bring out my life.”
1125 tn Or “gather around.”
1126 tn The Hebrew idiom גָּמַל עַל (gamal ’al) means “to repay,” here in a positive sense.
1128 tn Heb “do not enter into judgment with.”
1129 tn Heb “for no one living is innocent before you.”
1130 tn Or “for.”
1132 tn Heb “he crushes on the ground my life.”
1133 tn Or “sit.”
1135 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”
1137 tn Or “ancient times”; Heb “days from before.”
1138 tn Heb “the work of your hands.”
1139 tn The words “in prayer” are supplied in the translation to clarify that the psalmist is referring to a posture of prayer.
1141 tc Heb “my soul like a faint land for you.” A verb (perhaps “thirsts”) is implied (see Ps 63:1). The translation assumes an emendation of the preposition -כְּ (kÿ, “like”) to -בְּ (bÿ, “in,” see Ps 63:1; cf. NEB “athirst for thee in a thirsty land”). If the MT is retained, one might translate, “my soul thirsts for you, as a parched land does for water/rain” (cf. NIV, NRSV).
1142 tn Heb “my spirit is failing.”
1144 tn Heb “I will be equal with.”
1146 tn Heb “cause me to hear in the morning your loyal love.” Here “loyal love” probably stands metonymically for an oracle of assurance promising God’s intervention as an expression of his loyal love.
sn The morning is sometimes viewed as the time of divine intervention (see Pss 30:5; 59:16; 90:14).
1148 tn Heb “for to you I lift up my life.” The Hebrew expression נָאָשׂ נֶפֶשׁ (na’as nefesh, “to lift up [one’s] life”) means “to desire; to long for” (see Deut 24:15; Prov 19:18; Jer 22:27; 44:14; Hos 4:8, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 16).
1149 tn Heb “to you I cover,” which makes no sense. The translation assumes an emendation to נַסְתִּי (nastiy, “I flee,” a Qal perfect, first singular form from נוּס, nos). Confusion of kaf (כ) and nun (נ) is attested elsewhere (see P. K. McCarter, Textual Criticism [GBS], 48). The collocation of נוּס (“flee”) with אֶל (’el, “to”) is well-attested.
1154 tn Heb “name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.
1156 tn Heb “by your justice bring out my life from trouble.”
1157 tn Heb “in [or “by”] your faithfulness.”
1158 tn The perfect with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the mood of the preceding imperfect.
1159 tn Heb “all the enemies of my life.”
1160 sn Psalm 144. The psalmist expresses his confidence in God, asks for a mighty display of divine intervention in an upcoming battle, and anticipates God’s rich blessings on the nation in the aftermath of military victory.
1162 tn Heb “blessed [be] the
1163 sn The one who trains my hands for battle. The psalmist attributes his skill with weapons to divine enablement (see Ps 18:34). Egyptian reliefs picture gods teaching the king how to shoot a bow. See O. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 265.
1165 tn Or “my elevated place.”
1166 tn Heb “the one who subdues nations beneath me.”
1168 tn Heb “and the son of man.” The phrase “son of man” is used here in a collective sense and refers to human beings. For other uses of the phrase in a collective or representative manner, see Num 23:19; Ps 146:3; Isa 51:12.
1170 tn Heb “man,” or “mankind.”
1172 tn The Hebrew verb נָטָה (natah) can carry the sense “to [cause to] bend; to [cause to] bow down.” For example, Gen 49:15 pictures Issachar as a donkey that “bends” its shoulder or back under a burden. Here the
1174 tn Heb “so they might smolder.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose after the preceding imperative.
1175 sn Arrows and lightning bolts are associated in other texts (see Pss 18:14; 77:17-18; Zech 9:14), as well as in ancient Near Eastern art (see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” [Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983], 187).
1176 tn Heb “stretch out your hands.”
1178 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”
1179 tn Heb “who [with] their mouth speak falsehood, and their right hand is a right hand of falsehood.” The reference to the “right hand” is probably a metonymy for an oath. When making an oath, one would raise the hand as a solemn gesture. See Exod 6:8; Num 14:30; Deut 32:40. The figure thus represents the making of false oaths (false promises).
1180 tn Heb “grants deliverance to.”
1181 tn Heb “harmful.”
1182 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”
1184 tn Some consider אֲשֶׁר (’asher) problematic, but here it probably indicates the anticipated consequence of the preceding request. (For other examples of אֲשֶׁר indicating purpose/result, see BDB 83 s.v. and HALOT 99 s.v.) If the psalmist – who appears to be a Davidic king preparing to fight a battle (see vv. 10-11) – is victorious, the whole nation will be spared invasion and defeat (see v. 14) and can flourish. Some prefer to emend the form to אַשְׁרֵי (“how blessed [are our sons]”). A suffixed noun sometimes follows אַשְׁרֵי (’ashrey; see 1 Kgs 10:8; Prov 20:7), but the presence of a comparative element (see “like plants”) after the suffixed noun makes the proposed reading too awkward syntactically.
1185 tn Heb “grown up in their youth.” The translation assumes that “grown up” modifies “plants” (just as “carved” modifies “corner pillars” in the second half of the verse). Another option is to take “grown up” as a predicate in relation to “our sons,” in which case one might translate, “they will be strapping youths.”
1187 tn Heb “carved [in] the pattern of a palace.”
1188 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here.
1189 tn Heb “from kind to kind.” Some prefer to emend the text to מָזוֹן עַל מָזוֹן (mazon ’al mazon, “food upon food”).
1190 tn Heb “they are innumerable.”
1192 tn Heb “weighted down.” This probably refers (1) to the cattle having the produce from the harvest placed on their backs to be transported to the storehouses (see BDB 687 s.v. סָבַל). Other options are (2) to take this as reference to the cattle being pregnant (see HALOT 741 s.v. סבל pu) or (3) to their being well-fed or fattened (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 288).
1193 tn Heb “there [will be] no breach, and there [will be] no going out, and there [will be] no crying out in our broad places.”
1194 tn Heb “[O] the happiness of the people who [it is] such to them.”
1196 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”
1197 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”
1198 tn Heb “and concerning his greatness there is no searching.”
1199 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 4 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may one generation praise…and tell about.”
1200 tn Heb “the splendor of the glory of your majesty, and the matters of your amazing deeds I will ponder.”
1201 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as an imperfect, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as a jussive, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they proclaim.”
1202 tn Heb “the fame of the greatness of your goodness.”
1203 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 7 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they talk…and sing.”
1206 tn Heb “and his compassion is over all his works.”
1207 tn Heb “the sons of man.”
1208 tn Heb “a kingdom of all ages.”
1209 tc Psalm 145 is an acrostic psalm, with each successive verse beginning with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet. However, in the traditional Hebrew (Masoretic) text of Psalm 145 there is no verse beginning with the letter nun. One would expect such a verse to appear as the fourteenth verse, between the mem (מ) and samek (ס) verses. Several ancient witnesses, including one medieval Hebrew manuscript, the Qumran scroll from cave 11, the LXX, and the Syriac, supply the missing nun (נ) verse, which reads as follows: “The Lord is reliable in all his words, and faithful in all his deeds.” One might paraphrase this as follows: “The Lord’s words are always reliable; his actions are always faithful.” Scholars are divided as to the originality of this verse. L. C. Allen argues for its inclusion on the basis of structural considerations (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 294-95), but there is no apparent explanation for why, if original, it would have been accidentally omitted. The psalm may be a partial acrostic, as in Pss 25 and 34 (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 3:335). The glaring omission of the nun line would have invited a later redactor to add such a line.
1211 tn Heb “the eyes of all wait for you.”
1213 tn Heb “[with what they] desire.”
1214 tn Heb “in all his ways.”
1215 tn Heb “and [is] loving in all his deeds.”
1216 tn Heb “in truth.”
1217 tn In this context “desire” refers to the followers’ desire to be delivered from wicked enemies.
1218 tn Heb “the desire of those who fear him, he does.”
1219 tn Heb “the praise of the
1220 tn Heb “all flesh.”
1222 tn Heb “in a son of man, to whom there is no deliverance.”
1224 tn Heb “the one who guards faithfulness forever.”
1225 tn Heb “executes justice for the oppressed.”
1227 sn God is depicted here as a just ruler. In the ancient Near Eastern world a king was responsible for promoting justice, including caring for the weak and vulnerable, epitomized by resident aliens, the fatherless, and widows.
1228 tn Heb “he makes the way of the wicked twisted.” The “way of the wicked” probably refers to their course of life (see Prov 4:19; Jer 12:1). God makes their path tortuous in the sense that he makes them pay the harmful consequences of their actions.
1229 tn Heb “for a generation and a generation.”
1231 tn Or “for.”
1233 tn Heb “the one who heals.”
1234 tn Heb “and great of strength.”
1235 tn Heb “to his wisdom there is no counting.”
1236 tn Heb “brings down.”
1237 tn Heb “sing to the
1238 tn Heb “the one who covers.”
1239 tn Heb “hills.”
1240 tn Heb “which cry out.”
1241 tn Heb “he does not desire the strength of the horse, he does not take delight in the legs of the man.” Here “the horse” refers to the war horse used by ancient Near Eastern chariot forces, and “the man” refers to the warrior whose muscular legs epitomize his strength.
1242 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
1243 tn Heb “your sons.”
1244 tn Heb “the one who.”
1245 tn Heb “he makes your boundary peace.”
1246 tn Heb “satisfies you with.”
1247 tn Heb “the one who.”
1248 tn Heb “the one who sends his word, the earth.” The Hebrew term אֶרֶץ (’erets, “earth”) is an adverbial accusative; one must supply a preposition before it (such as “through” or “to”) in the English translation.
1249 tn Heb “swiftly his word runs.”
1250 tn Heb “the one who gives snow like wool, frost like ashes he scatters.”
1251 tn Heb “his ice.”
1252 tn Heb “Before his cold, who can stand?”
1253 tn Heb “he sends his word and melts them.”
1254 tn Heb “he blows his breath.”
1256 tn Or “heavenly messengers.”
1257 tn Heb “all his host.”
1258 tn Heb “stars of light.”
1259 sn The “water” mentioned here corresponds to the “waters above” mentioned in Gen 1:7. See also Ps 104:3. For a discussion of the picture envisioned by the psalmist, see L. I. J. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World, 47.
1260 tn Or “forever and ever.”
1261 tn Heb “and it will not pass away.”
1263 tn Heb “[that] does his word.”
1264 tn Or “judges.”
1265 tn Heb “and he lifted up a horn for his people.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 75:10; 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17). Another option is to take the “horn” as a symbol for the Davidic king, through whom the
1266 tn “[there is] praise for all his loyal followers, to the sons of Israel, the people near him.” Here “praise” stands by metonymy for the victory that prompts it.
1268 tn Heb “his praise in the assembly of the godly ones.”
1269 tn Heb “sons.”
1270 sn The
1271 tn Heb “he honors the oppressed [with] deliverance.”
1273 tn The significance of the reference to “beds” is unclear. Perhaps the point is that they should rejoice at all times, even when falling asleep or awaking.
1274 tn Heb “[May] praises of God [be] in their throat, and a two-edged sword in their hand.”
1275 tn Heb “to do.”
1276 tn Heb “to bind.”
1277 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the enemies of the people of God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
1278 tn Heb “to do against them judgment [that] is written.”
1281 tn Heb “the sky of his strength.”