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Psalms 101:1--150:6

Context
Psalm 101 1 

A psalm of David.

101:1 I will sing about loyalty and justice!

To you, O Lord, I will sing praises!

101:2 I will walk in 2  the way of integrity.

When will you come to me?

I will conduct my business with integrity in the midst of my palace. 3 

101:3 I will not even consider doing what is dishonest. 4 

I hate doing evil; 5 

I will have no part of it. 6 

101:4 I will have nothing to do with a perverse person; 7 

I will not permit 8  evil.

101:5 I will destroy anyone who slanders his neighbor in secret.

I will not tolerate anyone who has a cocky demeanor and an arrogant attitude. 9 

101:6 I will favor the honest people of the land, 10 

and allow them to live with me. 11 

Those who walk in the way of integrity will attend me. 12 

101:7 Deceitful people will not live in my palace. 13 

Liars will not be welcome in my presence. 14 

101:8 Each morning I will destroy all the wicked people in the land,

and remove all evildoers from the city of the Lord.

Psalm 102 15 

The prayer of an oppressed man, as he grows faint and pours out his lament before the Lord.

102:1 O Lord, hear my prayer!

Pay attention to my cry for help! 16 

102:2 Do not ignore me in my time of trouble! 17 

Listen to me! 18 

When I call out to you, quickly answer me!

102:3 For my days go up in smoke, 19 

and my bones are charred like a fireplace. 20 

102:4 My heart is parched 21  and withered like grass,

for I am unable 22  to eat food. 23 

102:5 Because of the anxiety that makes me groan,

my bones protrude from my skin. 24 

102:6 I am like an owl 25  in the wilderness;

I am like a screech owl 26  among the ruins. 27 

102:7 I stay awake; 28 

I am like a solitary bird on a roof.

102:8 All day long my enemies taunt me;

those who mock me use my name in their curses. 29 

102:9 For I eat ashes as if they were bread, 30 

and mix my drink with my tears, 31 

102:10 because of your anger and raging fury.

Indeed, 32  you pick me up and throw me away.

102:11 My days are coming to an end, 33 

and I am withered like grass.

102:12 But you, O Lord, rule forever, 34 

and your reputation endures. 35 

102:13 You will rise up and have compassion on Zion. 36 

For it is time to have mercy on her,

for the appointed time has come.

102:14 Indeed, 37  your servants take delight in her stones,

and feel compassion for 38  the dust of her ruins. 39 

102:15 The nations will respect the reputation of the Lord, 40 

and all the kings of the earth will respect 41  his splendor,

102:16 when the Lord rebuilds Zion,

and reveals his splendor,

102:17 when he responds to the prayer of the destitute, 42 

and does not reject 43  their request. 44 

102:18 The account of his intervention 45  will be recorded for future generations;

people yet to be born will praise the Lord.

102:19 For he will look down from his sanctuary above; 46 

from heaven the Lord will look toward earth, 47 

102:20 in order to hear the painful cries of the prisoners,

and to set free those condemned to die, 48 

102:21 so they may proclaim the name of the Lord in Zion,

and praise him 49  in Jerusalem, 50 

102:22 when the nations gather together,

and the kingdoms pay tribute to the Lord. 51 

102:23 He has taken away my strength in the middle of life; 52 

he has cut short my days.

102:24 I say, “O my God, please do not take me away in the middle of my life! 53 

You endure through all generations. 54 

102:25 In earlier times you established the earth;

the skies are your handiwork.

102:26 They will perish,

but you will endure. 55 

They will wear out like a garment;

like clothes you will remove them and they will disappear. 56 

102:27 But you remain; 57 

your years do not come to an end.

102:28 The children of your servants will settle down here,

and their descendants 58  will live securely in your presence.” 59 

Psalm 103 60 

By David.

103:1 Praise the Lord, O my soul!

With all that is within me, praise 61  his holy name!

103:2 Praise the Lord, O my soul!

Do not forget all his kind deeds! 62 

103:3 He is the one who forgives all your sins,

who heals all your diseases, 63 

103:4 who delivers 64  your life from the Pit, 65 

who crowns you with his loyal love and compassion,

103:5 who satisfies your life with good things, 66 

so your youth is renewed like an eagle’s. 67 

103:6 The Lord does what is fair,

and executes justice for all the oppressed. 68 

103:7 The Lord revealed his faithful acts 69  to Moses,

his deeds to the Israelites.

103:8 The Lord is compassionate and merciful;

he is patient 70  and demonstrates great loyal love. 71 

103:9 He does not always accuse,

and does not stay angry. 72 

103:10 He does not deal with us as our sins deserve; 73 

he does not repay us as our misdeeds deserve. 74 

103:11 For as the skies are high above the earth,

so his loyal love towers 75  over his faithful followers. 76 

103:12 As far as the eastern horizon 77  is from the west, 78 

so he removes the guilt of our rebellious actions 79  from us.

103:13 As a father has compassion on his children, 80 

so the Lord has compassion on his faithful followers. 81 

103:14 For he knows what we are made of; 82 

he realizes 83  we are made of clay. 84 

103:15 A person’s life is like grass. 85 

Like a flower in the field it flourishes,

103:16 but when the hot wind 86  blows by, it disappears,

and one can no longer even spot the place where it once grew.

103:17 But the Lord continually shows loyal love to his faithful followers, 87 

and is faithful to their descendants, 88 

103:18 to those who keep his covenant,

who are careful to obey his commands. 89 

103:19 The Lord has established his throne in heaven;

his kingdom extends over everything. 90 

103:20 Praise the Lord, you angels of his,

you powerful warriors who carry out his decrees

and obey his orders! 91 

103:21 Praise the Lord, all you warriors of his, 92 

you servants of his who carry out his desires! 93 

103:22 Praise the Lord, all that he has made, 94 

in all the regions 95  of his kingdom!

Praise the Lord, O my soul!

Psalm 104 96 

104:1 Praise the Lord, O my soul!

O Lord my God, you are magnificent. 97 

You are robed in splendor and majesty.

104:2 He covers himself with light as if it were a garment.

He stretches out the skies like a tent curtain,

104:3 and lays the beams of the upper rooms of his palace on the rain clouds. 98 

He makes the clouds his chariot,

and travels along on the wings of the wind. 99 

104:4 He makes the winds his messengers,

and the flaming fire his attendant. 100 

104:5 He established the earth on its foundations;

it will never be upended.

104:6 The watery deep covered it 101  like a garment;

the waters reached 102  above the mountains. 103 

104:7 Your shout made the waters retreat;

at the sound of your thunderous voice they hurried off –

104:8 as the mountains rose up,

and the valleys went down –

to the place you appointed for them. 104 

104:9 You set up a boundary for them that they could not cross,

so that they would not cover the earth again. 105 

104:10 He turns springs into streams; 106 

they flow between the mountains.

104:11 They provide water for all the animals in the field;

the wild donkeys quench their thirst.

104:12 The birds of the sky live beside them;

they chirp among the bushes. 107 

104:13 He waters the mountains from the upper rooms of his palace; 108 

the earth is full of the fruit you cause to grow. 109 

104:14 He provides grass 110  for the cattle,

and crops for people to cultivate, 111 

so they can produce food from the ground, 112 

104:15 as well as wine that makes people feel so good, 113 

and so they can have oil to make their faces shine, 114 

as well as food that sustains people’s lives. 115 

104:16 The trees of the Lord 116  receive all the rain they need, 117 

the cedars of Lebanon which he planted,

104:17 where the birds make nests,

near the evergreens in which the herons live. 118 

104:18 The wild goats live in the high mountains; 119 

the rock badgers find safety in the cliffs.

104:19 He made the moon to mark the months, 120 

and the sun sets according to a regular schedule. 121 

104:20 You make it dark and night comes, 122 

during which all the beasts of the forest prowl around.

104:21 The lions roar for prey,

seeking their food from God. 123 

104:22 When the sun rises, they withdraw

and sleep 124  in their dens.

104:23 Men then go out to do their work,

and labor away until evening. 125 

104:24 How many living things you have made, O Lord! 126 

You have exhibited great skill in making all of them; 127 

the earth is full of the living things you have made.

104:25 Over here is the deep, wide sea, 128 

which teems with innumerable swimming creatures, 129 

living things both small and large.

104:26 The ships travel there,

and over here swims the whale 130  you made to play in it.

104:27 All of your creatures 131  wait for you

to provide them with food on a regular basis. 132 

104:28 You give food to them and they receive it;

you open your hand and they are filled with food. 133 

104:29 When you ignore them, they panic. 134 

When you take away their life’s breath, they die

and return to dust.

104:30 When you send your life-giving breath, they are created,

and you replenish the surface of the ground.

104:31 May the splendor of the Lord endure! 135 

May the Lord find pleasure in the living things he has made! 136 

104:32 He looks down on the earth and it shakes;

he touches the mountains and they start to smolder.

104:33 I will sing to the Lord as long as I live;

I will sing praise to my God as long as I exist! 137 

104:34 May my thoughts 138  be pleasing to him!

I will rejoice in the Lord.

104:35 May sinners disappear 139  from the earth,

and the wicked vanish!

Praise the Lord, O my soul!

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 105 140 

105:1 Give thanks to the Lord!

Call on his name!

Make known his accomplishments among the nations!

105:2 Sing to him!

Make music to him!

Tell about all his miraculous deeds!

105:3 Boast about his holy name!

Let the hearts of those who seek the Lord rejoice!

105:4 Seek the Lord and the strength he gives!

Seek his presence continually!

105:5 Recall the miraculous deeds he performed,

his mighty acts and the judgments he decreed, 141 

105:6 O children 142  of Abraham, 143  God’s 144  servant,

you descendants 145  of Jacob, God’s 146  chosen ones!

105:7 He is the Lord our God;

he carries out judgment throughout the earth. 147 

105:8 He always remembers his covenantal decree,

the promise he made 148  to a thousand generations –

105:9 the promise 149  he made to Abraham,

the promise he made by oath to Isaac!

105:10 He gave it to Jacob as a decree,

to Israel as a lasting promise, 150 

105:11 saying, “To you I will give the land of Canaan

as the portion of your inheritance.”

105:12 When they were few in number,

just a very few, and resident aliens within it,

105:13 they wandered from nation to nation,

and from one kingdom to another. 151 

105:14 He let no one oppress them;

he disciplined kings for their sake,

105:15 saying, 152  “Don’t touch my chosen 153  ones!

Don’t harm my prophets!”

105:16 He called down a famine upon the earth;

he cut off all the food supply. 154 

105:17 He sent a man ahead of them 155 

Joseph was sold as a servant.

105:18 The shackles hurt his feet; 156 

his neck was placed in an iron collar, 157 

105:19 until the time when his prediction 158  came true.

The Lord’s word 159  proved him right. 160 

105:20 The king authorized his release; 161 

the ruler of nations set him free.

105:21 He put him in charge of his palace, 162 

and made him manager of all his property,

105:22 giving him authority to imprison his officials 163 

and to teach his advisers. 164 

105:23 Israel moved to 165  Egypt;

Jacob lived for a time 166  in the land of Ham.

105:24 The Lord 167  made his people very fruitful,

and made them 168  more numerous than their 169  enemies.

105:25 He caused them 170  to hate his people,

and to mistreat 171  his servants.

105:26 He sent his servant Moses,

and Aaron, whom he had chosen.

105:27 They executed his miraculous signs among them, 172 

and his amazing deeds in the land of Ham.

105:28 He made it dark; 173 

they did not disobey his orders. 174 

105:29 He turned their water into blood,

and killed their fish.

105:30 Their land was overrun by frogs,

which even got into the rooms of their kings.

105:31 He ordered flies to come; 175 

gnats invaded their whole territory.

105:32 He sent hail along with the rain; 176 

there was lightning in their land. 177 

105:33 He destroyed their vines and fig trees,

and broke the trees throughout their territory.

105:34 He ordered locusts to come, 178 

innumerable grasshoppers.

105:35 They ate all the vegetation in their land,

and devoured the crops of their fields. 179 

105:36 He struck down all the firstborn in their land,

the firstfruits of their reproductive power. 180 

105:37 He brought his people 181  out enriched 182  with silver and gold;

none of his tribes stumbled.

105:38 Egypt was happy when they left,

for they were afraid of them. 183 

105:39 He spread out a cloud for a cover, 184 

and provided a fire to light up the night.

105:40 They asked for food, 185  and he sent quails;

he satisfied them with food from the sky. 186 

105:41 He opened up a rock and water flowed out;

a river ran through dry regions.

105:42 Yes, 187  he remembered the sacred promise 188 

he made to Abraham his servant.

105:43 When he led his people out, they rejoiced;

his chosen ones shouted with joy. 189 

105:44 He handed the territory of nations over to them,

and they took possession of what other peoples had produced, 190 

105:45 so that they might keep his commands

and obey 191  his laws.

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 106 192 

106:1 Praise the Lord!

Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,

and his loyal love endures! 193 

106:2 Who can adequately recount the Lord’s mighty acts,

or relate all his praiseworthy deeds? 194 

106:3 How blessed are those who promote justice,

and do what is right all the time!

106:4 Remember me, O Lord, when you show favor to your people!

Pay attention to me, when you deliver,

106:5 so I may see the prosperity 195  of your chosen ones,

rejoice along with your nation, 196 

and boast along with the people who belong to you. 197 

106:6 We have sinned like 198  our ancestors; 199 

we have done wrong, we have done evil.

106:7 Our ancestors in Egypt failed to appreciate your miraculous deeds,

they failed to remember your many acts of loyal love,

and they rebelled at the sea, by the Red Sea. 200 

106:8 Yet he delivered them for the sake of his reputation, 201 

that he might reveal his power.

106:9 He shouted at 202  the Red Sea and it dried up;

he led them through the deep water as if it were a desert.

106:10 He delivered them from the power 203  of the one who hated them,

and rescued 204  them from the power 205  of the enemy.

106:11 The water covered their enemies;

not even one of them survived. 206 

106:12 They believed his promises; 207 

they sang praises to him.

106:13 They quickly forgot what he had done; 208 

they did not wait for his instructions. 209 

106:14 In the wilderness they had an insatiable craving 210  for meat; 211 

they challenged God 212  in the desert.

106:15 He granted their request,

then struck them with a disease. 213 

106:16 In the camp they resented 214  Moses,

and Aaron, the Lord’s holy priest. 215 

106:17 The earth opened up and swallowed Dathan;

it engulfed 216  the group led by Abiram. 217 

106:18 Fire burned their group;

the flames scorched the wicked. 218 

106:19 They made an image of a calf at Horeb,

and worshiped a metal idol.

106:20 They traded their majestic God 219 

for the image of an ox that eats grass.

106:21 They rejected 220  the God who delivered them,

the one who performed great deeds in Egypt,

106:22 amazing feats in the land of Ham,

mighty 221  acts by the Red Sea.

106:23 He threatened 222  to destroy them,

but 223  Moses, his chosen one, interceded with him 224 

and turned back his destructive anger. 225 

106:24 They rejected the fruitful land; 226 

they did not believe his promise. 227 

106:25 They grumbled in their tents; 228 

they did not obey 229  the Lord.

106:26 So he made a solemn vow 230 

that he would make them die 231  in the desert,

106:27 make their descendants 232  die 233  among the nations,

and scatter them among foreign lands. 234 

106:28 They worshiped 235  Baal of Peor,

and ate sacrifices offered to the dead. 236 

106:29 They made the Lord angry 237  by their actions,

and a plague broke out among them.

106:30 Phinehas took a stand and intervened, 238 

and the plague subsided.

106:31 This brought him a reward,

an eternal gift. 239 

106:32 They made him angry by the waters of Meribah,

and Moses suffered 240  because of them,

106:33 for they aroused 241  his temper, 242 

and he spoke rashly. 243 

106:34 They did not destroy the nations, 244 

as the Lord had commanded them to do.

106:35 They mixed in with the nations

and learned their ways. 245 

106:36 They worshiped 246  their idols,

which became a snare to them. 247 

106:37 They sacrificed their sons and daughters to demons. 248 

106:38 They shed innocent blood –

the blood of their sons and daughters,

whom they sacrificed to the idols of Canaan.

The land was polluted by bloodshed. 249 

106:39 They were defiled by their deeds,

and unfaithful in their actions. 250 

106:40 So the Lord was angry with his people 251 

and despised the people who belong to him. 252 

106:41 He handed them over to 253  the nations,

and those who hated them ruled over them.

106:42 Their enemies oppressed them;

they were subject to their authority. 254 

106:43 Many times he delivered 255  them,

but they had a rebellious attitude, 256 

and degraded themselves 257  by their sin.

106:44 Yet he took notice of their distress,

when he heard their cry for help.

106:45 He remembered his covenant with them,

and relented 258  because of his great loyal love.

106:46 He caused all their conquerors 259 

to have pity on them.

106:47 Deliver us, O Lord, our God!

Gather us from among the nations!

Then we will give thanks 260  to your holy name,

and boast about your praiseworthy deeds. 261 

106:48 The Lord God of Israel deserves praise, 262 

in the future and forevermore. 263 

Let all the people say, “We agree! 264  Praise the Lord!” 265 

Book 5
(Psalms 107-150)

Psalm 107 266 

107:1 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,

and his loyal love endures! 267 

107:2 Let those delivered by the Lord speak out, 268 

those whom he delivered 269  from the power 270  of the enemy,

107:3 and gathered from foreign lands, 271 

from east and west,

from north and south.

107:4 They wandered through the wilderness on a desert road;

they found no city in which to live.

107:5 They were hungry and thirsty;

they fainted from exhaustion. 272 

107:6 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;

he delivered them from their troubles.

107:7 He led them on a level road, 273 

that they might find a city in which to live.

107:8 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,

and for the amazing things he has done for people! 274 

107:9 For he has satisfied those who thirst, 275 

and those who hunger he has filled with food. 276 

107:10 They sat in utter darkness, 277 

bound in painful iron chains, 278 

107:11 because they had rebelled against God’s commands, 279 

and rejected the instructions of the sovereign king. 280 

107:12 So he used suffering to humble them; 281 

they stumbled and no one helped them up.

107:13 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;

he delivered them from their troubles.

107:14 He brought them out of the utter darkness, 282 

and tore off their shackles.

107:15 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,

and for the amazing things he has done for people! 283 

107:16 For he shattered the bronze gates,

and hacked through the iron bars. 284 

107:17 They acted like fools in their rebellious ways, 285 

and suffered because of their sins.

107:18 They lost their appetite for all food, 286 

and they drew near the gates of death.

107:19 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;

he delivered them from their troubles.

107:20 He sent them an assuring word 287  and healed them;

he rescued them from the pits where they were trapped. 288 

107:21 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,

and for the amazing things he has done for people! 289 

107:22 Let them present thank offerings,

and loudly proclaim what he has done! 290 

107:23 291 Some traveled on 292  the sea in ships,

and carried cargo over the vast waters. 293 

107:24 They witnessed the acts of the Lord,

his amazing feats on the deep water.

107:25 He gave the order for a windstorm, 294 

and it stirred up the waves of the sea. 295 

107:26 They 296  reached up to the sky,

then dropped into the depths.

The sailors’ strength 297  left them 298  because the danger was so great. 299 

107:27 They swayed 300  and staggered like a drunk,

and all their skill proved ineffective. 301 

107:28 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;

he delivered them from their troubles.

107:29 He calmed the storm, 302 

and the waves 303  grew silent.

107:30 The sailors 304  rejoiced because the waves 305  grew quiet,

and he led them to the harbor 306  they desired.

107:31 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,

and for the amazing things he has done for people! 307 

107:32 Let them exalt him in the assembly of the people!

Let them praise him in the place where the leaders preside! 308 

107:33 He turned 309  streams into a desert,

springs of water into arid land,

107:34 and a fruitful land into a barren place, 310 

because of the sin of its inhabitants.

107:35 As for his people, 311  he turned 312  a desert into a pool of water,

and a dry land into springs of water.

107:36 He allowed the hungry to settle there,

and they established a city in which to live.

107:37 They cultivated 313  fields,

and planted vineyards,

which yielded a harvest of fruit. 314 

107:38 He blessed 315  them so that they became very numerous.

He would not allow their cattle to decrease in number. 316 

107:39 As for their enemies, 317  they decreased in number and were beaten down,

because of painful distress 318  and suffering.

107:40 He would pour 319  contempt upon princes,

and he made them wander in a wasteland with no road.

107:41 Yet he protected 320  the needy from oppression,

and cared for his families like a flock of sheep.

107:42 When the godly see this, they rejoice,

and every sinner 321  shuts his mouth.

107:43 Whoever is wise, let him take note of these things!

Let them consider the Lord’s acts of loyal love!

Psalm 108 322 

A song, a psalm of David.

108:1 I am determined, 323  O God!

I will sing and praise you with my whole heart. 324 

108:2 Awake, O stringed instrument and harp!

I will wake up at dawn! 325 

108:3 I will give you thanks before the nations, O Lord!

I will sing praises to you before foreigners! 326 

108:4 For your loyal love extends beyond the sky, 327 

and your faithfulness reaches the clouds.

108:5 Rise up 328  above the sky, O God!

May your splendor cover the whole earth! 329 

108:6 Deliver by your power 330  and answer me,

so that the ones you love may be safe. 331 

108:7 God has spoken in his sanctuary: 332 

“I will triumph! I will parcel out Shechem,

the valley of Succoth I will measure off. 333 

108:8 Gilead belongs to me,

as does Manasseh! 334 

Ephraim is my helmet, 335 

Judah my royal scepter. 336 

108:9 Moab is my wash basin. 337 

I will make Edom serve me. 338 

I will shout in triumph over Philistia.”

108:10 Who will lead me into the fortified city?

Who will bring me to Edom? 339 

108:11 Have you not rejected us, O God?

O God, you do not go into battle with our armies.

108:12 Give us help against the enemy,

for any help men might offer is futile. 340 

108:13 By God’s power we will conquer; 341 

he will trample down 342  our enemies.

Psalm 109 343 

For the music director, a psalm of David.

109:1 O God whom I praise, do not ignore me! 344 

109:2 For they say cruel and deceptive things to me;

they lie to me. 345 

109:3 They surround me and say hateful things; 346 

they attack me for no reason.

109:4 They repay my love with accusations, 347 

but I continue to pray. 348 

109:5 They repay me evil for good, 349 

and hate for love.

109:6 350 Appoint an evil man to testify against him! 351 

May an accuser stand 352  at his right side!

109:7 When he is judged, he will be found 353  guilty! 354 

Then his prayer will be regarded as sinful.

109:8 May his days be few! 355 

May another take his job! 356 

109:9 May his children 357  be fatherless,

and his wife a widow!

109:10 May his children 358  roam around begging,

asking for handouts as they leave their ruined home! 359 

109:11 May the creditor seize 360  all he owns!

May strangers loot his property! 361 

109:12 May no one show him kindness! 362 

May no one have compassion 363  on his fatherless children!

109:13 May his descendants 364  be cut off! 365 

May the memory of them be wiped out by the time the next generation arrives! 366 

109:14 May his ancestors’ 367  sins be remembered by the Lord!

May his mother’s sin not be forgotten! 368 

109:15 May the Lord be constantly aware of them, 369 

and cut off the memory of his children 370  from the earth!

109:16 For he never bothered to show kindness; 371 

he harassed the oppressed and needy,

and killed the disheartened. 372 

109:17 He loved to curse 373  others, so those curses have come upon him. 374 

He had no desire to bless anyone, so he has experienced no blessings. 375 

109:18 He made cursing a way of life, 376 

so curses poured into his stomach like water

and seeped into his bones like oil. 377 

109:19 May a curse attach itself to him, like a garment one puts on, 378 

or a belt 379  one wears continually!

109:20 May the Lord repay my accusers in this way, 380 

those who say evil things about 381  me! 382 

109:21 O sovereign Lord,

intervene on my behalf for the sake of your reputation! 383 

Because your loyal love is good, deliver me!

109:22 For I am oppressed and needy,

and my heart beats violently within me. 384 

109:23 I am fading away like a shadow at the end of the day; 385 

I am shaken off like a locust.

109:24 I am so starved my knees shake; 386 

I have turned into skin and bones. 387 

109:25 I am disdained by them. 388 

When they see me, they shake their heads. 389 

109:26 Help me, O Lord my God!

Because you are faithful to me, deliver me! 390 

109:27 Then they will realize 391  this is your work, 392 

and that you, Lord, have accomplished it.

109:28 They curse, but you will bless. 393 

When they attack, they will be humiliated, 394 

but your servant will rejoice.

109:29 My accusers will be covered 395  with shame,

and draped in humiliation as if it were a robe.

109:30 I will thank the Lord profusely, 396 

in the middle of a crowd 397  I will praise him,

109:31 because he stands at the right hand of the needy,

to deliver him from those who threaten 398  his life.

Psalm 110 399 

A psalm of David.

110:1 Here is the Lord’s proclamation 400  to my lord: 401 

“Sit down at my right hand 402  until I make your enemies your footstool!” 403 

110:2 The Lord 404  extends 405  your dominion 406  from Zion.

Rule in the midst of your enemies!

110:3 Your people willingly follow you 407  when you go into battle. 408 

On the holy hills 409  at sunrise 410  the dew of your youth 411  belongs to you. 412 

110:4 The Lord makes this promise on oath 413  and will not revoke it: 414 

“You are an eternal priest 415  after the pattern of 416  Melchizedek.” 417 

110:5 O sovereign Lord, 418  at your right hand

he strikes down 419  kings in the day he unleashes his anger. 420 

110:6 He executes judgment 421  against 422  the nations;

he fills the valleys with corpses; 423 

he shatters their heads over the vast battlefield. 424 

110:7 From the stream along the road he drinks;

then he lifts up his head. 425 

Psalm 111 426 

111:1 Praise the Lord!

I will give thanks to the Lord with my whole heart,

in the assembly of the godly and the congregation.

111:2 The Lord’s deeds are great,

eagerly awaited 427  by all who desire them.

111:3 His work is majestic and glorious, 428 

and his faithfulness endures 429  forever.

111:4 He does 430  amazing things that will be remembered; 431 

the Lord is merciful and compassionate.

111:5 He gives 432  food to his faithful followers; 433 

he always remembers his covenant. 434 

111:6 He announced that he would do mighty deeds for his people,

giving them a land that belonged to other nations. 435 

111:7 His acts are characterized by 436  faithfulness and justice;

all his precepts are reliable. 437 

111:8 They are forever firm,

and should be faithfully and properly carried out. 438 

111:9 He delivered his people; 439 

he ordained that his covenant be observed forever. 440 

His name is holy and awesome.

111:10 To obey the Lord is the fundamental principle for wise living; 441 

all who carry out his precepts acquire good moral insight. 442 

He will receive praise forever. 443 

Psalm 112 444 

112:1 Praise the Lord!

How blessed is the one 445  who obeys 446  the Lord,

who takes great delight in keeping his commands. 447 

112:2 His descendants 448  will be powerful on the earth;

the godly 449  will be blessed.

112:3 His house contains wealth and riches;

his integrity endures. 450 

112:4 In the darkness a light 451  shines for the godly,

for each one who is merciful, compassionate, and just. 452 

112:5 It goes well for the one 453  who generously lends money,

and conducts his business honestly. 454 

112:6 For he will never be upended;

others will always remember one who is just. 455 

112:7 He does not fear bad news.

He 456  is confident; he trusts 457  in the Lord.

112:8 His resolve 458  is firm; he will not succumb to fear

before he looks in triumph on his enemies.

112:9 He generously gives 459  to the needy;

his integrity endures. 460 

He will be vindicated and honored. 461 

112:10 When the wicked 462  see this, they will worry;

they will grind their teeth in frustration 463  and melt away;

the desire of the wicked will perish. 464 

Psalm 113 465 

113:1 Praise the Lord!

Praise, you servants of the Lord,

praise the name of the Lord!

113:2 May the Lord’s name be praised

now and forevermore!

113:3 From east to west 466 

the Lord’s name is deserving of praise.

113:4 The Lord is exalted over all the nations;

his splendor reaches beyond the sky. 467 

113:5 Who can compare to the Lord our God,

who sits on a high throne? 468 

113:6 He bends down to look 469 

at the sky and the earth.

113:7 He raises the poor from the dirt,

and lifts up the needy from the garbage pile, 470 

113:8 that he might seat him with princes,

with the princes of his people.

113:9 He makes the barren woman of the family 471 

a happy mother of children. 472 

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 114 473 

114:1 When Israel left Egypt,

when the family of Jacob left a foreign nation behind, 474 

114:2 Judah became his sanctuary,

Israel his kingdom.

114:3 The sea looked and fled; 475 

the Jordan River 476  turned back. 477 

114:4 The mountains skipped like rams,

the hills like lambs. 478 

114:5 Why do you flee, O sea?

Why do you turn back, O Jordan River?

114:6 Why do you skip like rams, O mountains,

like lambs, O hills?

114:7 Tremble, O earth, before the Lord –

before the God of Jacob,

114:8 who turned a rock into a pool of water,

a hard rock into springs of water! 479 

Psalm 115 480 

115:1 Not to us, O Lord, not to us!

But to your name bring honor, 481 

for the sake of your loyal love and faithfulness. 482 

115:2 Why should the nations say,

“Where is their God?”

115:3 Our God is in heaven!

He does whatever he pleases! 483 

115:4 Their 484  idols are made of silver and gold –

they are man-made. 485 

115:5 They have mouths, but cannot speak,

eyes, but cannot see,

115:6 ears, but cannot hear,

noses, but cannot smell,

115:7 hands, but cannot touch,

feet, but cannot walk.

They cannot even clear their throats. 486 

115:8 Those who make them will end up 487  like them,

as will everyone who trusts in them.

115:9 O Israel, trust in the Lord!

He is their deliverer 488  and protector. 489 

115:10 O family 490  of Aaron, trust in the Lord!

He is their deliverer 491  and protector. 492 

115:11 You loyal followers of the Lord, 493  trust in the Lord!

He is their deliverer 494  and protector. 495 

115:12 The Lord takes notice of us, 496  he will bless 497 

he will bless the family 498  of Israel,

he will bless the family of Aaron.

115:13 He will bless his loyal followers, 499 

both young and old. 500 

115:14 May he increase your numbers,

yours and your children’s! 501 

115:15 May you be blessed by the Lord,

the creator 502  of heaven and earth!

115:16 The heavens belong to the Lord, 503 

but the earth he has given to mankind. 504 

115:17 The dead do not praise the Lord,

nor do any of those who descend into the silence of death. 505 

115:18 But we will praise the Lord

now and forevermore.

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 116 506 

116:1 I love the Lord

because he heard my plea for mercy, 507 

116:2 and listened to me. 508 

As long as I live, I will call to him when I need help. 509 

116:3 The ropes of death tightened around me, 510 

the snares 511  of Sheol confronted me.

I was confronted 512  with trouble and sorrow.

116:4 I called on the name of the Lord,

“Please Lord, rescue my life!”

116:5 The Lord is merciful and fair;

our God is compassionate.

116:6 The Lord protects 513  the untrained; 514 

I was in serious trouble 515  and he delivered me.

116:7 Rest once more, my soul, 516 

for the Lord has vindicated you. 517 

116:8 Yes, 518  Lord, 519  you rescued my life from death,

and kept my feet from stumbling.

116:9 I will serve 520  the Lord

in the land 521  of the living.

116:10 I had faith when I said,

“I am severely oppressed.”

116:11 I rashly declared, 522 

“All men are liars.”

116:12 How can I repay the Lord

for all his acts of kindness to me?

116:13 I will celebrate my deliverance, 523 

and call on the name of the Lord.

116:14 I will fulfill my vows to the Lord

before all his people.

116:15 The Lord values

the lives of his faithful followers. 524 

116:16 Yes, Lord! I am indeed your servant;

I am your lowest slave. 525 

You saved me from death. 526 

116:17 I will present a thank offering to you,

and call on the name of the Lord.

116:18 I will fulfill my vows to the Lord

before all his people,

116:19 in the courts of the Lord’s temple,

in your midst, O Jerusalem.

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 117 527 

117:1 Praise the Lord, all you nations!

Applaud him, all you foreigners! 528 

117:2 For his loyal love towers 529  over us,

and the Lord’s faithfulness endures.

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 118 530 

118:1 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good

and his loyal love endures! 531 

118:2 Let Israel say,

“Yes, his loyal love endures!”

118:3 Let the family 532  of Aaron say,

“Yes, his loyal love endures!”

118:4 Let the loyal followers of the Lord 533  say,

“Yes, his loyal love endures!”

118:5 In my distress 534  I cried out to the Lord.

The Lord answered me and put me in a wide open place. 535 

118:6 The Lord is on my side, 536  I am not afraid!

What can people do to me? 537 

118:7 The Lord is on my side 538  as my helper. 539 

I look in triumph on those who hate me.

118:8 It is better to take shelter 540  in the Lord

than to trust in people.

118:9 It is better to take shelter in the Lord

than to trust in princes.

118:10 All the nations surrounded me. 541 

Indeed, in the name of the Lord 542  I pushed them away. 543 

118:11 They surrounded me, yes, they surrounded me.

Indeed, in the name of the Lord I pushed them away.

118:12 They surrounded me like bees.

But they disappeared as quickly 544  as a fire among thorns. 545 

Indeed, in the name of the Lord I pushed them away.

118:13 “You aggressively attacked me 546  and tried to knock me down, 547 

but the Lord helped me.

118:14 The Lord gives me strength and protects me; 548 

he has become my deliverer.” 549 

118:15 They celebrate deliverance in the tents of the godly. 550 

The Lord’s right hand conquers, 551 

118:16 the Lord’s right hand gives victory, 552 

the Lord’s right hand conquers.

118:17 I will not die, but live,

and I will proclaim what the Lord has done. 553 

118:18 The Lord severely 554  punished me,

but he did not hand me over to death.

118:19 Open for me the gates of the just king’s temple! 555 

I will enter through them and give thanks to the Lord.

118:20 This is the Lord’s gate –

the godly enter through it.

118:21 I will give you thanks, for you answered me,

and have become my deliverer.

118:22 The stone which the builders discarded 556 

has become the cornerstone. 557 

118:23 This is the Lord’s work.

We consider it amazing! 558 

118:24 This is the day the Lord has brought about. 559 

We will be happy and rejoice in it.

118:25 Please Lord, deliver!

Please Lord, grant us success! 560 

118:26 May the one who comes in the name of the Lord 561  be blessed!

We will pronounce blessings on you 562  in the Lord’s temple. 563 

118:27 The Lord is God and he has delivered us. 564 

Tie the offering 565  with ropes

to the horns of the altar! 566 

118:28 You are my 567  God and I will give you thanks!

You are my God and I will praise you!

118:29 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good

and his loyal love endures! 568 

Psalm 119 569 

א (Alef)

119:1 How blessed are those whose actions are blameless, 570 

who obey 571  the law of the Lord.

119:2 How blessed are those who observe his rules,

and seek him with all their heart,

119:3 who, moreover, do no wrong,

but follow in his footsteps. 572 

119:4 You demand that your precepts

be carefully kept. 573 

119:5 If only I were predisposed 574 

to keep your statutes!

119:6 Then I would not be ashamed,

if 575  I were focused on 576  all your commands.

119:7 I will give you sincere thanks, 577 

when I learn your just regulations.

119:8 I will keep your statutes.

Do not completely abandon me! 578 

ב (Bet)

119:9 How can a young person 579  maintain a pure life? 580 

By guarding it according to your instructions! 581 

119:10 With all my heart I seek you.

Do not allow me to stray from your commands!

119:11 In my heart I store up 582  your words, 583 

so I might not sin against you.

119:12 You deserve praise, 584  O Lord!

Teach me your statutes!

119:13 With my lips I proclaim

all the regulations you have revealed. 585 

119:14 I rejoice in the lifestyle prescribed by your rules 586 

as if 587  they were riches of all kinds. 588 

119:15 I will meditate on 589  your precepts

and focus 590  on your behavior. 591 

119:16 I find delight 592  in your statutes;

I do not forget your instructions. 593 

ג (Gimel)

119:17 Be kind to your servant!

Then I will live 594  and keep 595  your instructions. 596 

119:18 Open 597  my eyes so I can truly see 598 

the marvelous things in your law!

119:19 I am like a foreigner in this land. 599 

Do not hide your commands from me!

119:20 I desperately long to know 600 

your regulations at all times.

119:21 You reprimand arrogant people.

Those who stray from your commands are doomed. 601 

119:22 Spare me 602  shame and humiliation,

for I observe your rules.

119:23 Though rulers plot and slander me, 603 

your servant meditates on your statutes.

119:24 Yes, I find delight in your rules;

they give me guidance. 604 

ד (Dalet)

119:25 I collapse in the dirt. 605 

Revive me with your word! 606 

119:26 I told you about my ways 607  and you answered me.

Teach me your statutes!

119:27 Help me to understand what your precepts mean! 608 

Then I can meditate 609  on your marvelous teachings. 610 

119:28 I collapse 611  from grief.

Sustain me by your word! 612 

119:29 Remove me from the path of deceit! 613 

Graciously give me 614  your law!

119:30 I choose the path of faithfulness;

I am committed to 615  your regulations.

119:31 I hold fast 616  to your rules.

O Lord, do not let me be ashamed!

119:32 I run along the path of your commands,

for you enable me to do so. 617 

ה (He)

119:33 Teach me, O Lord, the lifestyle prescribed by your statutes, 618 

so that I might observe it continually. 619 

119:34 Give me understanding so that I might observe your law,

and keep it with all my heart. 620 

119:35 Guide me 621  in the path of your commands,

for I delight to walk in it. 622 

119:36 Give me a desire for your rules, 623 

rather than for wealth gained unjustly. 624 

119:37 Turn my eyes away from what is worthless! 625 

Revive me with your word! 626 

119:38 Confirm to your servant your promise, 627 

which you made to the one who honors you. 628 

119:39 Take away the insults that I dread! 629 

Indeed, 630  your regulations are good.

119:40 Look, I long for your precepts.

Revive me with your deliverance! 631 

ו (Vav)

119:41 May I experience your loyal love, 632  O Lord,

and your deliverance, 633  as you promised. 634 

119:42 Then I will have a reply for the one who insults me, 635 

for I trust in your word.

119:43 Do not completely deprive me of a truthful testimony, 636 

for I await your justice.

119:44 Then I will keep 637  your law continually

now and for all time. 638 

119:45 I will be secure, 639 

for I seek your precepts.

119:46 I will speak 640  about your regulations before kings

and not be ashamed.

119:47 I will find delight in your commands,

which I love.

119:48 I will lift my hands to 641  your commands,

which I love,

and I will meditate on your statutes.

ז (Zayin)

119:49 Remember your word to your servant,

for you have given me hope.

119:50 This 642  is what comforts me in my trouble,

for your promise revives me. 643 

119:51 Arrogant people do nothing but scoff at me. 644 

Yet I do not turn aside from your law.

119:52 I remember your ancient regulations, 645 

O Lord, and console myself. 646 

119:53 Rage takes hold of me because of the wicked,

those who reject your law.

119:54 Your statutes have been my songs 647 

in the house where I live. 648 

119:55 I remember your name during the night, O Lord,

and I will keep 649  your law.

119:56 This 650  has been my practice,

for I observe your precepts.

ח (Khet)

119:57 The Lord is my source of security. 651 

I have determined 652  to follow your instructions. 653 

119:58 I seek your favor 654  with all my heart.

Have mercy on me as you promised! 655 

119:59 I consider my actions 656 

and follow 657  your rules.

119:60 I keep your commands

eagerly and without delay. 658 

119:61 The ropes of the wicked tighten around 659  me,

but I do not forget your law.

119:62 In the middle of the night I arise 660  to thank you

for your just regulations.

119:63 I am a friend to all your loyal followers, 661 

and to those who keep your precepts.

119:64 O Lord, your loyal love fills the earth.

Teach me your statutes!

ט (Tet)

119:65 You are good 662  to your servant,

O Lord, just as you promised. 663 

119:66 Teach me proper discernment 664  and understanding!

For I consider your commands to be reliable. 665 

119:67 Before I was afflicted I used to stray off, 666 

but now I keep your instructions. 667 

119:68 You are good and you do good.

Teach me your statutes!

119:69 Arrogant people smear my reputation with lies, 668 

but I observe your precepts with all my heart.

119:70 Their hearts are calloused, 669 

but I find delight in your law.

119:71 It was good for me to suffer,

so that I might learn your statutes.

119:72 The law you have revealed is more important to me

than thousands of pieces of gold and silver. 670 

י (Yod)

119:73 Your hands made me and formed me. 671 

Give me understanding so that I might learn 672  your commands.

119:74 Your loyal followers will be glad when they see me, 673 

for I find hope in your word.

119:75 I know, Lord, that your regulations 674  are just.

You disciplined me because of your faithful devotion to me. 675 

119:76 May your loyal love console me,

as you promised your servant. 676 

119:77 May I experience your compassion, 677  so I might live!

For I find delight in your law.

119:78 May the arrogant be humiliated, for they have slandered me! 678 

But I meditate on your precepts.

119:79 May your loyal followers 679  turn to me,

those who know your rules.

119:80 May I be fully committed to your statutes, 680 

so that I might not be ashamed.

כ (Kaf)

119:81 I desperately long for 681  your deliverance.

I find hope in your word.

119:82 My eyes grow tired as I wait for your promise to be fulfilled. 682 

I say, 683  “When will you comfort me?”

119:83 For 684  I am like a wineskin 685  dried up in smoke. 686 

I do not forget your statutes.

119:84 How long must your servant endure this? 687 

When will you judge those who pursue me?

119:85 The arrogant dig pits to trap me, 688 

which violates your law. 689 

119:86 All your commands are reliable.

I am pursued without reason. 690  Help me!

119:87 They have almost destroyed me here on the earth,

but I do not reject your precepts.

119:88 Revive me with 691  your loyal love,

that I might keep 692  the rules you have revealed. 693 

ל (Lamed)

119:89 O Lord, your instructions endure;

they stand secure in heaven. 694 

119:90 You demonstrate your faithfulness to all generations. 695 

You established the earth and it stood firm.

119:91 Today they stand firm by your decrees,

for all things are your servants.

119:92 If I had not found encouragement in your law, 696 

I would have died in my sorrow. 697 

119:93 I will never forget your precepts,

for by them you have revived me.

119:94 I belong to you. Deliver me!

For I seek your precepts.

119:95 The wicked prepare to kill me, 698 

yet I concentrate on your rules.

119:96 I realize that everything has its limits,

but your commands are beyond full comprehension. 699 

מ (Mem)

119:97 O how I love your law!

All day long I meditate on it.

119:98 Your commandments 700  make me wiser than my enemies,

for I am always aware of them.

119:99 I have more insight than all my teachers,

for I meditate on your rules.

119:100 I am more discerning than those older than I,

for I observe your precepts.

119:101 I stay away 701  from the evil path,

so that I might keep your instructions. 702 

119:102 I do not turn aside from your regulations,

for you teach me.

119:103 Your words are sweeter

in my mouth than honey! 703 

119:104 Your precepts give me discernment.

Therefore I hate all deceitful actions. 704 

נ (Nun)

119:105 Your word 705  is a lamp to walk by,

and a light to illumine my path. 706 

119:106 I have vowed and solemnly sworn

to keep your just regulations.

119:107 I am suffering terribly.

O Lord, revive me with your word! 707 

119:108 O Lord, please accept the freewill offerings of my praise! 708 

Teach me your regulations!

119:109 My life is in continual danger, 709 

but I do not forget your law.

119:110 The wicked lay a trap for me,

but I do not wander from your precepts.

119:111 I claim your rules as my permanent possession,

for they give me joy. 710 

119:112 I am determined to obey 711  your statutes

at all times, to the very end.

ס (Samek)

119:113 I hate people with divided loyalties, 712 

but I love your law.

119:114 You are my hiding place and my shield.

I find hope in your word.

119:115 Turn away from me, you evil men,

so that I can observe 713  the commands of my God. 714 

119:116 Sustain me as you promised, 715  so that I will live. 716 

Do not disappoint me! 717 

119:117 Support me, so that I will be delivered.

Then I will focus 718  on your statutes continually.

119:118 You despise 719  all who stray from your statutes,

for they are deceptive and unreliable. 720 

119:119 You remove all the wicked of the earth like slag. 721 

Therefore I love your rules. 722 

119:120 My body 723  trembles 724  because I fear you; 725 

I am afraid of your judgments.

ע (Ayin)

119:121 I do what is fair and right. 726 

Do not abandon me to my oppressors!

119:122 Guarantee the welfare of your servant! 727 

Do not let the arrogant oppress me!

119:123 My eyes grow tired as I wait for your deliverance, 728 

for your reliable promise to be fulfilled. 729 

119:124 Show your servant your loyal love! 730 

Teach me your statutes!

119:125 I am your servant. Give me insight,

so that I can understand 731  your rules.

119:126 It is time for the Lord to act –

they break your law!

119:127 For this reason 732  I love your commands

more than gold, even purest gold.

119:128 For this reason I carefully follow all your precepts. 733 

I hate all deceitful actions. 734 

פ (Pe)

119:129 Your rules are marvelous.

Therefore I observe them.

119:130 Your instructions are a doorway through which light shines. 735 

They give 736  insight to the untrained. 737 

119:131 I open my mouth and pant,

because I long 738  for your commands.

119:132 Turn toward me and extend mercy to me,

as you typically do to your loyal followers. 739 

119:133 Direct my steps by your word! 740 

Do not let any sin dominate me!

119:134 Deliver me 741  from oppressive men,

so that I can keep 742  your precepts.

119:135 Smile 743  on your servant!

Teach me your statutes!

119:136 Tears stream down from my eyes, 744 

because people 745  do not keep your law.

צ (Tsade)

119:137 You are just, O Lord,

and your judgments are fair.

119:138 The rules you impose are just, 746 

and absolutely reliable.

119:139 My zeal 747  consumes 748  me,

for my enemies forget your instructions. 749 

119:140 Your word is absolutely pure,

and your servant loves it!

119:141 I am insignificant and despised,

yet I do not forget your precepts.

119:142 Your justice endures, 750 

and your law is reliable. 751 

119:143 Distress and hardship confront 752  me,

yet I find delight in your commands.

119:144 Your rules remain just. 753 

Give me insight so that I can live. 754 

ק (Qof)

119:145 I cried out with all my heart, “Answer me, O Lord!

I will observe your statutes.”

119:146 I cried out to you, “Deliver me,

so that I can keep 755  your rules.”

119:147 I am up before dawn crying for help.

I find hope in your word.

119:148 My eyes anticipate the nighttime hours,

so that I can meditate on your word.

119:149 Listen to me 756  because of 757  your loyal love!

O Lord, revive me, as you typically do! 758 

119:150 Those who are eager to do 759  wrong draw near;

they are far from your law.

119:151 You are near, O Lord,

and all your commands are reliable. 760 

119:152 I learned long ago that

you ordained your rules to last. 761 

ר (Resh)

119:153 See my pain and rescue me!

For I do not forget your law.

119:154 Fight for me 762  and defend me! 763 

Revive me with your word!

119:155 The wicked have no chance for deliverance, 764 

for they do not seek your statutes.

119:156 Your compassion is great, O Lord.

Revive me, as you typically do! 765 

119:157 The enemies who chase me are numerous. 766 

Yet I do not turn aside from your rules.

119:158 I take note of the treacherous and despise them,

because they do not keep your instructions. 767 

119:159 See how I love your precepts!

O Lord, revive me with your loyal love!

119:160 Your instructions are totally reliable;

all your just regulations endure. 768 

שׂ/שׁ (Sin/Shin)

119:161 Rulers pursue me for no reason,

yet I am more afraid of disobeying your instructions. 769 

119:162 I rejoice in your instructions,

like one who finds much plunder. 770 

119:163 I hate and despise deceit;

I love your law.

119:164 Seven 771  times a day I praise you

because of your just regulations.

119:165 Those who love your law are completely secure; 772 

nothing causes them to stumble. 773 

119:166 I hope for your deliverance, O Lord,

and I obey 774  your commands.

119:167 I keep your rules;

I love them greatly.

119:168 I keep your precepts and rules,

for you are aware of everything I do. 775 

ת (Tav)

119:169 Listen to my cry for help, 776  O Lord!

Give me insight by your word!

119:170 Listen to my appeal for mercy! 777 

Deliver me, as you promised. 778 

119:171 May praise flow freely from my lips,

for you teach me your statutes.

119:172 May my tongue sing about your instructions, 779 

for all your commands are just.

119:173 May your hand help me,

for I choose to obey 780  your precepts.

119:174 I long for your deliverance, O Lord;

I find delight in your law.

119:175 May I 781  live and praise you!

May your regulations help me! 782 

119:176 I have wandered off like a lost sheep. 783 

Come looking for your servant,

for I do not forget your commands.

Psalm 120 784 

A song of ascents. 785 

120:1 In my distress I cried out

to the Lord and he answered me.

120:2 I said, 786  “O Lord, rescue me 787 

from those who lie with their lips 788 

and those who deceive with their tongue. 789 

120:3 How will he severely punish you,

you deceptive talker? 790 

120:4 Here’s how! 791  With the sharp arrows of warriors,

with arrowheads forged over the hot coals. 792 

120:5 How miserable I am! 793 

For I have lived temporarily 794  in Meshech;

I have resided among the tents of Kedar. 795 

120:6 For too long I have had to reside

with those who hate 796  peace.

120:7 I am committed to peace, 797 

but when I speak, they want to make war. 798 

Psalm 121 799 

A song of ascents. 800 

121:1 I look up 801  toward the hills.

From where 802  does my help come?

121:2 My help comes from the Lord, 803 

the Creator 804  of heaven and earth!

121:3 May he not allow your foot to slip!

May your protector 805  not sleep! 806 

121:4 Look! Israel’s protector 807 

does not sleep or slumber!

121:5 The Lord is your protector;

the Lord is the shade at your right hand.

121:6 The sun will not harm you by day,

or the moon by night. 808 

121:7 The Lord will protect you from all harm;

he will protect your life.

121:8 The Lord will protect you in all you do, 809 

now and forevermore.

Psalm 122 810 

A song of ascents, 811  by David.

122:1 I was glad because 812  they said to me,

“We will go to the Lord’s temple.”

122:2 Our feet are 813  standing

inside your gates, O Jerusalem.

122:3 Jerusalem 814  is a city designed

to accommodate an assembly. 815 

122:4 The tribes go up 816  there, 817 

the tribes of the Lord,

where it is required that Israel

give thanks to the name of the Lord. 818 

122:5 Indeed, 819  the leaders sit 820  there on thrones and make legal decisions,

on the thrones of the house of David. 821 

122:6 Pray 822  for the peace of Jerusalem!

May those who love her prosper! 823 

122:7 May there be peace inside your defenses,

and prosperity 824  inside your fortresses! 825 

122:8 For the sake of my brothers and my neighbors

I will say, “May there be peace in you!”

122:9 For the sake of the temple of the Lord our God

I will pray for you to prosper. 826 

Psalm 123 827 

A song of ascents. 828 

123:1 I look up 829  toward you,

the one enthroned 830  in heaven.

123:2 Look, as the eyes of servants look to the hand of their master,

as the eyes of a female servant look to the hand of her mistress, 831 

so my eyes will look to the Lord, our God, until he shows us favor.

123:3 Show us favor, O Lord, show us favor!

For we have had our fill of humiliation, and then some. 832 

123:4 We have had our fill 833 

of the taunts of the self-assured,

of the contempt of the proud.

Psalm 124 834 

A song of ascents, 835  by David.

124:1 “If the Lord had not been on our side” –

let Israel say this! –

124:2 if the Lord had not been on our side,

when men attacked us, 836 

124:3 they would have swallowed us alive,

when their anger raged against us.

124:4 The water would have overpowered us;

the current 837  would have overwhelmed 838  us. 839 

124:5 The raging water

would have overwhelmed us. 840 

124:6 The Lord deserves praise, 841 

for 842  he did not hand us over as prey to their teeth.

124:7 We escaped with our lives, 843  like a bird from a hunter’s snare.

The snare broke, and we escaped.

124:8 Our deliverer is the Lord, 844 

the Creator 845  of heaven and earth.

Psalm 125 846 

A song of ascents. 847 

125:1 Those who trust in the Lord are like Mount Zion;

it cannot be upended and will endure forever.

125:2 As the mountains surround Jerusalem, 848 

so the Lord surrounds his people,

now and forevermore.

125:3 Indeed, 849  the scepter of a wicked king 850  will not settle 851 

upon the allotted land of the godly.

Otherwise the godly might

do what is wrong. 852 

125:4 Do good, O Lord, to those who are good,

to the morally upright! 853 

125:5 As for those who are bent on traveling a sinful path, 854 

may the Lord remove them, 855  along with those who behave wickedly! 856 

May Israel experience peace! 857 

Psalm 126 858 

A song of ascents. 859 

126:1 When the Lord restored the well-being of Zion, 860 

we thought we were dreaming. 861 

126:2 At that time we laughed loudly

and shouted for joy. 862 

At that time the nations said, 863 

“The Lord has accomplished great things for these people.”

126:3 The Lord did indeed accomplish great things for us.

We were happy.

126:4 O Lord, restore our well-being,

just as the streams in the arid south are replenished. 864 

126:5 Those who shed tears as they plant

will shout for joy when they reap the harvest. 865 

126:6 The one who weeps as he walks along, carrying his bag 866  of seed,

will certainly come in with a shout of joy, carrying his sheaves of grain. 867 

Psalm 127 868 

A song of ascents, 869  by Solomon.

127:1 If the Lord does not build a house, 870 

then those who build it work in vain.

If the Lord does not guard a city, 871 

then the watchman stands guard in vain.

127:2 It is vain for you to rise early, come home late,

and work so hard for your food. 872 

Yes, 873  he can provide for those whom he loves even when they sleep. 874 

127:3 Yes, 875  sons 876  are a gift from the Lord,

the fruit of the womb is a reward.

127:4 Sons born during one’s youth

are like arrows in a warrior’s hand. 877 

127:5 How blessed is the man who fills his quiver with them!

They will not be put to shame 878  when they confront 879  enemies at the city gate.

Psalm 128 880 

A song of ascents. 881 

128:1 How blessed is every one of the Lord’s loyal followers, 882 

each one who keeps his commands! 883 

128:2 You 884  will eat what you worked so hard to grow. 885 

You will be blessed and secure. 886 

128:3 Your wife will be like a fruitful vine 887 

in the inner rooms of your house;

your children 888  will be like olive branches,

as they sit all around your table.

128:4 Yes indeed, the man who fears the Lord

will be blessed in this way. 889 

128:5 May the Lord bless you 890  from Zion,

that you might see 891  Jerusalem 892  prosper

all the days of your life,

128:6 and that you might see 893  your grandchildren. 894 

May Israel experience peace! 895 

Psalm 129 896 

A song of ascents. 897 

129:1 “Since my youth they have often attacked me,”

let Israel say.

129:2 “Since my youth they have often attacked me,

but they have not defeated me.

129:3 The plowers plowed my back;

they made their furrows long.

129:4 The Lord is just;

he cut the ropes of the wicked.” 898 

129:5 May all who hate Zion

be humiliated and turned back!

129:6 May they be like the grass on the rooftops

which withers before one can even pull it up, 899 

129:7 which cannot fill the reaper’s hand,

or the lap of the one who gathers the grain!

129:8 Those who pass by will not say, 900 

“May you experience the Lord’s blessing!

We pronounce a blessing on you in the name of the Lord.”

Psalm 130 901 

A song of ascents. 902 

130:1 From the deep water 903  I cry out to you, O Lord.

130:2 O Lord, listen to me! 904 

Pay attention to 905  my plea for mercy!

130:3 If you, O Lord, were to keep track of 906  sins,

O Lord, who could stand before you? 907 

130:4 But 908  you are willing to forgive, 909 

so that you might 910  be honored. 911 

130:5 I rely on 912  the Lord,

I rely on him with my whole being; 913 

I wait for his assuring word. 914 

130:6 I yearn for the Lord, 915 

more than watchmen do for the morning,

yes, more than watchmen do for the morning. 916 

130:7 O Israel, hope in the Lord,

for the Lord exhibits loyal love, 917 

and is more than willing to deliver. 918 

130:8 He will deliver 919  Israel

from all the consequences of their sins. 920 

Psalm 131 921 

A song of ascents, 922  by David.

131:1 O Lord, my heart is not proud,

nor do I have a haughty look. 923 

I do not have great aspirations,

or concern myself with things that are beyond me. 924 

131:2 Indeed 925  I am composed and quiet, 926 

like a young child carried by its mother; 927 

I am content like the young child I carry. 928 

131:3 O Israel, hope in the Lord

now and forevermore!

Psalm 132 929 

A song of ascents. 930 

132:1 O Lord, for David’s sake remember

all his strenuous effort, 931 

132:2 and how he made a vow to the Lord,

and swore an oath to the powerful ruler of Jacob. 932 

132:3 He said, 933  “I will not enter my own home, 934 

or get into my bed. 935 

132:4 I will not allow my eyes to sleep,

or my eyelids to slumber,

132:5 until I find a place for the Lord,

a fine dwelling place 936  for the powerful ruler of Jacob.” 937 

132:6 Look, we heard about it 938  in Ephrathah, 939 

we found it in the territory of Jaar. 940 

132:7 Let us go to his dwelling place!

Let us worship 941  before his footstool!

132:8 Ascend, O Lord, to your resting place,

you and the ark of your strength!

132:9 May your priests be clothed with integrity! 942 

May your loyal followers shout for joy!

132:10 For the sake of David, your servant,

do not reject your chosen king! 943 

132:11 The Lord made a reliable promise to David; 944 

he will not go back on his word. 945 

He said, 946  “I will place one of your descendants 947  on your throne.

132:12 If your sons keep my covenant

and the rules I teach them,

their sons will also sit on your throne forever.”

132:13 Certainly 948  the Lord has chosen Zion;

he decided to make it his home. 949 

132:14 He said, 950  “This will be my resting place forever;

I will live here, for I have chosen it. 951 

132:15 I will abundantly supply what she needs; 952 

I will give her poor all the food they need. 953 

132:16 I will protect her priests, 954 

and her godly people will shout exuberantly. 955 

132:17 There I will make David strong; 956 

I have determined that my chosen king’s dynasty will continue. 957 

132:18 I will humiliate his enemies, 958 

and his crown will shine.

Psalm 133 959 

A song of ascents, 960  by David.

133:1 Look! How good and how pleasant it is

when brothers live together! 961 

133:2 It is like fine oil poured on the head

which flows down the beard 962 

Aaron’s beard,

and then flows down his garments. 963 

133:3 It is like the dew of Hermon, 964 

which flows down upon the hills of Zion. 965 

Indeed 966  that is where the Lord has decreed

a blessing will be available – eternal life. 967 

Psalm 134 968 

A song of ascents. 969 

134:1 Attention! 970  Praise the Lord,

all you servants of the Lord,

who serve 971  in the Lord’s temple during the night.

134:2 Lift your hands toward the sanctuary

and praise the Lord!

134:3 May the Lord, the Creator of heaven and earth,

bless you 972  from Zion! 973 

Psalm 135 974 

135:1 Praise the Lord!

Praise the name of the Lord!

Offer praise, you servants of the Lord,

135:2 who serve 975  in the Lord’s temple,

in the courts of the temple of our God.

135:3 Praise the Lord, for the Lord is good!

Sing praises to his name, for it is pleasant! 976 

135:4 Indeed, 977  the Lord has chosen Jacob for himself,

Israel to be his special possession. 978 

135:5 Yes, 979  I know the Lord is great,

and our Lord is superior to all gods.

135:6 He does whatever he pleases

in heaven and on earth,

in the seas and all the ocean depths.

135:7 He causes the clouds to arise from the end of the earth,

makes lightning bolts accompany the rain,

and brings the wind out of his storehouses.

135:8 He struck down the firstborn of Egypt,

including both men and animals.

135:9 He performed awesome deeds 980  and acts of judgment 981 

in your midst, O Egypt,

against Pharaoh and all his servants.

135:10 He defeated many nations,

and killed mighty kings –

135:11 Sihon, king of the Amorites,

and Og, king of Bashan,

and all the kingdoms of Canaan.

135:12 He gave their land as an inheritance,

as an inheritance to Israel his people.

135:13 O Lord, your name endures, 982 

your reputation, O Lord, lasts. 983 

135:14 For the Lord vindicates 984  his people,

and has compassion on his servants. 985 

135:15 The nations’ idols are made of silver and gold,

they are man-made. 986 

135:16 They have mouths, but cannot speak,

eyes, but cannot see,

135:17 and ears, but cannot hear.

Indeed, they cannot breathe. 987 

135:18 Those who make them will end up 988  like them,

as will everyone who trusts in them.

135:19 O family 989  of Israel, praise the Lord!

O family of Aaron, praise the Lord!

135:20 O family of Levi, praise the Lord!

You loyal followers 990  of the Lord, praise the Lord!

135:21 The Lord deserves praise in Zion 991 

he who dwells in Jerusalem. 992 

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 136 993 

136:1 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,

for his loyal love endures. 994 

136:2 Give thanks to the God of gods,

for his loyal love endures.

136:3 Give thanks to the Lord of lords,

for his loyal love endures,

136:4 to the one who performs magnificent, amazing deeds all by himself,

for his loyal love endures,

136:5 to the one who used wisdom to make the heavens,

for his loyal love endures,

136:6 to the one who spread out the earth over the water,

for his loyal love endures,

136:7 to the one who made the great lights,

for his loyal love endures,

136:8 the sun to rule by day,

for his loyal love endures,

136:9 the moon and stars to rule by night,

for his loyal love endures,

136:10 to the one who struck down the firstborn of Egypt,

for his loyal love endures,

136:11 and led Israel out from their midst,

for his loyal love endures,

136:12 with a strong hand and an outstretched arm,

for his loyal love endures,

136:13 to the one who divided 995  the Red Sea 996  in two, 997 

for his loyal love endures,

136:14 and led Israel through its midst,

for his loyal love endures,

136:15 and tossed 998  Pharaoh and his army into the Red Sea,

for his loyal love endures,

136:16 to the one who led his people through the wilderness,

for his loyal love endures,

136:17 to the one who struck down great kings,

for his loyal love endures,

136:18 and killed powerful kings,

for his loyal love endures,

136:19 Sihon, king of the Amorites,

for his loyal love endures,

136:20 Og, king of Bashan,

for his loyal love endures,

136:21 and gave their land as an inheritance,

for his loyal love endures,

136:22 as an inheritance to Israel his servant,

for his loyal love endures,

136:23 to the one who remembered us when we were down, 999 

for his loyal love endures,

136:24 and snatched us away from our enemies,

for his loyal love endures,

136:25 to the one who gives food to all living things, 1000 

for his loyal love endures.

136:26 Give thanks to the God of heaven,

for his loyal love endures!

Psalm 137 1001 

137:1 By the rivers of Babylon

we sit down and weep 1002 

when we remember Zion.

137:2 On the poplars in her midst

we hang our harps,

137:3 for there our captors ask us to compose songs; 1003 

those who mock us demand that we be happy, saying: 1004 

“Sing for us a song about Zion!” 1005 

137:4 How can we sing a song to the Lord

in a foreign land?

137:5 If I forget you, O Jerusalem,

may my right hand be crippled! 1006 

137:6 May my tongue stick to the roof of my mouth,

if I do not remember you,

and do not give Jerusalem priority

over whatever gives me the most joy. 1007 

137:7 Remember, O Lord, what the Edomites did

on the day Jerusalem fell. 1008 

They said, “Tear it down, tear it down, 1009 

right to its very foundation!”

137:8 O daughter Babylon, soon to be devastated! 1010 

How blessed will be the one who repays you

for what you dished out to us! 1011 

137:9 How blessed will be the one who grabs your babies

and smashes them on a rock! 1012 

Psalm 138 1013 

By David.

138:1 I will give you thanks with all my heart;

before the heavenly assembly 1014  I will sing praises to you.

138:2 I will bow down toward your holy temple,

and give thanks to your name,

because of your loyal love and faithfulness,

for you have exalted your promise above the entire sky. 1015 

138:3 When 1016  I cried out for help, you answered me.

You made me bold and energized me. 1017 

138:4 Let all the kings of the earth give thanks 1018  to you, O Lord,

when they hear the words you speak. 1019 

138:5 Let them sing about the Lord’s deeds, 1020 

for the Lord’s splendor is magnificent. 1021 

138:6 Though the Lord is exalted, he takes note of the lowly,

and recognizes the proud from far away.

138:7 Even when I must walk in the midst of danger, 1022  you revive me.

You oppose my angry enemies, 1023 

and your right hand delivers me.

138:8 The Lord avenges me. 1024 

O Lord, your loyal love endures.

Do not abandon those whom you have made! 1025 

Psalm 139 1026 

For the music director, a psalm of David.

139:1 O Lord, you examine me 1027  and know.

139:2 You know when I sit down and when I get up;

even from far away you understand my motives.

139:3 You carefully observe me when I travel or when I lie down to rest; 1028 

you are aware of everything I do. 1029 

139:4 Certainly 1030  my tongue does not frame a word

without you, O Lord, being thoroughly aware of it. 1031 

139:5 You squeeze me in from behind and in front;

you place your hand on me.

139:6 Your knowledge is beyond my comprehension;

it is so far beyond me, I am unable to fathom it. 1032 

139:7 Where can I go to escape your spirit?

Where can I flee to escape your presence? 1033 

139:8 If I were to ascend 1034  to heaven, you would be there.

If I were to sprawl out in Sheol, there you would be. 1035 

139:9 If I were to fly away 1036  on the wings of the dawn, 1037 

and settle down on the other side 1038  of the sea,

139:10 even there your hand would guide me,

your right hand would grab hold of me.

139:11 If I were to say, “Certainly the darkness will cover me, 1039 

and the light will turn to night all around me,” 1040 

139:12 even the darkness is not too dark for you to see, 1041 

and the night is as bright as 1042  day;

darkness and light are the same to you. 1043 

139:13 Certainly 1044  you made my mind and heart; 1045 

you wove me together 1046  in my mother’s womb.

139:14 I will give you thanks because your deeds are awesome and amazing. 1047 

You knew me thoroughly; 1048 

139:15 my bones were not hidden from you,

when 1049  I was made in secret

and sewed together in the depths of the earth. 1050 

139:16 Your eyes saw me when I was inside the womb. 1051 

All the days ordained for me

were recorded in your scroll

before one of them came into existence. 1052 

139:17 How difficult it is for me to fathom your thoughts about me, O God! 1053 

How vast is their sum total! 1054 

139:18 If I tried to count them,

they would outnumber the grains of sand.

Even if I finished counting them,

I would still have to contend with you. 1055 

139:19 If only 1056  you would kill the wicked, O God!

Get away from me, you violent men! 1057 

139:20 They 1058  rebel against you 1059  and act deceitfully; 1060 

your enemies lie. 1061 

139:21 O Lord, do I not hate those who hate you,

and despise those who oppose you? 1062 

139:22 I absolutely hate them, 1063 

they have become my enemies!

139:23 Examine me, and probe my thoughts! 1064 

Test me, and know my concerns! 1065 

139:24 See if there is any idolatrous tendency 1066  in me,

and lead me in the reliable ancient path! 1067 

Psalm 140 1068 

For the music director; a psalm of David.

140:1 O Lord, rescue me from wicked men! 1069 

Protect me from violent men, 1070 

140:2 who plan ways to harm me. 1071 

All day long they stir up conflict. 1072 

140:3 Their tongues wound like a serpent; 1073 

a viper’s 1074  venom is behind 1075  their lips. (Selah)

140:4 O Lord, shelter me from the power 1076  of the wicked!

Protect me from violent men,

who plan to knock me over. 1077 

140:5 Proud men hide a snare for me;

evil men 1078  spread a net by the path;

they set traps for me. (Selah)

140:6 I say to the Lord, “You are my God.”

O Lord, pay attention to my plea for mercy!

140:7 O sovereign Lord, my strong deliverer, 1079 

you shield 1080  my head in the day of battle.

140:8 O Lord, do not let the wicked have their way! 1081 

Do not allow their 1082  plan to succeed when they attack! 1083  (Selah)

140:9 As for the heads of those who surround me –

may the harm done by 1084  their lips overwhelm them!

140:10 May he rain down 1085  fiery coals upon them!

May he throw them into the fire!

From bottomless pits they will not escape. 1086 

140:11 A slanderer 1087  will not endure on 1088  the earth;

calamity will hunt down a violent man and strike him down. 1089 

140:12 I know 1090  that the Lord defends the cause of the oppressed

and vindicates the poor. 1091 

140:13 Certainly the godly will give thanks to your name;

the morally upright will live in your presence.

Psalm 141 1092 

A psalm of David.

141:1 O Lord, I cry out to you. Come quickly to me!

Pay attention to me when I cry out to you!

141:2 May you accept my prayer like incense,

my uplifted hands like the evening offering! 1093 

141:3 O Lord, place a guard on my mouth!

Protect the opening 1094  of my lips! 1095 

141:4 Do not let me have evil desires, 1096 

or participate in sinful activities

with men who behave wickedly. 1097 

I will not eat their delicacies. 1098 

141:5 May the godly strike me in love and correct me!

May my head not refuse 1099  choice oil! 1100 

Indeed, my prayer is a witness against their evil deeds. 1101 

141:6 They will be thrown down the side of a cliff by their judges. 1102 

They 1103  will listen to my words, for they are pleasant.

141:7 As when one plows and breaks up the soil, 1104 

so our bones are scattered at the mouth of Sheol.

141:8 Surely I am looking to you, 1105  O sovereign Lord.

In you I take shelter.

Do not expose me to danger! 1106 

141:9 Protect me from the snare they have laid for me,

and the traps the evildoers have set. 1107 

141:10 Let the wicked fall 1108  into their 1109  own nets,

while I escape. 1110 

Psalm 142 1111 

A well-written song 1112  by David, when he was in the cave; 1113  a prayer.

142:1 To the Lord I cry out; 1114 

to the Lord I plead for mercy. 1115 

142:2 I pour out my lament before him;

I tell him about 1116  my troubles.

142:3 Even when my strength leaves me, 1117 

you watch my footsteps. 1118 

In the path where I walk

they have hidden a trap for me.

142:4 Look to the right and see!

No one cares about me. 1119 

I have nowhere to run; 1120 

no one is concerned about my life. 1121 

142:5 I cry out to you, O Lord;

I say, “You are my shelter,

my security 1122  in the land of the living.”

142:6 Listen to my cry for help,

for I am in serious trouble! 1123 

Rescue me from those who chase me,

for they are stronger than I am.

142:7 Free me 1124  from prison,

that I may give thanks to your name.

Because of me the godly will assemble, 1125 

for you will vindicate me. 1126 

Psalm 143 1127 

A psalm of David.

143:1 O Lord, hear my prayer!

Pay attention to my plea for help!

Because of your faithfulness and justice, answer me!

143:2 Do not sit in judgment on 1128  your servant,

for no one alive is innocent before you. 1129 

143:3 Certainly 1130  my enemies 1131  chase me.

They smash me into the ground. 1132 

They force me to live 1133  in dark regions, 1134 

like those who have been dead for ages.

143:4 My strength leaves me; 1135 

I am absolutely shocked. 1136 

143:5 I recall the old days; 1137 

I meditate on all you have done;

I reflect on your accomplishments. 1138 

143:6 I spread my hands out to you in prayer; 1139 

my soul thirsts for you in a parched 1140  land. 1141 

143:7 Answer me quickly, Lord!

My strength is fading. 1142 

Do not reject me, 1143 

or I will join 1144  those descending into the grave. 1145 

143:8 May I hear about your loyal love in the morning, 1146 

for I trust in you.

Show me the way I should go, 1147 

because I long for you. 1148 

143:9 Rescue me from my enemies, O Lord!

I run to you for protection. 1149 

143:10 Teach me to do what pleases you, 1150 

for you are my God.

May your kind presence 1151 

lead me 1152  into a level land. 1153 

143:11 O Lord, for the sake of your reputation, 1154  revive me! 1155 

Because of your justice, rescue me from trouble! 1156 

143:12 As a demonstration of your loyal love, 1157  destroy my enemies!

Annihilate 1158  all who threaten my life, 1159 

for I am your servant.

Psalm 144 1160 

By David.

144:1 The Lord, my protector, 1161  deserves praise 1162 

the one who trains my hands for battle, 1163 

and my fingers for war,

144:2 who loves me 1164  and is my stronghold,

my refuge 1165  and my deliverer,

my shield and the one in whom I take shelter,

who makes nations submit to me. 1166 

144:3 O Lord, of what importance is the human race, 1167  that you should notice them?

Of what importance is mankind, 1168  that you should be concerned about them? 1169 

144:4 People 1170  are like a vapor,

their days like a shadow that disappears. 1171 

144:5 O Lord, make the sky sink 1172  and come down! 1173 

Touch the mountains and make them smolder! 1174 

144:6 Hurl lightning bolts and scatter them!

Shoot your arrows and rout them! 1175 

144:7 Reach down 1176  from above!

Grab me and rescue me from the surging water, 1177 

from the power of foreigners, 1178 

144:8 who speak lies,

and make false promises. 1179 

144:9 O God, I will sing a new song to you!

Accompanied by a ten-stringed instrument, I will sing praises to you,

144:10 the one who delivers 1180  kings,

and rescued David his servant from a deadly 1181  sword.

144:11 Grab me and rescue me from the power of foreigners, 1182 

who speak lies,

and make false promises. 1183 

144:12 Then 1184  our sons will be like plants,

that quickly grow to full size. 1185 

Our daughters will be like corner pillars, 1186 

carved like those in a palace. 1187 

144:13 Our storehouses 1188  will be full,

providing all kinds of food. 1189 

Our sheep will multiply by the thousands

and fill 1190  our pastures. 1191 

144:14 Our cattle will be weighted down with produce. 1192 

No one will break through our walls,

no one will be taken captive,

and there will be no terrified cries in our city squares. 1193 

144:15 How blessed are the people who experience these things! 1194 

How blessed are the people whose God is the Lord!

Psalm 145 1195 

A psalm of praise, by David.

145:1 I will extol you, my God, O king!

I will praise your name continually! 1196 

145:2 Every day I will praise you!

I will praise your name continually! 1197 

145:3 The Lord is great and certainly worthy of praise!

No one can fathom his greatness! 1198 

145:4 One generation will praise your deeds to another,

and tell about your mighty acts! 1199 

145:5 I will focus on your honor and majestic splendor,

and your amazing deeds! 1200 

145:6 They will proclaim 1201  the power of your awesome acts!

I will declare your great deeds!

145:7 They will talk about the fame of your great kindness, 1202 

and sing about your justice. 1203 

145:8 The Lord is merciful and compassionate;

he is patient 1204  and demonstrates great loyal love. 1205 

145:9 The Lord is good to all,

and has compassion on all he has made. 1206 

145:10 All he has made will give thanks to the Lord.

Your loyal followers will praise you.

145:11 They will proclaim the splendor of your kingdom;

they will tell about your power,

145:12 so that mankind 1207  might acknowledge your mighty acts,

and the majestic splendor of your kingdom.

145:13 Your kingdom is an eternal kingdom, 1208 

and your dominion endures through all generations.

145:14 1209 The Lord supports all who fall,

and lifts up all who are bent over. 1210 

145:15 Everything looks to you in anticipation, 1211 

and you provide them with food on a regular basis. 1212 

145:16 You open your hand,

and fill every living thing with the food they desire. 1213 

145:17 The Lord is just in all his actions, 1214 

and exhibits love in all he does. 1215 

145:18 The Lord is near all who cry out to him,

all who cry out to him sincerely. 1216 

145:19 He satisfies the desire 1217  of his loyal followers; 1218 

he hears their cry for help and delivers them.

145:20 The Lord protects those who love him,

but he destroys all the wicked.

145:21 My mouth will praise the Lord. 1219 

Let all who live 1220  praise his holy name forever!

Psalm 146 1221 

146:1 Praise the Lord!

Praise the Lord, O my soul!

146:2 I will praise the Lord as long as I live!

I will sing praises to my God as long as I exist!

146:3 Do not trust in princes,

or in human beings, who cannot deliver! 1222 

146:4 Their life’s breath departs, they return to the ground;

on that day their plans die. 1223 

146:5 How blessed is the one whose helper is the God of Jacob,

whose hope is in the Lord his God,

146:6 the one who made heaven and earth,

the sea, and all that is in them,

who remains forever faithful, 1224 

146:7 vindicates the oppressed, 1225 

and gives food to the hungry.

The Lord releases the imprisoned.

146:8 The Lord gives sight to the blind.

The Lord lifts up all who are bent over. 1226 

The Lord loves the godly.

146:9 The Lord protects those residing outside their native land;

he lifts up the fatherless and the widow, 1227 

but he opposes the wicked. 1228 

146:10 The Lord rules forever,

your God, O Zion, throughout the generations to come! 1229 

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 147 1230 

147:1 Praise the Lord,

for it is good to sing praises to our God!

Yes, 1231  praise is pleasant and appropriate!

147:2 The Lord rebuilds Jerusalem, 1232 

and gathers the exiles of Israel.

147:3 He heals 1233  the brokenhearted,

and bandages their wounds.

147:4 He counts the number of the stars;

he names all of them.

147:5 Our Lord is great and has awesome power; 1234 

there is no limit to his wisdom. 1235 

147:6 The Lord lifts up the oppressed,

but knocks 1236  the wicked to the ground.

147:7 Offer to the Lord a song of thanks! 1237 

Sing praises to our God to the accompaniment of a harp!

147:8 He covers 1238  the sky with clouds,

provides the earth with rain,

and causes grass to grow on the hillsides. 1239 

147:9 He gives food to the animals,

and to the young ravens when they chirp. 1240 

147:10 He is not enamored with the strength of a horse,

nor is he impressed by the warrior’s strong legs. 1241 

147:11 The Lord takes delight in his faithful followers, 1242 

and in those who wait for his loyal love.

147:12 Extol the Lord, O Jerusalem!

Praise your God, O Zion!

147:13 For he makes the bars of your gates strong.

He blesses your children 1243  within you.

147:14 He 1244  brings peace to your territory. 1245 

He abundantly provides for you 1246  the best grain.

147:15 He 1247  sends his command through the earth; 1248 

swiftly his order reaches its destination. 1249 

147:16 He sends the snow that is white like wool;

he spreads the frost that is white like ashes. 1250 

147:17 He throws his hailstones 1251  like crumbs.

Who can withstand the cold wind he sends? 1252 

147:18 He then orders it all to melt; 1253 

he breathes on it, 1254  and the water flows.

147:19 He proclaims his word to Jacob,

his statutes and regulations to Israel.

147:20 He has not done so with any other nation;

they are not aware of his regulations.

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 148 1255 

148:1 Praise the Lord!

Praise the Lord from the sky!

Praise him in the heavens!

148:2 Praise him, all his angels! 1256 

Praise him, all his heavenly assembly! 1257 

148:3 Praise him, O sun and moon!

Praise him, all you shiny stars! 1258 

148:4 Praise him, O highest heaven,

and you waters above the sky! 1259 

148:5 Let them praise the name of the Lord,

for he gave the command and they came into existence.

148:6 He established them so they would endure; 1260 

he issued a decree that will not be revoked. 1261 

148:7 Praise the Lord from the earth,

you sea creatures and all you ocean depths,

148:8 O fire and hail, snow and clouds, 1262 

O stormy wind that carries out his orders, 1263 

148:9 you mountains and all you hills,

you fruit trees and all you cedars,

148:10 you animals and all you cattle,

you creeping things and birds,

148:11 you kings of the earth and all you nations,

you princes and all you leaders 1264  on the earth,

148:12 you young men and young women,

you elderly, along with you children!

148:13 Let them praise the name of the Lord,

for his name alone is exalted;

his majesty extends over the earth and sky.

148:14 He has made his people victorious, 1265 

and given all his loyal followers reason to praise –

the Israelites, the people who are close to him. 1266 

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 149 1267 

149:1 Praise the Lord!

Sing to the Lord a new song!

Praise him in the assembly of the godly! 1268 

149:2 Let Israel rejoice in their Creator!

Let the people 1269  of Zion delight in their king! 1270 

149:3 Let them praise his name with dancing!

Let them sing praises to him to the accompaniment of the tambourine and harp!

149:4 For the Lord takes delight in his people;

he exalts the oppressed by delivering them. 1271 

149:5 Let the godly rejoice because of their vindication! 1272 

Let them shout for joy upon their beds! 1273 

149:6 May they praise God

while they hold a two-edged sword in their hand, 1274 

149:7 in order to take 1275  revenge on the nations,

and punish foreigners.

149:8 They bind 1276  their kings in chains,

and their nobles in iron shackles,

149:9 and execute the judgment to which their enemies 1277  have been sentenced. 1278 

All his loyal followers will be vindicated. 1279 

Praise the Lord!

Psalm 150 1280 

150:1 Praise the Lord!

Praise God in his sanctuary!

Praise him in the sky, which testifies to his strength! 1281 

150:2 Praise him for his mighty acts!

Praise him for his surpassing greatness!

150:3 Praise him with the blast of the horn!

Praise him with the lyre and the harp!

150:4 Praise him with the tambourine and with dancing!

Praise him with stringed instruments and the flute!

150:5 Praise him with loud cymbals!

Praise him with clanging cymbals!

150:6 Let everything that has breath praise the Lord!

Praise the Lord!

1 sn Psalm 101. The psalmist, who appears to be a king, promises to promote justice in his land and vows to rid his royal court of evildoers.

2 tn Heb “take notice of.”

3 tn Heb “I will walk about in the integrity of my heart in the midst of my house.”

4 tn Heb “I will not set before my eyes a thing of worthlessness.”

5 tn Heb “the doing of swerving [deeds] I hate.” The Hebrew term סֵטִים (setim) is probably an alternate spelling of שֵׂטִים (setim), which appears in many medieval Hebrew mss. The form appears to be derived from a verbal root שׂוּט (sut, “to fall away; to swerve”; see Ps 40:4).

6 tn Heb “it [i.e., the doing of evil deeds] does not cling to me.”

7 tn Heb “a perverse heart will turn aside from me.” The adjective עִקֵּשׁ (’iqqesh) has the basic nuance “twisted; crooked” and by extension refers to someone or something that is morally perverse (see Ps 18:26). It appears frequently in the Book of Proverbs, where it is used of evil people (22:5), speech (8:8; 19:1), thoughts (11:20; 17:20), and life styles (2:15; 28:6).

8 tn Heb “know.” The king will not willingly allow perverse individuals to remain in his royal court.

9 tn Heb “[one who has] pride of eyes and wideness [i.e., arrogance] of heart, him I will not endure.”

10 tn Heb “my eyes [are] on the faithful of the land.”

11 tn The Hebrew text simply reads, “in order to live with me.”

12 tn Heb “one who walks in the way of integrity, he will minister to me.”

13 tn Heb “he will not live in the midst of my house, one who does deceit.”

14 tn Heb “one who speaks lies will not be established before my eyes.”

15 sn Psalm 102. The psalmist laments his oppressed state, but longs for a day when the Lord will restore Jerusalem and vindicate his suffering people.

16 tn Heb “and may my cry for help come to you.”

17 tn Heb “do not hide your face from me in the day of my trouble.” The idiom “to hide the face” can mean “to ignore” (see Pss 10:11; 13:1; 51:9) or carry the stronger idea of “to reject” (see Pss 29:7; 30:7; 88:14).

18 tn Heb “turn toward me your ear.”

19 tn Heb “for my days come to an end in smoke.”

20 tn The Hebrew noun מוֹ־קֵד (mo-qed, “fireplace”) occurs only here, in Isa 33:14 (where it refers to the fire itself), and perhaps in Lev 6:2.

21 tn Heb “struck, attacked.”

22 tn Heb “I forget.”

23 sn I am unable to eat food. During his time of mourning, the psalmist refrained from eating. In the following verse he describes metaphorically the physical effects of fasting.

24 tn Heb “from the sound of my groaning my bone[s] stick to my flesh.” The preposition at the beginning of the verse is causal; the phrase “sound of my groaning” is metonymic for the anxiety that causes the groaning. The point seems to be this: Anxiety (which causes the psalmist to groan) keeps him from eating (v. 4). This physical deprivation in turn makes him emaciated – he is turned to “skin and bones,” so to speak.

25 tn The Hebrew term קָאַת (qaat) refers to some type of bird (see Lev 11:18; Deut 14:17) that was typically found near ruins (see Zeph 2:14). Modern translations have frequently rendered this as some type of owl (NIV, REB “desert owl”; NRSV “owl”).

26 tn The Hebrew term כוֹס (khos) refers to a bird (see Lev 11:17; Deut 14:16), probably a type of owl (cf. NIV, REB “owl”; NRSV “little owl”).

27 sn By comparing himself to a screech owl among the ruins, the psalmist may be highlighting his loneliness (see v. 7), though he may also be comparing his cries for help to the owl’s screech.

28 tn This probably refers to the psalmist’s inability to sleep. Another option is to translate, “I keep watch,” in which case it might refer to watching for a response from the Lord (see vv. 1-2).

29 tn Heb “by me they swear.” When the psalmist’s enemies call judgment down on others, they hold the psalmist up as a prime example of what they desire their enemies to become.

30 sn Mourners would sometimes put ashes on their head or roll in ashes as a sign of mourning (see 2 Sam 13:19; Job 2:8; Isa 58:5).

31 tn Heb “weeping.”

32 tn Or “for.”

33 tn Heb “my days [are] like an extended [or “lengthening”] shadow,” that is, like a late afternoon shadow made by the descending sun that will soon be swallowed up by complete darkness.

34 tn Heb “sit” (i.e., sit enthroned, see Ps 9:7). The imperfect verbal form highlights the generalization.

35 tn Heb “and your remembrance [is] for a generation and a generation.”

36 tn The imperfect verbal forms are understood as expressing the psalmist’s confidence in God’s intervention. Another option is to take them as expressing the psalmist’s request or wish, “You, rise up and have compassion!”

37 tn Or “for.”

38 tn The Poel of חָנַן (khanan) occurs only here and in Prov 14:21, where it refers to having compassion on the poor.

39 tn Heb “her dust,” probably referring to the dust of the city’s rubble.

40 tn Heb “will fear the name of the Lord.” To “fear” God’s name means to have a healthy respect for his revealed reputation which in turn motivates one to obey God’s commands (see Ps 86:11).

41 tn The verb “will fear” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the preceding line).

42 tn The Hebrew adjective עַרְעָר (’arar, “destitute”) occurs only here in the OT. It is derived from the verbal root ערר (“to strip oneself”).

43 tn Heb “despise.”

44 tn The perfect verbal forms in vv. 16-17 are functioning as future perfects, indicating future actions that will precede the future developments described in v. 15.

45 tn The Hebrew text has simply “this,” referring to the anticipated divine intervention on behalf of Zion (vv. 13, 16-17). The referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

46 tn Heb “from the height of his sanctuary.”

47 tn The perfect verbal forms in v. 19 are functioning as future perfects, indicating future actions that will precede the future developments described in v. 18.

48 tn Heb “the sons of death.” The phrase “sons of death” (see also Ps 79:11) is idiomatic for those condemned to die.

49 tn Heb “his praise.”

50 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

51 tn “and the kingdoms to serve the Lord.”

52 tn Heb “he has afflicted my strength in the way.” The term “way” refers here to the course of the psalmist’s life, which appears to be ending prematurely (vv. 23b-24).

53 tn Heb “do not lift me up in the middle of my days.”

54 tn Heb “in a generation of generations [are] your years.”

55 tn Heb “stand.”

56 tn The Hebrew verb חָלַף (khalaf) occurs twice in this line, once in the Hiphil (“you will remove them”) and once in the Qal (“they will disappear”). The repetition draws attention to the statement.

57 tn Heb “you [are] he,” or “you [are] the one.” The statement may echo the Lord’s affirmation “I am he” in Isa 41:4; 43:10, 13; 46:10; 48:12. In each of these passages the affirmation emphasizes the fact that the Lord transcends time limitations, the very point being made in Ps 102:27.

58 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”

59 tn Heb “before you will be established.”

60 sn Psalm 103. The psalmist praises God for his mercy and willingness to forgive his people.

61 tn The verb “praise” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the preceding line).

62 tn Or “his benefits” (see 2 Chr 32:25, where the noun is also used of kind deeds performed by the Lord).

63 tn This relatively rare noun refers to deadly diseases (see Deut 29:22; Jer 14:18; 16:4; 2 Chr 21:19).

64 tn Or “redeems.”

65 tn The Hebrew term שַׁחַת (shakhat, “pit”) is often used as a title for Sheol (see Pss 16:10; 30:9; 49:9; 55:24.

66 tc Heb “who satisfies with the good of your ornaments.” The text as it stands makes little, if any, sense. The translation assumes an emendation of עֶדְיֵךְ (’edekh, “your ornaments”) to עֹדֵכִי (’odekhiy, “your duration; your continuance”) that is, “your life” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 18).

67 sn The expression your youth is renewed like an eagle’s may allude to the phenomenon of molting, whereby the eagle grows new feathers.

68 tn Heb “the Lord does fairness, and [acts of] justice for all the oppressed.”

69 tn Heb “made known his ways.” God’s “ways” in this context are his protective and salvific acts in fulfillment of his promise (see also Deut 32:4; Pss 18:30; 67:2; 77:13 [note vv. 11-12, 14]; 138:5; 145:17).

70 tn Heb “slow to anger” (see Ps 86:15).

71 tn Heb “and great of loyal love” (see Ps 86:15).

72 tn The Hebrew verb נָטַר (natar) is usually taken to mean “to keep; to guard,” with “anger” being understood by ellipsis. The idiom “to guard anger” is then understood to mean “to remain angry” (see Lev 19:18; Jer 3:5, 12; Nah 1:2). However, it is possible that this is a homonymic root meaning “to be angry” (see HALOT 695 s.v. נטר).

73 tn Heb “not according to our sins does he do to us.”

74 tn Heb “and not according to our misdeeds does he repay us.”

75 tn For this sense of the verb גָבַר (gavar), see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 17, 19.

76 tn Heb “those who fear him.”

77 tn Heb “sunrise.”

78 tn Or “sunset.”

79 tn The Hebrew term פֶּשַׁע (pesha’, rebellious act”) is here used metonymically for the guilt such actions produce.

80 tn Or “sons,” but the Hebrew term sometimes refers to children in general.

81 tn Heb “those who fear him.”

82 tn Heb “our form.”

83 tn Heb “remembers.”

84 tn Heb “we [are] clay.”

85 tn Heb “[as for] mankind, like grass [are] his days.” The Hebrew noun אֱנוֹשׁ (’enosh) is used here generically of human beings. What is said is true of all mankind.

86 tn Heb “[the] wind.” The word “hot” is supplied in the translation for clarification.

87 tn Heb “but the loyal love of the Lord [is] from everlasting to everlasting over those who fear him.”

88 tn Heb “and his righteousness to sons of sons.”

89 tn Heb “to those who remember his precepts to do them.”

90 tn Heb “his kingdom rules over all.”

91 tn Heb “[you] mighty ones of strength, doers of his word, by listening to the voice of his word.”

92 tn Heb “all his hosts.”

93 tn Heb “his attendants, doers of his desire.”

94 tn Heb “all his works,” which includes mankind.

95 tn Heb “places.”

96 sn Psalm 104. The psalmist praises God as the ruler of the world who sustains all life.

97 tn Heb “very great.”

98 tn Heb “one who lays the beams on water [in] his upper rooms.” The “water” mentioned here corresponds to the “waters above” mentioned in Gen 1:7. For a discussion of the picture envisioned by the psalmist, see L. I. J. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World, 44-45.

99 sn Verse 3 may depict the Lord riding a cherub, which is in turn propelled by the wind current. Another option is that the wind is personified as a cherub. See Ps 18:10 and the discussion of ancient Near Eastern parallels to the imagery in M. Weinfeld, “‘Rider of the Clouds’ and ‘Gatherer of the Clouds’,” JANESCU 5 (1973): 422-24.

100 tc Heb “and his attendants a flaming fire.” The lack of agreement between the singular “fire” and plural “attendants” has prompted various emendations. Some read “fire and flame.” The present translation assumes an emendation to “his attendant” (יו in the Hebrew text being virtually dittographic).

sn In Ugaritic mythology Yam’s messengers appear as flaming fire before the assembly of the gods. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 42.

101 tc Heb “you covered it.” The masculine suffix is problematic if the grammatically feminine noun “earth” is the antecedent. For this reason some emend the form to a feminine verb with feminine suffix, כִּסַּתָּה (kisattah, “[the watery deep] covered it [i.e., the earth]”), a reading assumed by the present translation.

102 tn Heb “stood.”

103 sn Verse 6 refers to the condition described in Gen 1:2 (note the use of the Hebrew term תְּהוֹם [tÿhom, “watery deep”] in both texts).

104 tn Heb “from your shout they fled, from the sound of your thunder they hurried off.”

sn Verses 7-8 poetically depict Gen 1:9-10.

105 tn Heb “a boundary you set up, they will not cross, they will not return to cover the earth.”

106 tn Heb “[the] one who sends springs into streams.” Another option is to translate, “he sends streams [i.e., streams that originate from springs] into the valleys” (cf. NIV).

107 tn Heb “among the thick foliage they give a sound.”

108 tn Heb “from his upper rooms.”

109 tn Heb “from the fruit of your works the earth is full.” The translation assumes that “fruit” is literal here. If “fruit” is understood more abstractly as “product; result,” then one could translate, “the earth flourishes as a result of your deeds” (cf. NIV, NRSV, REB).

110 tn Heb “causes the grass to sprout up.”

111 tn Heb “for the service of man” (see Gen 2:5).

112 tn Heb “to cause food to come out from the earth.”

113 tn Heb “and wine [that] makes the heart of man happy.”

114 tn Heb “to make [the] face shine from oil.” The Hebrew verb צָהַל (tsahal, “to shine”) occurs only here in the OT. It appears to be an alternate form of צָהַר (tsahar), a derivative from צָהָרִים (tsaharim, “noon”).

115 tn Heb “and food [that] sustains the heart of man.”

116 sn The trees of the Lord are the cedars of Lebanon (see the next line), which are viewed as special because of their great size and grandeur. The Lebanon forest was viewed elsewhere in the OT as the “garden of God” (see Ezek 31:8).

117 tn Heb “are satisfied,” which means here that they receive abundant rain (see v. 13).

118 tn Heb “[the] heron [in the] evergreens [is] its home.”

sn The cedars and evergreens of the Lebanon forest are frequently associated (see, for example, 2 Chr 2:8; Isa 14:8; 37:24; Ezek 31:8).

119 tn Heb “the high mountains [are] for the goats.”

120 tn Heb “he made [the] moon for appointed times.” The phrase “appointed times” probably refers to the months of the Hebrew lunar calendar.

121 tn Heb more metaphorically, “knows its setting.”

122 tn Heb “you make darkness, so that it might be night.”

123 sn The lions’ roaring is viewed as a request for food from God.

124 tn Heb “lie down.”

125 tn Heb “man goes out to his work, and to his labor until evening.”

126 tn Heb “How many [are] your works, O Lord.” In this case the Lord’s “works” are the creatures he has made, as the preceding and following contexts make clear.

127 tn Heb “all of them with wisdom you have made.”

128 tn Heb “this [is] the sea, great and broad of hands [i.e., “sides” or “shores”].”

129 tn Heb “where [there are] swimming things, and without number.”

130 tn Heb “[and] this Leviathan, [which] you formed to play in it.” Elsewhere Leviathan is a multiheaded sea monster that symbolizes forces hostile to God (see Ps 74:14; Isa 27:1), but here it appears to be an actual marine creature created by God, probably some type of whale.

131 tn Heb “All of them.” The pronoun “them” refers not just to the sea creatures mentioned in vv. 25-26, but to all living things (see v. 24). This has been specified in the translation as “all of your creatures” for clarity.

132 tn Heb “to give their food in its time.”

133 tn Heb “they are satisfied [with] good.”

134 tn Heb “you hide your face, they are terrified.”

135 tn Heb “be forever.”

136 tn Or “rejoice in his works.”

137 tn Heb “in my duration.”

138 tn That is, the psalmist’s thoughts as expressed in his songs of praise.

139 tn Or “be destroyed.”

140 sn Psalm 105. The psalmist summons Israel to praise God because he delivered his people from Egypt in fulfillment of his covenantal promises to Abraham. A parallel version of vv. 1-15 appears in 1 Chr 16:8-22.

141 tn Heb “and the judgments of his mouth.”

142 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”

143 tc Some mss have “Israel,” which appears in the parallel version of this psalm in 1 Chr 16:13.

144 tn Heb “his”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

145 tn Heb “sons.”

146 tn Heb “his”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

147 tn Heb “in all the earth [are] his judgments.”

148 tn Heb “[the] word he commanded.” The text refers here to God’s unconditional covenantal promise to Abraham and the patriarchs, as vv. 10-12 make clear.

149 tn Heb “which.”

150 tn Or “eternal covenant.”

151 tn Heb “and from a kingdom to another nation.”

152 tn The word “saying” is supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.

153 tn Heb “anointed.”

154 tn Heb “and every staff of food he broke.” The psalmist refers to the famine that occurred in Joseph’s time (see v. 17 and Gen 41:53-57).

155 tn After the reference to the famine in v. 16, v. 17 flashes back to events that preceded the famine (see Gen 37).

156 tn Heb “they afflicted his feet with shackles.”

157 tn Heb “his neck came [into] iron.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with the suffix could mean simply “he” or “his life.” But the nuance “neck” makes good sense here (note the reference to his “feet” in the preceding line). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 38.

158 tn Heb “word,” probably referring to Joseph’s prediction about the fate of Pharaoh’s cupbearer and baker (see Gen 41:9-14).

159 tn This line may refer to Joseph’s prediction of the famine in response to Pharaoh’s dream. Joseph emphasized to Pharaoh that the interpretation of the dream came from God (see Gen 41:16, 25, 28, 32, 39).

160 tn Heb “refined him.”

161 tn Heb “[the] king sent and set him free.”

162 tn Heb “he made him master of his house.”

163 tn Heb “to bind his officials by his will.”

164 tn Heb “and his elders he taught wisdom.”

165 tn Heb “entered.”

166 tn Heb “lived as a resident alien.”

167 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

168 tn Heb “him,” referring to “his people.”

169 tn Heb “his,” referring to “his people.”

170 tn Heb “their heart.”

171 tn Or “to deal deceptively.” The Hitpael of נָכַל (nakhal) occurs only here and in Gen 37:18, where it is used of Joseph’s brothers “plotting” to kill him.

172 tn Apparently the pronoun refers to “his servants” (i.e., the Israelites, see v. 25).

173 tn Heb “he sent darkness and made it dark.”

sn He made it dark. The psalmist begins with the ninth plague (see Exod 10:21-29).

174 tn Heb “they did not rebel against his words.” Apparently this refers to Moses and Aaron, who obediently carried out God’s orders.

175 tn Heb “he spoke and flies came.”

176 tn Heb “he gave their rains hail.”

177 tn Heb “fire of flames [was] in their land.”

178 tn Heb “he spoke and locusts came.”

179 tn Heb “the fruit of their ground.”

180 tn Heb “the beginning of all their strength,” that is, reproductive power (see Ps 78:51).

sn Verses 28-36 recall the plagues in a different order than the one presented in Exodus: v. 28 (plague 9), v. 29 (plague 1), v. 30 (plague 2), v. 31a (plague 4), v. 31b (plague 3), vv. 32-33 (plague 7), vv. 34-35 (plague 8), v. 36 (plague 10). No reference is made in Ps 105 to plagues 5 and 6.

181 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the Lord’s people) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

182 tn The word “enriched” is supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.

183 tn Heb “for fear of them had fallen upon them.”

184 tn Or “curtain.”

185 tn Heb “he [i.e., his people] asked.” The singular form should probably be emended to a plural שָׁאֲלוּ (shaalu, “they asked”), the vav (ו) having fallen off by haplography (note the vav at the beginning of the following form).

186 tn Or “bread of heaven.” The reference is to manna (see Exod 16:4, 13-15).

187 tn Or “for.”

188 tn Heb “his holy word.”

189 tn Heb “and he led his people out with joy, with a ringing cry, his chosen ones.”

190 tn Heb “and the [product of the] work of peoples they possessed.”

191 tn Heb “guard.”

192 sn Psalm 106. The psalmist recalls Israel’s long history of rebellion against God, despite his mighty saving deeds on their behalf.

193 tn Heb “for forever [is] his loyal love.”

194 tn Heb “[or] cause to be heard all his praise.”

195 tn Heb “good.”

196 tn Heb “in order that [I may] rejoice with the rejoicing of your nation.”

197 tn Heb “with your inheritance.”

198 tn Heb “with.”

199 tn Heb “fathers” (also in v. 7).

200 tn Heb “Reed Sea” (also in vv. 9, 22). “Reed Sea” (or “Sea of Reeds”) is a more accurate rendering of the Hebrew expression יָם סוּף (yam suf), traditionally translated “Red Sea.” See the note on the term “Red Sea” in Exod 13:18.

sn They rebelled. The psalmist recalls the people’s complaint recorded in Exod 14:12.

201 tn Heb “his name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.

202 tn Or “rebuked.”

203 tn Heb “hand.”

204 tn Or “redeemed.”

205 tn Heb “hand.”

206 tn Heb “remained.”

207 tn Heb “his words.”

208 tn Heb “his works.”

209 tn Heb “his counsel.”

210 sn They had an insatiable craving. This is described in Num 11:4-35.

211 tn Heb “they craved [with] a craving.”

212 tn Heb “they tested God.”

213 tn Heb “and he sent leanness into their being.”

sn Disease. See Num 11:33-34, where this plague is described.

214 tn Or “envied.”

215 tn Heb “the holy one of the Lord.”

216 tn Or “covered.”

217 tn Or “the assembly of Abiram.”

218 sn Verses 16-18 describe the events of Num 16:1-40.

219 tn Heb “their glory.” According to an ancient Hebrew scribal tradition, the text originally read “his glory” or “my glory.” In Jer 2:11 the Lord states that his people (Israel) exchanged “their glory” (a reference to the Lord) for worthless idols.

220 tn Heb “forgot.”

221 tn Or “awe-inspiring.”

222 tn Heb “and he said.”

223 tn Heb “if not,” that is, “[and would have] if [Moses] had not.”

224 tn Heb “stood in the gap before him.”

225 tn Heb “to turn back his anger from destroying.”

sn Verses 19-23 describe the events of Exod 32:1-35.

226 tn Heb “a land of delight” (see also Jer 3:19; Zech 7:14).

227 tn Heb “his word.”

228 sn They grumbled in their tents. See Deut 1:27.

229 tn Heb “did not listen to the voice of.”

230 tn Heb “and he lifted his hand to [or “concerning”] them.” The idiom “to lift a hand” here refers to swearing an oath. One would sometimes solemnly lift one’s hand when making such a vow (see Ezek 20:5-6, 15).

231 tn Heb “to cause them to fall.”

232 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”

233 tn Heb “and to cause their offspring to fall.” Some emend the verb to “scatter” to form tighter parallelism with the following line (cf. NRSV “disperse”).

234 tn Heb “among the lands.” The word “foreign” is supplied in the translation for clarification.

235 tn Heb “joined themselves to.”

sn They worshiped Baal of Peor. See Num 25:3, 5. Baal of Peor was a local manifestation of the Canaanite deity Baal located at Peor.

236 tn Here “the dead” may refer to deceased ancestors (see Deut 26:14). Another option is to understand the term as a derogatory reference to the various deities which the Israelites worshiped at Peor along with Baal (see Num 25:2 and L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 49).

237 tn Heb “They made angry [him].” The pronominal suffix is omitted here, but does appear in a few medieval Hebrew mss. Perhaps it was accidentally left off, an original וַיַּכְעִיסוּהוּ (vayyakhisuhu) being misread as וַיַּכְעִיסוּ (vayyakhisu). In the translation the referent of the pronominal suffix (the Lord) has been specified for clarity to avoid confusion with Baal of Peor (mentioned in the previous verse).

238 sn The intervention of Phinehas is recounted in Num 25:7-8.

239 tn Heb “and it was reckoned to him for righteousness, to a generation and a generation forever.” The verb חָשַׁב (khashav, “to reckon”) is collocated with צְדָקָה (tsÿdaqah, “righteousness”) only in Ps 106:31 and Gen 15:6, where God rewards Abram’s faith with a land grant.

sn Brought him a reward. See Num 25:12-13.

240 tn Heb “there was harm to Moses.”

241 tn The Hebrew text vocalizes the form as הִמְרוּ (himru), a Hiphil from מָרָה (marah, “to behave rebelliously”), but the verb fits better with the object (“his spirit”) if it is revocalized as הֵמֵרוּ (hemeru), a Hiphil from מָרַר (marar, “to be bitter”). The Israelites “embittered” Moses’ “spirit” in the sense that they aroused his temper with their complaints.

242 tn Heb “his spirit.”

243 tn The Hebrew text adds “with his lips,” but this has not been included in the translation for stylistic reasons.

sn Verses 32-33 allude to the events of Num 20:1-13.

244 tn That is, the nations of Canaan.

245 tn Heb “their deeds.”

246 tn Or “served.”

247 sn Became a snare. See Exod 23:33; Judg 2:3.

248 tn The Hebrew term שֵׁדִים (shedim, “demons”) occurs only here and in Deut 32:17. Some type of lesser deity is probably in view.

249 sn Num 35:33-34 explains that bloodshed defiles a land.

250 tn Heb “and they committed adultery in their actions.” This means that they were unfaithful to the Lord (see Ps 73:27).

251 tn Heb “the anger of the Lord burned against his people.”

252 tn Heb “his inheritance.”

253 tn Heb “gave them into the hand of.”

254 tn Heb “they were subdued under their hand.”

255 tn The prefixed verbal form is either preterite or imperfect, in which case it is customary, describing repeated action in past time (“he would deliver”).

256 tn Heb “but they rebelled in their counsel.” The prefixed verbal form is either preterite or imperfect, in which case it is customary, describing repeated action in past time (“they would have a rebellious attitude”).

257 tn Heb “they sank down.” The Hebrew verb מָכַךְ (makhakh, “to lower; to sink”) occurs only here in the Qal.

258 tn The Niphal of נָחַם (nakham) refers here to God relenting from a punishment already underway.

259 tn Or “captors.”

260 tn Heb “to give thanks.” The infinitive construct indicates result after the imperative.

261 tn Heb “to boast in your praise.”

262 tn Heb “[be] blessed.” See Pss 18:46; 28:6; 31:21.

263 tn Heb “from everlasting to everlasting.”

264 tn Heb “surely” (אָמֵן, ’amen), traditionally transliterated “amen.”

265 sn The final verse (v. 48) is a conclusion to this fourth “book” (or major editorial division) of the Psalter. Similar statements appear at or near the end of each of the first, second and third “books” of the Psalter (see Pss 41:13; 72:18-19; 89:52, respectively).

266 sn Psalm 107. The psalmist praises God for his kindness to his exiled people.

267 tn Heb “for forever [is] his loyal love.”

268 tn Or “let the redeemed of the Lord say [so].”

269 tn Or “redeemed.”

270 tn Heb “hand.”

271 tn Heb “from lands.” The word “foreign” is supplied in the translation for clarification.

272 tn Heb “and their soul in them fainted.”

273 sn A level road. See Jer 31:9.

274 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.”

275 tn Heb “[the] longing throat.” The noun נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), which frequently refers to one’s very being or soul, here probably refers to one’s parched “throat” (note the parallelism with נֶפֱשׁ רְעֵבָה, nefesh rÿevah, “hungry throat”).

276 tn Heb “and [the] hungry throat he has filled [with] good.”

277 tn Heb “those who sat in darkness and deep darkness.” Synonyms are joined here to emphasize the degree of “darkness” experienced by the exiles. The Hebrew term צַלְמָוֶת (tsalmavet, “deep darkness”) has traditionally been understood as a compound noun, meaning “shadow of death” (צֵל + מָוֶת [tsel + mavet]; see BDB 853 s.v. צַלְמָוֶת; cf. NASB). Other authorities prefer to vocalize the form צַלְמוּת (tsalmut) and understand it as an abstract noun (from the root צלם) meaning “darkness.” An examination of the word’s usage favors the latter derivation. It is frequently associated with darkness/night and contrasted with light/morning (see Job 3:5; 10:21-22; 12:22; 24:17; 28:3; 34:22; Ps 107:10, 14; Isa 9:1; Jer 13:16; Amos 5:8). In some cases the darkness described is associated with the realm of death (Job 10:21-22; 38:17), but this is a metaphorical application of the word and does not reflect its inherent meaning. In Ps 107:10 the word refers metonymically to a dungeon, which in turn metaphorically depicts the place of Israel’s exile (see vv. 2-3).

278 tn Heb “those bound in suffering and iron.” “Suffering and iron” is a hendiadys (like English “good and angry”), where both words contribute to one idea. In this case the first word characterizes the second; the iron (chains) contribute to the prisoners’ pain and suffering.

279 tn Heb “the words of God.”

280 tn Heb “the counsel of the Most High.”

281 tn Heb “and he subdued with suffering their heart.”

282 tn Heb “darkness and deep darkness.” See the note on the word “darkness” in v. 10.

283 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.” See v. 8.

284 sn The language of v. 16 recalls Isa 45:2.

285 tn Heb “fools [they were] because of the way of their rebellion.”

286 tn Heb “all food their appetite loathed.”

287 tn Heb “he sent his word.” This probably refers to an oracle of assurance which announced his intention to intervene (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 59).

288 tn Heb “he rescued from their traps.” The Hebrew word שְׁחִית (shekhit, “trap”) occurs only here and in Lam 4:20, where it refers to a trap or pit in which one is captured. Because of the rarity of the term and the absence of an object with the verb “rescued,” some prefer to emend the text of Ps 107:20, reading מִשַׁחַת חַיָּתָם (mishakhat khayyatam, “[he rescued] their lives from the pit”). Note also NIV “from the grave,” which interprets the “pit” as Sheol or the grave.

289 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.” See v. 8.

290 tn Heb “and let them proclaim his works with a ringing cry.”

291 sn Verses 23-30, which depict the Lord rescuing sailors from a storm at sea, do not seem to describe the exiles’ situation, unless the word picture is metaphorical. Perhaps the psalmist here broadens his scope and offers an example of God’s kindness to the needy beyond the covenant community.

292 tn Heb “those going down [into].”

293 tn Heb “doers of work on the mighty waters.”

294 tn Heb “he spoke and caused to stand a stormy wind.”

295 tn Heb “and it stirred up its [i.e., the sea’s, see v. 23] waves.”

296 tn That is, the waves (see v. 25).

297 tn Heb “their being”; traditionally “their soul” (referring to that of the sailors). This is sometimes translated “courage” (cf. NIV, NRSV).

298 tn Or “melted.”

299 tn Heb “from danger.”

300 tn Only here does the Hebrew verb חָגַג (khagag; normally meaning “to celebrate”) carry the nuance “to sway.”

301 tn The Hitpael of בָלַע (vala’) occurs only here in the OT. Traditionally the form is derived from the verbal root בלע (“to swallow”), but HALOT 135 s.v. III בלע understands a homonym here with the meaning “to be confused.”

302 tn Heb “he raised [the] storm to calm.”

303 tn Heb “their waves.” The antecedent of the third masculine plural pronominal suffix is not readily apparent, unless it refers back to “waters” in v. 23.

304 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the sailors) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

305 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the waves) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

306 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT.

307 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.” See v. 8.

308 tn Heb “in the seat of the elders.”

309 tn The verbal form appears to be a preterite, which is most naturally taken as narrational. (The use of prefixed forms with vav [ו] consecutive in vv. 36-37 favor this.) The psalmist may return to the theme of God’s intervention for the exiles (see vv. 4-22, especially vv. 4-9). However, many regard vv. 33-41 as a hymnic description which generalizes about God’s activities among men. In this case it would be preferable to use the English present tense throughout (cf. NEB, NRSV).

310 tn Heb “a salty land.”

311 tn The words “As for his people” are not included in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity. The psalmist contrasts God’s judgment on his enemies with his blessing of his people. See the note on the word “enemies” in v. 39 for further discussion.

312 tn The verbal form appears to be a preterite, which is most naturally taken as narrational. See the note on the word “turned” in v. 33.

313 tn Heb “sowed seed in.”

314 tn Heb “fruit [as] produce.”

315 tn “Bless” here carries the nuance “endue with sexual potency, make fertile.” See Gen 1:28, where the statement “he blessed them” directly precedes the command “be fruitful and populate the earth” (see also 1:22). The verb “bless” carries this same nuance in Gen 17:16 (where God’s blessing of Sarai imparts to her the capacity to bear a child); 48:16 (where God’s blessing of Joseph’s sons is closely associated with their having numerous descendants); and Deut 7:13 (where God’s blessing is associated with fertility in general, including numerous descendants). See also Gen 49:25 (where Jacob uses the noun derivative in referring to “blessings of the breast and womb,” an obvious reference to fertility) and Gen 27:27 (where the verb is used of a field to which God has given the capacity to produce vegetation).

316 tn The verbal form in this line appears to be an imperfect, which may be taken as customary (drawing attention to typical action in a past time frame) or as generalizing (in which case one should use the English present tense, understanding a move from narrative to present reality).

317 tn The words “As for their enemies” are not included in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity. Without such clarification, one might think that v. 39 refers to those just mentioned in v. 38 as objects of divine blessing, which would contradict the point just emphasized by the psalmist. The structure of vv. 33-42 is paneled (A-B-A-B). In vv. 33-34 the psalmist describes God’s judgment upon his enemies (perhaps those who had enslaved his people). In vv. 35-38 he contrasts this judgment with the divine blessing poured out on God’s people. (See the note on the word “people” in v. 35.) In vv. 39-40 he contrasts this blessing with the judgment experienced by enemies, before returning in vv. 41-42 to the blessing experienced by God’s people.

318 tn Heb “from the oppression of calamity.”

319 tn The active participle is understood as past durative here, drawing attention to typical action in a past time frame. However, it could be taken as generalizing (in which case one should translate using the English present tense), in which case the psalmist moves from narrative to present reality. Perhaps the participial form appears because the statement is lifted from Job 12:21.

320 tn Heb “set on high.”

321 tn Heb “all evil,” which stands metonymically for those who do evil.

322 sn Psalm 108. With some minor variations, this psalm is a composite of Ps 57:7-11 (see vv. 1-5) and Ps 60:5-12 (see vv. 6-13).

323 tn Or perhaps “confident”; Heb “my heart is steadfast.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and/or emotions.

324 tn Heb “also my glory,” but this makes little sense in the context. Some view the term כָּבוֹד (“glory”) here as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kÿvodiy, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 16:9; 30:12; 57:9; as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 3:93. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.”

325 tn BDB 1007 s.v. שַׁחַר takes “dawn” as an adverbial accusative, though others understand it as a personified direct object. “Dawn” is used metaphorically for the time of deliverance and vindication the psalmist anticipates. When salvation “dawns,” the psalmist will “wake up” in praise.

326 tn Or “the peoples.”

327 tn Heb “for great upon the sky [or “heavens”] [is] your loyal love.”

328 tn Or “be exalted.”

329 tn Heb “over all the earth [be] your splendor.” Though no verb appears, the tone of the statement is a prayer or wish. (Note the imperative form in the preceding line.)

330 tn Heb “right hand.”

331 tn Or “may be rescued.” The lines are actually reversed in the Hebrew text: “So that the ones you love may be rescued, deliver by your power and answer me.”

332 tn Heb “in his holy place.”

333 sn Shechem stands for the territory west of the Jordan River; the valley of Succoth represents the region east of the Jordan.

334 tn Gilead was located east of the Jordan River. Half of the tribe of Manasseh lived east of the Jordan in the region of Bashan.

335 tn Heb “the protection of my head.”

sn Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, was one of two major tribes located west of the Jordan River. By comparing Ephraim to a helmet, the Lord suggests that the Ephraimites played a primary role in the defense of his land.

336 sn Judah, like Ephraim, was the other major tribe west of the Jordan River. The Davidic king, symbolized here by the royal scepter, came from this tribe.

337 sn The metaphor of the wash basin, used to rinse one’s hands and feet, suggests that Moab, in contrast to Israel’s elevated position (vv. 7-8), would be reduced to the status of a servant.

338 tn Heb “over Edom I will throw my sandal.” The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. Some interpret this as idiomatic for “taking possession of.” Others translate עַל (’al) as “to” and understand this as referring to a master throwing his dirty sandal to a servant so that the latter might dust it off.

339 sn The psalmist speaks again and acknowledges his need for help in battle. He hopes God will volunteer, based on the affirmation of sovereignty over Edom in v. 9, but he is also aware that God has seemingly rejected the nation of Israel (v. 11).

340 tn Heb “and futile [is] the deliverance of man.”

341 tn Heb “in God we will accomplish strength.” The statement refers here to military success (see Num 24:18; 1 Sam 14:48; Pss 60:12; 118:16-16).

342 sn On the expression trample down our enemies see Ps 44:5.

343 sn Psalm 109. Appealing to God’s justice, the psalmist asks God to vindicate him and to bring severe judgment down upon his enemies.

344 tn Heb “do not be deaf.”

345 tn Heb “for a mouth of evil and a mouth of deceit against me they open, they speak with me [with] a tongue of falsehood.”

346 tn Heb “and [with] words of hatred they surround me.”

347 tn Heb “in place of my love they oppose me.”

348 tn Heb “and I, prayer.”

349 tn Heb “and they set upon me evil in place of good.”

350 sn In vv. 6-19 the psalmist calls on God to judge his enemies severely. Some attribute this curse-list to the psalmist’s enemies rather than the psalmist. In this case one should paraphrase v. 6: “They say about me, ‘Appoint an evil man, etc.’” Those supporting this line of interpretation point out that vv. 2-5 and 20 refer to the enemies’ attack on the psalmist being a verbal one. Furthermore in vv. 1-5, 20 the psalmist speaks of his enemies in the plural, while vv. 6-19 refer to an individual. This use of the singular in vv. 6-19 could be readily explained if this is the psalmist’s enemies’ curse on him. However, it is much more natural to understand vv. 6-19 as the psalmist’s prayer against his enemies. There is no introductory quotation formula in v. 6 to indicate that the psalmist is quoting anyone, and the statement “may the Lord repay my accusers in this way” in v. 20 most naturally appears to be a fitting conclusion to the prayer in vv. 6-19. But what about the use of the singular in vv. 6-19? Often in the psalms the psalmist will describe his enemies as a group, but then speak of them as an individual as well, as if viewing his adversaries collectively as one powerful foe. See, for example, Ps 7, where the psalmist uses both the plural (vv. 1, 6) and the singular (vv. 2, 4-5) in referring to enemies. Perhaps by using the singular in such cases, the psalmist wants to single out each enemy for individual attention, or perhaps he has one especially hostile enemy in mind who epitomizes the opposition of the whole group. This may well be the case in Ps 109. Perhaps we should understand the singular throughout vv. 6-19 in the sense of “each and every one.” For a lengthy and well-reasoned defense of the opposite view – that vv. 6-19 are a quotation of what the enemies said about the psalmist – see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 72-73.

351 tn Heb “appoint against him an evil [man].”

352 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive here (note the imperative in the preceding line).

353 tn The prefixed verbal form could be taken as a jussive, but the use of the imperfect form in the following line suggests that v. 7 anticipates the outcome of the accusation envisioned in v. 6.

354 tn Heb “he will go out [as] a criminal” (that is, guilty).

355 tn The prefixed verbal forms (except those with vav [ו] consecutive) in vv. 8-20 are taken as jussives of prayer. Note the distinct jussive forms used in vv. 12-13, 15, 19.

356 tn The Hebrew noun פְּקֻדָּה (pÿquddah) can mean “charge” or “office,” though BDB 824 s.v. suggests that here it refers to his possessions.

357 tn Or “sons.”

358 tn Or “sons.”

359 tn Heb “and roaming, may his children roam and beg, and seek from their ruins.” Some, following the LXX, emend the term וְדָרְשׁוּ (vÿdoreshu, “and seek”) to יְגֹרְשׁוּ (yÿgoreshu; a Pual jussive, “may they be driven away” [see Job 30:5; cf. NIV, NRSV]), but דָּרַשׁ (darash) nicely parallels שִׁאֵלוּ (shielu, “and beg”) in the preceding line.

360 tn Heb “lay snares for” (see Ps 38:12).

361 tn Heb “the product of his labor.”

362 tn Heb “may there not be for him one who extends loyal love.”

363 tn Perhaps this refers to being generous (see Ps 37:21).

364 tn Or “offspring.”

365 sn On the expression cut off see Ps 37:28.

366 tn Heb “in another generation may their name be wiped out.”

367 tn Or “fathers’ sins.”

368 tn Heb “not be wiped out.”

sn According to ancient Israelite theology and its doctrine of corporate solidarity and responsibility, children could be and often were punished for the sins of their parents. For a discussion of this issue see J. Kaminsky, Corporate Responsibility in the Hebrew Bible (JSOTSup). (Kaminsky, however, does not deal with Ps 109.)

369 tn Heb “may they [that is, the sins mentioned in v. 14] be before the Lord continually.”

370 tn Heb “their memory.” The plural pronominal suffix probably refers back to the children mentioned in v. 13, and for clarity this has been specified in the translation.

371 tn Heb “he did not remember to do loyal love.”

372 tn Heb “and he chased an oppressed and needy man, and one timid of heart to put [him] to death.”

373 sn A curse in OT times consists of a formal appeal to God to bring judgment down upon another. Curses were sometimes justified (such as the one spoken by the psalmist here in vv. 6-19), but when they were not, the one pronouncing the curse was in danger of bringing the anticipated judgment down upon himself.

374 tn Heb “and he loved a curse and it came [upon] him.” A reference to the evil man experiencing a curse seems premature here, for the psalmist is asking God to bring judgment on his enemies. For this reason some (cf. NIV, NRSV) prefer to repoint the vav (ו) on “it came” as conjunctive and translate the verb as a jussive of prayer (“may it come upon him!”). The prefixed form with vav consecutive in the next line is emended in the same way and translated, “may it be far from him.” However, the psalmist may be indicating that the evil man’s lifestyle has already begun to yield its destructive fruit.

375 tn Heb “and he did not delight in a blessing and it is far from him.”

376 tn Heb “he put on a curse as [if it were] his garment.”

377 tn Heb “and it came like water into his inner being, and like oil into his bones.” This may refer to this individual’s appetite for cursing. For him cursing was as refreshing as drinking water or massaging oneself with oil. Another option is that the destructive effects of a curse are in view. In this case a destructive curse invades his very being, like water or oil. Some who interpret the verse this way prefer to repoint the vav (ו) on “it came” to a conjunctive vav and interpret the prefixed verb as a jussive, “may it come!”

378 tn Heb “may it be for him like a garment one puts on.”

379 tn The Hebrew noun מֵזַח (mezakh, “belt; waistband”) occurs only here in the OT. The form apparently occurs in Isa 23:10 as well, but an emendation is necessary there.

380 tn Heb “[may] this [be] the repayment to my accusers from the Lord.”

381 tn Or “against.”

382 tn The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).

383 tn Heb “but you, Lord, Master, do with me for the sake of your name.” Here “name” stands metonymically for God’s reputation.

384 tc The verb in the Hebrew text (חָלַל, khalal) appears to be a Qal form from the root חלל meaning “pierced; wounded.” However, the Qal of this root is otherwise unattested. The translation assumes an emendation to יָחִיל (yakhil), a Qal imperfect from חוּל (khul, “tremble”) or to חֹלַל (kholal), a polal perfect from חוּל (khul). See Ps 55:4, which reads לִבִּי יָחִיל בְּקִרְבִּי (libbiy yakhil bÿqirbbiy, “my heart trembles [i.e., “beats violently”] within me”).

385 tn Heb “like a shadow when it is extended I go.” He is like a late afternoon shadow made by the descending sun that will soon be swallowed up by complete darkness. See Ps 102:11.

386 tn Heb “my knees stagger from fasting.”

387 tn Heb “and my flesh is lean away from fatness [i.e., “lean so as not to be fat”].”

388 tn Heb “as for me, I am a reproach to them.”

389 sn They shake their heads. Apparently shaking the head was a taunting gesture. See also Job 16:4; Ps 22:7; Lam 2:15.

390 tn Heb “deliver me according to your faithfulness.”

391 tn After the preceding imperative, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose or result.

392 tn Heb “that your hand [is] this.”

393 tn Another option is to translate the imperfect as a prayer/request (“may you bless”).

394 tn The verbal sequence is perfect + prefixed form with vav (ו) consecutive. Since the psalmist seems to be anticipating the demise of his enemies, he may be using these forms rhetorically to describe the enemies’ defeat as if it were already accomplished. Some emend the text to קָמוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ (qamu yevoshu, “may those who attack me be humiliated”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 75.

395 tn Heb “clothed.” Another option is to translate the prefixed verbal forms in this line and the next as jussives (“may my accusers be covered with shame”).

396 tn Heb “I will thank the Lord very much with my mouth.”

397 tn Heb “many.”

398 tn Heb “judge.”

399 sn Psalm 110. In this royal psalm the psalmist announces God’s oracle to the Davidic king. The first part of the oracle appears in v. 1, the second in v. 4. In vv. 2-3 the psalmist addresses the king, while in vv. 5-7 he appears to address God.

400 tn The word נְאֻם (nÿum) is used frequently in the OT of a formal divine announcement through a prophet.

401 sn My lord. In the psalm’s original context the speaker is an unidentified prophetic voice in the royal court. In the course of time the psalm is applied to each successive king in the dynasty and ultimately to the ideal Davidic king. NT references to the psalm understand David to be speaking about his “lord,” the Messiah. (See Matt 22:43-45; Mark 12:36-37; Luke 20:42-44; Acts 2:34-35).

402 tn To sit at the “right hand” of the king was an honor (see 1 Kgs 2:19). In Ugaritic myth (CTA 4 v. 108-10) the artisan god Kothar-and Khasis is described as sitting at the right hand of the storm god Baal. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 61-62.

sn The Lord’s invitation to the Davidic king to sit down at his right hand reflects the king’s position as the Lord’s vice-regent.

403 sn When the Lord made his covenant with David, he promised to subdue the king’s enemies (see 2 Sam 7:9-11; Ps 89:22-23).

404 tn Since the Lord is mentioned in the third person (note the use of the first person in v. 1), it is likely that these are the psalmist’s words to the king, not a continuation of the oracle per se.

405 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing, though it could be taken as future.

406 tn Heb “your strong scepter,” symbolic of the king’s royal authority and dominion.

407 tn Heb “your people, free will offerings.” Perhaps the people, in their willingness to volunteer, are compared metaphorically to freewill offerings. Following the LXX, some revocalize the text and read “with you is nobility.”

408 tn Heb “in the day of your power.”

409 tc Heb “in splendor of holiness.” The plural construct form הַדְרֵי (hadrey, from הָדַר, hadar, “splendor”) occurs only here; it may indicate degree or perhaps refer by metonymy to garments (see Pss 29:2 and 96:9, where the phrase הַדְרַת קֹדֶשׁ [hadrat qodesh] refers to “holy attire”). If one retains the reading of the MT, this phrase should probably be taken with the preceding line. However, because of the subsequent references to “dawn” and to “dew,” it is better to emend the text to הַרְרֵי קֹדֶשׁ (harrey qodesh, “mountains of holiness”), a reading found in many medieval Hebrew mss and in some other ancient witnesses (see Joel 2:2; Ps 133:3, as well as L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 80). The “mountains of holiness” are probably the hills surrounding Zion (see Ps 87:1; 125:2; 133:3).

410 tn Heb “from the womb of dawn.” The Hebrew noun רֶחֶם (rekhem, “womb”) is probably used here metonymically for “birth.” The form מִשְׁחָר (mishkhar) occurs only here and should be emended to שַׁחַר (shakhar, “dawn”) with the mem (מ) being understood as dittographic (note the final mem [ם] on the preceding word). The phrase “womb [i.e., “birth”] of dawn” refers to sunrise.

411 sn The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. The dew may symbolize the king’s youthful vitality or, more likely (note the parallelism), may refer to his army of strong, youthful warriors.

412 tn Heb “to you [is].”

413 tn Or “swears, vows.”

414 tn Or “will not change his mind.” The negated Niphal imperfect of נָחַם (nakham) is a way of marking an announcement as an irrevocable decree. See 1 Sam 15:29; Ezek 24:14, as well as R. B. Chisholm, “Does God ‘Change His Mind’?” BSac 152 (1995): 387-99.

415 sn You are an eternal priest. The Davidic king exercised a non-Levitical priestly role. The king superintended Judah’s cultic ritual, had authority over the Levites, and sometimes led in formal worship. David himself instructed the Levites to bring the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem (1 Chr 15:11-15), joined the procession, offered sacrifices, wore a priestly ephod, and blessed the people (2 Sam 6:12-19). At the dedication of the temple Solomon led the ceremony, offering sacrifices and praying on behalf of the people (1 Kgs 8).

416 tn The phrase עַל־דִּבְרָתִי (’al-divratiy) is a variant of עַל־דִּבְרָת (’al-divrat; the final yod [י] being an archaic genitival ending), which in turn is a variant of עַל דָּבַר (’al davar). Both phrases can mean “concerning” or “because of,” but neither of these nuances fits the use of עַל־דִּבְרָתִי in Ps 110:4. Here the phrase probably carries the sense “according to the manner of.” See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 81.

417 sn The Davidic king’s priestly role is analogous to that of Melchizedek, who was both “king of Salem” (i.e., Jerusalem) and a “priest of God Most High” in the time of Abraham (Gen 14:18-20). Like Melchizedek, the Davidic king was a royal priest, distinct from the Aaronic line (see Heb 7). The analogy focuses on the king’s priestly role; the language need not imply that Melchizedek himself was “an eternal priest.”

418 tn As pointed in the Hebrew text, this title refers to God (many medieval Hebrew mss read יְהוָה, yehveh, “Lord” here). The present translation assumes that the psalmist here addresses the Lord as he celebrates what the king is able to accomplish while positioned at God’s “right hand.” According to this view the king is the subject of the third person verb forms in vv. 5b-7. (2) Another option is to understand the king as the addressee (as in vv. 2-3). In this case “the Lord” is the subject of the third person verbs throughout vv. 5-7 and is depicted as a warrior in a very anthropomorphic manner. In this case the Lord is pictured as being at the psalmist’s right hand (just the opposite of v. 1). See Pss 16:8; 121:5. (3) A third option is to revocalize אֲדֹנָי (’adonay, “Lord”) as אֲדֹנִי (’adoniy, “my lord”; see v. 1). In this case one may translate, “My lord, at his [God’s] right hand, strikes down.” In this case the king is the subject of the third person verbs in vv. 5b-7.

419 tn The perfect verbal forms in vv. 5-6 are understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing. Another option is to take them as rhetorical. In this case the psalmist describes anticipated events as if they had already taken place.

420 tn Heb “in the day of his anger.”

421 tn The imperfect verbal forms in vv. 6-7 are understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing, though they could be taken as future.

422 tn Or “among.”

423 tn Heb “he fills [with] corpses,” but one expects a double accusative here. The translation assumes an emendation to גְוִיּוֹת גֵאָיוֹת(בִּ) מִלֵּא or מִלֵּא גֵאָיוֹת גְּוִיוֹת (for a similar construction see Ezek 32:5). In the former case גֵאָיוֹת(geayot) has accidentally dropped from the text due to homoioteleuton; in the latter case it has dropped out due to homoioarcton.

424 tn Heb “he strikes [the verb is מָחַץ (makhats), translated “strikes down” in v. 5] head[s] over a great land.” The Hebrew term רַבָּה (rabbah, “great”) is here used of distance or spatial measurement (see 1 Sam 26:13).

425 tn Here the expression “lifts up the head” refers to the renewed physical strength and emotional vigor (see Ps 3:3) provided by the refreshing water. For another example of a victorious warrior being energized by water in the aftermath of battle, see Judg 15:18-19 (see also 1 Sam 30:11-12, where the setting is different, however).

426 sn Psalm 111. The psalmist praises God for his marvelous deeds, especially the way in which he provides for and delivers his people. The psalm is an acrostic. After the introductory call to praise, every poetic line (twenty-two in all) begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.

427 tn Heb “sought out.”

428 tn For other uses of the Hebrew phrase וְהָדָר-הוֹד (hod-vÿhadar, “majesty and splendor”) see 1 Chr 16:27; Job 40:10; Pss 21:5; 96:6; 104:1.

429 tn Or “stands.”

430 tn Or “did,” if this refers primarily to the events of the exodus and conquest period (see vv. 6, 9).

431 tn Heb “a memorial he had made for his amazing deeds.”

432 tn Or “gave,” if the events of the exodus and conquest period (see v. 6, 9) are primarily in view.

433 tn Heb “those who fear him.”

434 tn Or “he remembers his covenant forever” (see Ps 105:8).

435 tn Heb “the strength of his deeds he proclaimed to his people, to give to them an inheritance of nations.”

436 tn Heb “the deeds of his hands [are].”

437 tn That is, fair and for man’s good.

438 tn Heb “done in faithfulness and uprightness.” The passive participle probably has the force of a gerund. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 89.

439 tn Heb “redemption he sent for his people.”

440 tn Heb “he commanded forever his covenant.”

441 tn Heb “the beginning of wisdom [is] the fear of the Lord.”

442 tn Heb “good sense [is] to all who do them.” The third masculine plural pronominal suffix must refer back to the “precepts” mentioned in v. 7. In the translation the referent has been specified for clarity. The phrase שֵׂכֶל טוֹב (shekhel tov) also occurs in Prov 3:4; 13:15 and 2 Chr 30:22.

443 tn Heb “his praise stands forever.”

444 sn Psalm 112. This wisdom psalm lists some of the benefits of living a godly life. The psalm is an acrostic. After the introductory call to praise, every poetic line (twenty-two in all) begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.

445 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The individual is representative of a larger group, called the “godly” in vv. 3-4. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender specific “man” with the more neutral “one.” The generic masculine pronoun is used in the following verses.

446 tn Heb “fears.”

447 tn Heb “in his commands he delights very much.” The words “in keeping” are supplied in the translation for clarification. Taking delight in the law is metonymic here for obeying God’s moral will. See Ps 1:2.

448 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”

449 tn Heb “His seed will be mighty on the earth, the generation of the godly.” The Hebrew term דוֹר (dor, “generation”) could be taken as parallel to “offspring” and translated “posterity,” but the singular more likely refers to the godly as a class. See BDB 189-90 s.v. for other examples where “generation” refers to a class of people.

450 tn Heb “stands forever.”

451 tn In this context “light” symbolizes divine blessing in its various forms (see v. 2), including material prosperity and stability.

452 tn Heb “merciful and compassionate and just.” The Hebrew text has three singular adjectives, which are probably substantival and in apposition to the “godly” (which is plural, however). By switching to the singular, the psalmist focuses on each individual member of the group known as the “godly.” Note how vv. 5-9, like vv. 1-2a, use the singular to describe the representative godly individual who typifies the whole group.

453 tn Heb “man.”

454 tn Heb “he sustains his matters with justice.”

455 tn Heb “for an eternal memorial a just [one] will be.”

456 tn Heb “his heart,” viewed here as the seat of the volition and emotions (see Ps 108:1).

457 tn The passive participle בָּטֻחַ [בָּטוּחַ] (batuakh [batuakh]) expresses a state that results from the subject’s action. See Isa 26:3.

458 tn Heb “his heart,” viewed here as the seat of the volition.

459 tn Heb “he scatters, he gives.”

460 tn Heb “stands forever.”

461 tn Heb “his horn will be lifted up in honor.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17).

462 tn The Hebrew text uses the singular; the representative wicked individual is in view as typifying the group (note the use of the plural form in v. 10).

463 tn Heb “his teeth he will gnash.” In Pss 35:16 and 37:12 this action is associated with a vicious attack.

464 tn This could mean that the desires of the wicked will go unfulfilled. Another possibility is that “desire” refers by metonymy to the object desired and acquired. In this case the point is that the wicked will lose what they desired so badly and acquired by evil means (see Ps 10:3).

465 sn Psalm 113. The psalmist praises God as the sovereign king of the world who reaches down to help the needy.

466 tn Heb “from the rising of the sun to its setting.” The extent is not temporal (“from sunrise to sunset”) but spatial (“from the place where the sun rises [the east] to the place where it sets [the west].” In the phenomenological language of OT cosmology, the sun was described as rising in the east and setting in the west.

467 tn Heb “above the sky [is] his splendor.”

468 tn Heb “the one who makes high to sit.”

469 tn Heb “the one who makes low to see.”

470 sn The language of v. 7 is almost identical to that of 1 Sam 2:8.

471 tn Heb “of the house.”

472 tn Heb “sons.”

473 sn Psalm 114. The psalmist recalls the events of the exodus and conquest and celebrates God’s kingship over his covenant people.

474 tn Heb “the house of Jacob from a nation speaking a foreign language.” The Hebrew verb לָעַז (laat, “to speak a foreign language”) occurs only here in the OT.

475 sn The psalmist recalls the crossing of the Red Sea (Exod 14:21).

476 tn Heb “the Jordan” (also in v. 5). The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

477 sn The psalmist recalls the crossing of the Jordan River (Josh 3:13, 16).

478 sn The mountains skipped like rams, the hills like lambs. This may recall the theophany at Sinai when the mountain shook before God’s presence (Exod 19:18).

479 sn In v. 8 the psalmist recalls the event(s) recorded in Exod 17:6 and/or Num 20:11 (see also Deut 8:15 and Ps 78:15-16, 20).

480 sn Psalm 115. The psalmist affirms that Israel’s God is superior to pagan idols and urges Israel to place their confidence in him.

481 tn Or “give glory.”

482 sn The psalmist asks the Lord to demonstrate his loyal love and faithfulness, not simply so Israel may benefit, but primarily so that the Lord will receive honor among the nations, who will recognize, contrary to their present view (see v. 2), that Israel’s God is committed to his people.

483 sn He does whatever he pleases. Such sovereignty is characteristic of kings (see Eccl 8:3).

484 tn The referent of the pronominal suffix is “the nations” (v. 2).

485 tn Heb “the work of the hands of man.”

486 tn Heb “they cannot mutter in their throats.” Verse 5a refers to speaking, v. 7c to inarticulate sounds made in the throat (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 3:140-41).

487 tn Heb “will be.” Another option is to take the prefixed verbal form as a prayer, “may those who make them end up like them.”

sn Because the idols are lifeless, they cannot help their worshipers in times of crisis. Consequently the worshipers end up as dead as the gods in which they trust.

488 tn Or “[source of] help.”

489 tn Heb “and their shield.”

490 tn Heb “house.”

491 tn Or “[source of] help.”

492 tn Heb “and their shield.”

493 tn Heb “[you] fearers of the Lord.” See Ps 15:4.

494 tn Or “[source of] help.”

495 tn Heb “and their shield.”

496 tn Or “remembers us.”

497 tn Another option is to translate the prefixed form of the verb “bless” in vv. 12-13 as a jussive, “may he bless” (see v. 14).

498 tn Heb “house.”

499 tn Heb “the fearers of the Lord.”

500 tn Heb “the small along with the great.” The translation assumes that “small” and “great” here refer to age (see 2 Chr 15:13). Another option is to translate “both the insignificant and the prominent” (see Job 3:19; cf. NEB “high and low alike”).

501 tn Heb “may he add to you, to you and your sons.” The prefixed verbal form is jussive, indicating this is a prayer.

502 tn Or “maker.”

503 tn Heb “the heavens [are] heavens to the Lord.”

504 tn Heb “to the sons of man.”

505 tn Heb “silence,” a metonymy here for death (see Ps 94:17).

506 sn Psalm 116. The psalmist thanks the Lord for delivering him from a life threatening crisis and promises to tell the entire covenant community what God has done for him.

507 tn Heb “I love because the Lord heard my voice, my pleas.” It is possible that “the Lord” originally appeared directly after “I love” and was later accidentally misplaced. The translation assumes the prefixed verbal form is a preterite. The psalmist recalls that God heard his cry for help (note the perfect in v. 2a and the narrative in vv. 3-4).

508 tn Heb “because he turned his ear to me.”

509 tn Heb “and in my days I will cry out.”

510 tn Heb “surrounded me.”

511 tn The Hebrew noun מצר (“straits; distress”) occurs only here, Ps 118:5 and Lam 1:3. If retained, it refers to Sheol as a place where one is confined or severely restricted (cf. BDB 865 s.v. מֵצַר, “the straits of Sheol”; NIV “the anguish of the grave”; NRSV “the pangs of Sheol”). However, HALOT 624 s.v. מֵצַר suggests an emendation to מְצָדֵי (mÿtsadey, “snares of”), a rare noun attested in Job 19:6 and Eccl 7:26. This proposal, which is reflected in the translation, produces better parallelism with “ropes” in the preceding line.

512 tn The translation assumes the prefixed verbal form is a preterite. The psalmist recalls the crisis from which the Lord delivered him.

513 tn Heb “guards.” The active participle indicates this is a characteristic of the Lord.

514 tn Or “the [morally] naive,” that is, the one who is young and still in the process of learning right from wrong and distinguishing wisdom from folly. See Ps 19:7.

515 tn Heb “I was low.”

516 tn Heb “return, my soul, to your place of rest.”

517 tn The Hebrew idiom גָּמַל עַל (gamalal) means “to repay,” here in a positive sense (cf. Ps 13:5).

518 tn Or “for.”

519 tnLord” is supplied here in the translation for clarification.

520 tn Heb “walk before” (see Ps 56:13). On the meaning of the Hebrew idiom, see the notes at 2 Kgs 20:3/Isa 38:3.

521 tn Heb “lands, regions.”

522 tn Heb “I said in my haste.”

523 tn Heb “a cup of deliverance I will lift up.” Perhaps this alludes to a drink offering the psalmist will present as he thanks the Lord for his deliverance. See v. 17.

524 tn Heb “precious in the eyes of the Lord [is] the death of his godly ones.” The point is not that God delights in or finds satisfaction in the death of his followers! The psalmist, who has been delivered from death, affirms that the life-threatening experiences of God’s followers get God’s attention, just as a precious or rare object would attract someone’s eye. See Ps 72:14 for a similar expression of this belief.

525 tn Heb “I am your servant, the son of your female servant.” The phrase “son of a female servant” (see also Ps 86:16) is used of a son born to a secondary wife or concubine (Exod 23:12). In some cases the child’s father is the master of the house (see Gen 21:10, 13; Judg 9:18). The use of the expression here certainly does not imply that the Lord has such a secondary wife or concubine! It is used metaphorically and idiomatically to emphasize the psalmist’s humility before the Lord and his status as the Lord’s servant.

526 tn Heb “you have loosed my bonds.” In this context the imagery refers to deliverance from death (see v. 3).

527 sn Psalm 117. The psalmist tells the nations to praise the Lord for his loyal love and faithfulness.

528 tn Or “peoples” (see Ps 108:3).

529 tn For this sense of the Hebrew verb גָּבַר (gavar), see Ps 103:11 and L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 17, 19.

530 sn Psalm 118. The psalmist thanks God for his deliverance and urges others to join him in praise.

531 tn Or “is forever.”

532 tn Heb “house.”

533 tn Heb “fearers of the Lord.” See Ps 15:4.

534 tn Heb “from the distress.” The noun מֵצַר (metsar, “straits; distress”) occurs only here and in Lam 1:3. In Ps 116:3 מצר should probably be emended to מְצָדֵי (mÿtsadey, “snares of”).

535 tn Heb “the Lord answered me in a wide open place.”

536 tn Heb “for me.”

537 tn The rhetorical question assumes the answer, “Nothing!” The imperfect is used in a modal sense here, indicating capability or potential. See Ps 56:11.

538 tn Heb “for me.”

539 tn Heb “among my helpers.” The preposition may indicate identity here, while the plural may be one of majesty or respect.

540 tn “Taking shelter” in the Lord is an idiom for seeking his protection. Seeking his protection presupposes and even demonstrates the subject’s loyalty to the Lord. In the psalms those who “take shelter” in the Lord are contrasted with the wicked and equated with those who love, fear, and serve the Lord (Pss 5:11-12; 31:17-20; 34:21-22).

541 sn The reference to an attack by the nations suggests the psalmist may have been a military leader.

542 tn In this context the phrase “in the name of the Lord” means “by the Lord’s power.”

543 tn Traditionally the verb has been derived from מוּל (mul, “to circumcise”) and translated “[I] cut [them] off” (see BDB 557-58 s.v. II מוּל). However, it is likely that this is a homonym meaning “to fend off” (see HALOT 556 s.v. II מול) or “to push away.” In this context, where the psalmist is reporting his past experience, the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite. The phrase also occurs in vv. 11, 12.

544 tn Heb “were extinguished.”

545 tn The point seems to be that the hostility of the nations (v. 10) is short-lived, like a fire that quickly devours thorns and then burns out. Some, attempting to create a better parallel with the preceding line, emend דֹּעֲכוּ (doakhu, “they were extinguished”) to בָּעֲרוּ (baaru, “they burned”). In this case the statement emphasizes their hostility.

546 tn Heb “pushing, you pushed me.” The infinitive absolute emphasizes the following verbal idea. The psalmist appears to address the nations as if they were an individual enemy. Some find this problematic and emend the verb form (which is a Qal perfect second masculine singular with a first person singular suffix) to נִדְחֵיתִי (nidkheti), a Niphal perfect first common singular, “I was pushed.”

547 tn Heb “to fall,” i.e., “that [I] might fall.”

548 tn Heb “my strength and protection [is] the Lord.” The Hebrew term זִמְרָת (zimrat) is traditionally understood as meaning “song” (“my strength and song [is] the Lord”) in which case one might translate, “for the Lord gives me strength and joy” (i.e., a reason to sing). However, many recent commentators have argued that the noun זִמְרָת is here a homonym, meaning “protection” or “strength.” See HALOT 274 s.v.; cf. NEB “The Lord is my refuge and defence”; NRSV “my strength and my might.”

549 tn Or “salvation.”

550 tn Heb “the sound of a ringing shout and deliverance [is] in the tents of the godly.”

551 tn Heb “does valiantly.” The statement refers here to military success (see Num 24:18; 1 Sam 14:48; Pss 60:12; 108:13).

552 tn Heb “exalts.”

553 tn Heb “the works of the Lord.”

554 tn The infinitive absolute emphasizes the following verbal idea.

555 tn Heb “the gates of justice.” The gates of the Lord’s temple are referred to here, as v. 20 makes clear. They are called “gates of justice” because they are the entrance to the just king’s palace. This has been specified in the translation for clarity.

556 tn Or “rejected.”

557 tn Heb “the head of the corner.”

sn The metaphor of the stone…the builders discarded describes the way in which God’s deliverance reversed the psalmist’s circumstances. When he was in distress, he was like a stone which was discarded by builders as useless, but now that he has been vindicated by God, all can see that he is of special importance to God, like the cornerstone of the building.

558 tn Heb “it is amazing in our eyes.” The use of the plural pronoun here and in vv. 24-27 suggests that the psalmist may be speaking for the entire nation. However, it is more likely that vv. 22-27 are the people’s response to the psalmist’s thanksgiving song (see especially v. 26). They rejoice with him because his deliverance on the battlefield (see vv. 10-12) had national repercussions.

559 tn Heb “this is the day the Lord has made.” Though sometimes applied in a general way, this statement in its context refers to the day of deliverance which the psalmist and people celebrate.

560 sn A petition for deliverance and success seems odd in a psalm thanking God for deliverance, but it is not unique (see Ps 9:19-20). The people ask God to continue to intervene for them as he has for the psalmist.

561 sn The people refer here to the psalmist, who enters the Lord’s temple to thank him publicly (see vv. 19-21), as the one who comes in the name of the Lord.

562 tn The pronominal suffix is second masculine plural, but the final mem (ם) is probably dittographic (note the mem [מ] at the beginning of the following form) or enclitic, in which case the suffix may be taken as second masculine singular, referring to the psalmist.

563 tn Heb “from the house of the Lord.”

564 tn Heb “and he has given us light.” This may be an elliptical expression, with “his face” being implied as the object (see Num 6:25; Pss 31:16; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19). In this case, “his face has given us light” = “he has smiled on us,” or “he has shown us his favor.” Another option (the one reflected in the translation) is that “light” here symbolizes divine blessing in the form of deliverance. “Light” is often used as a metaphor for deliverance and the life/blessings it brings. See Pss 37:6; 97:11; 112:4; Isa 49:6; 51:4; Mic 7:8. Some prefer to repoint the form וְיָאֵר (vÿyaer; vav [ו] conjunctive + jussive) and translate the statement as a prayer, “may he give us light.”

565 tn The Hebrew noun חַג (khag) normally means “festival,” but here it apparently refers metonymically to an offering made at the festival. BDB 291 s.v. חַג 2 interprets the word in this way here, citing as comparable the use of later Hebrew חֲגִיגָה, which can refer to both a festival and a festival offering (see Jastrow 424 s.v. חֲגִיגָה).

566 tn The second half of v. 27 has been translated and interpreted in a variety of ways. For a survey of major views, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 122.

567 sn You are my God. The psalmist speaks again (see v. 21), responding to the words of the worshipers (vv. 22-27).

568 tn Or “is forever.”

569 sn Psalm 119. The psalmist celebrates God’s law and the guidance it provides his people. He expresses his desire to know God’s law thoroughly so that he might experience the blessings that come to those who obey it. This lengthy psalm exhibits an elaborate acrostic pattern. The psalm is divided into twenty-two sections (corresponding to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet), each of which is comprised of eight verses. Each of the verses in the first section (vv. 1-8) begins with the letter alef (א), the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. This pattern continues throughout the psalm as each new section highlights a successive letter of the alphabet. Each verse in section two (vv. 9-16) begins with the second letter of the alphabet, each verse in section three (vv. 17-24) with the third letter, etc. This rigid pattern creates a sense of order and completeness and may have facilitated memorization.

570 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness of those who are blameless of way.”

571 tn Heb “walk in.”

572 tn Heb “walk in his ways.”

573 tn Heb “you, you commanded your precepts, to keep, very much.”

574 tn Heb “if only my ways were established.”

575 tn Or “when.”

576 tn Heb “I gaze at.”

577 tn Heb “I will give you thanks with an upright heart.”

578 tn Heb “do not abandon me to excess.” For other uses of the phrase עַד מְאֹד (’ad mÿod, “to excess”), see Ps 38:6, 8.

579 tn Heb “young man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, the gender specific “young man” has been translated with the more neutral “young person.”

580 tn Heb “purify his path.”

581 tn Heb “by keeping according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX read the plural, “your words.”

582 tn Or “hide.”

583 tn Heb “your word.” Some medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX read the plural, “your words.”

584 tn Heb “[are] blessed.”

585 tn Heb “of your mouth.”

586 tn Heb “in the way of your rules.”

587 tn Heb “as upon,” meaning “as if” (see 2 Chr 32:19).

588 tn Heb “all wealth.” The phrase refers to all kinds of wealth and riches. See Prov 1:13; 6:31; 24:4; Ezek 27:12, 18.

589 tn The cohortative verbal forms in this verse express the psalmist’s resolve.

590 tn Heb “gaze [at].”

591 tn Heb “ways” (referring figuratively to God’s behavior here).

592 tn The imperfects in this verse emphasize the attitude the psalmist maintains toward God’s law. Another option is to translate with the future tense, “I will find delight…I will not forget.”

593 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX read the plural here.

594 tn The prefixed verbal form is probably a cohortative indicating purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

595 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the imperative that begins the verse.

596 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss as well as several ancient versions read the plural here.

597 tn Heb “uncover.” The verb form גַּל (gal) is an apocopated Piel imperative from גָּלָה (galah, see GKC 214 §75.cc).

598 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

599 tn Heb “I am a resident alien in the land.” Resident aliens were especially vulnerable and in need of help. They needed to know the social and legal customs of the land to avoid getting into trouble. The translation (note the addition of “like”) assumes the psalmist is speaking metaphorically, not literally.

600 tn Heb “my soul languishes for longing for.”

601 tn Heb “accursed.” The traditional punctuation of the Hebrew text takes “accursed” with the previous line (“arrogant, accursed ones”), but it is preferable to take it with the second line as the predicate of the statement.

602 tn Heb “roll away from upon me.” Some derive the imperatival form גַּל (gal) from גָּלָה (galah, “uncover,” as in v. 18), but here the form is from גָּלַל (galal, “roll”; see Josh 5:9, where חֶרְפָּה [kherpah, “shame; reproach”] also appears as object of the verb). Some, following the lead of a Dead Sea scroll (11QPsa), emend the form to גֹּל (gol).

603 tn Heb “though rulers sit, about me they talk together.” (For another example of the Niphal of דָּבַר (davar) used with a suffixed form of the preposition ב, see Ezek 33:30.)

604 tn Heb “men of my counsel.” That is, God’s rules are like advisers to the psalmist, for they teach him how to live in a godly manner that refutes the accusations of his enemies.

605 tn Heb “my soul clings to the dirt.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).

606 tn Heb “according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural “your words.”

607 tn Heb “my ways I proclaimed.”

608 tn Heb “the way of your precepts make me understand.”

609 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

610 tn Heb “your amazing things,” which refers here to the teachings of the law (see v. 18).

611 tn Some translate “my soul weeps,” taking the verb דָלַף (dalaf) from a root meaning “to drip; to drop” (BDB 196 s.v. דֶּלַף). On the basis of cognate evidence from Arabic and Akkadian, HALOT 223 s.v. II דלף proposes a homonymic root here, meaning “be sleepless.” Following L. C. Allen (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 127, 135) the translation assumes that the verb is cognate with Ugaritic dlp, “to collapse; to crumple” in CTA 2 iv. 17, 26. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 44, 144.

612 tn Heb “according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural “your words.”

613 tn The “path of deceit” refers to a lifestyle characterized by deceit and disloyalty to God. It stands in contrast to the “way of faithfulness” in v. 30.

614 tn Heb “be gracious to me.” The verb is used metonymically here for “graciously giving” the law. (See Gen 33:5, where Jacob uses this verb in describing how God had graciously given him children.)

615 tn BDB 1000-1001 s.v. I שָׁוָה derives the verb from the first homonym listed, meaning “to agree with; to be like; to resemble.” It here means (in the Piel stem) “to be accounted suitable,” which in turn would mean by metonymy “to accept; to be committed to.” Some prefer to derive the verb from a homonym meaning “to place; to set,” but in this case an elliptical prepositional phrase must be understood, “I place your regulations [before me]” (see Ps 16:8).

616 tn Or “cling to.”

617 tn Heb “for you make wide my heart.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and understanding. The Lord gives the psalmist the desire and moral understanding that are foundational to the willing obedience depicted metaphorically in the preceding line. In Isa 60:5 the expression “your heart will be wide” means “your heart will swell with pride,” but here the nuance appears to be different.

618 tn Heb “the way of your statutes.”

619 tn Heb “and I will keep it to the end.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative. The Hebrew term עֵקֶב (’eqev) is understood to mean “end” here. Another option is to take עֵקֶב (’eqev) as meaning “reward” here (see Ps 19:11) and to translate, “so that I might observe it and be rewarded.”

620 tn The two prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose/result after the introductory imperative.

621 tn Or “make me walk.”

622 tn Heb “for in it I delight.”

623 tn Heb “turn my heart to your rules.”

624 tn Heb “and not unjust gain.”

625 tn Heb “Make my eyes pass by from looking at what is worthless.”

626 tn Heb “by your word.”

627 tn Heb “word.”

628 tn Heb “which [is] for your fear,” that is, the promise made to those who exhibit fear of God.

629 tn Heb “my reproach that I fear.”

630 tn Or “for.”

631 tn Or “righteousness.”

632 tn Heb “and may your loyal love come to me.”

633 tn Or “salvation” (so many English versions).

634 tn Heb “according to your word.”

635 tn Heb “and I will answer [the] one who insults me a word.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the jussive (see v. 41).

636 tn Heb “do not snatch from my mouth a word of truth to excess.” The psalmist wants to be able to give a reliable testimony about the Lord’s loyal love (vv. 41-42), but if God does not intervene, the psalmist will be deprived of doing so, for the evidence of such love (i.e., deliverance) will be lacking.

637 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the negated jussive (see v. 43).

638 tn Or “forever and ever.”

639 tn Heb “and I will walk about in a wide place.” The cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive gives a further consequence of the anticipated positive divine response (see vv. 43-44). Another option is to take the cohortative as expressing the psalmist’s request. In this case one could translate, “and please give me security.”

640 tn The series of four cohortatives with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive in vv. 46-48 list further consequences of the anticipated positive divine response to the request made in v. 43.

641 tn Lifting the hands is often associated with prayer (Pss 28:2; 63:4; Lam 2:19). (1) Because praying to God’s law borders on the extreme, some prefer to emend the text to “I lift up my hands to you,” eliminating “your commands, which I love” as dittographic. In this view these words were accidentally repeated from the previous verse. (2) However, it is possible that the psalmist closely associates the law with God himself because he views the law as the expression of the divine will. (3) Another option is that “lifting the hands” does not refer to prayer here, but to the psalmist’s desire to receive and appropriate the law. (4) Still others understand this to be an action praising God’s commands (so NCV; cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).

642 tn The demonstrative “this” refers back to the hope just mentioned or forward to the statement in the second line concerning the promise’s power to revive. See the note on the word “me” at the end of the verse for further discussion.

643 tn The hope generated by the promise (see v. 49b) brings comfort because (note “for” at the beginning of the line) the promise revives the psalmist’s spirits. Another option is to take כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line in the sense of “that,” in which case “this” refers to the promise’s power to revive.

644 tn Heb “scoff at me to excess.”

645 tn Heb “I remember your regulations from of old.” The prepositional phrase “from of old” apparently modifies “your regulations,” alluding to the fact that God revealed them to Israel in the distant past. Another option is to understand the prepositional phrase as modifying the verb, in which case one might translate, “I have long remembered your regulations.”

646 tn Or “find comfort.”

647 tn Heb “songs were your statutes to me.”

648 tn Heb “in the house of my dwelling place.” Some take the Hebrew noun מָגוֹר (magor) in the sense of “temporary abode,” and see this as a reference to the psalmist’s status as a resident alien (see v. 19). But the noun can refer to a dwelling place in general (see Ps 55:15).

649 tn The cohortative verbal form expresses the psalmist’s resolve to obey the law.

650 tn Heb “this has been to me.” The demonstrative “this” (1) refers back to the practices mentioned in vv. 54-55, or (2) looks forward to the statement in the second line, in which case the כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line should be translated “that.”

651 tn Heb “my portion [is] the Lord.” The psalmist compares the Lord to landed property, which was foundational to economic stability in ancient Israel (see Ps 16:5).

652 tn Heb “I said.”

653 tn Heb “to keep your words” (see v. 9).

654 tn Heb “I appease your face.”

655 tn Heb “according to your word.”

656 tn Heb “my ways.”

657 tn Heb “and I turn my feet toward.”

658 tn Heb “I hurry and I do not delay to keep your commands.”

659 tn Heb “surround.”

660 tn The psalmist uses an imperfect verbal form to emphasize that this is his continuing practice.

661 tn Heb “to all who fear you.”

662 tn Heb “do good.”

663 tn Heb “according to your word.”

664 tn Heb “goodness of taste.” Here “taste” refers to moral and ethical discernment.

665 tn Heb “for I believe in your commands.”

666 tn Heb “before I suffered, I was straying off.”

667 tn Heb “your word.”

668 tn Heb “smear over me a lie.”

669 tn Heb “their heart is insensitive like fat.”

670 tn Heb “better to me [is] the law of your mouth than thousands of gold and silver.”

671 tn Heb “made me and established me.” The two verbs also appear together in Deut 32:6, where God, compared to a father, is said to have “made and established” Israel.

672 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

673 tn Heb “those who fear you will see me and rejoice.”

674 tn In this context (note the second line) the Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim), which so often refers to the regulations of God’s law elsewhere in this psalm, may refer instead to his decisions or disciplinary judgment.

675 tn Heb “and [in] faithfulness you afflicted me.”

676 tn Heb “according to your word to your servant.”

677 tn Heb “and may your compassion come to me.”

678 tn Heb “for [with] falsehood they have denied me justice.”

679 tn Heb “those who fear you.”

680 tn Heb “may my heart be complete in your statutes.”

681 tn Heb “my soul pines for.” See Ps 84:2.

682 tn Heb “my eyes fail for your word.” The psalmist has intently kept his eyes open, looking for God to intervene, but now his eyes are watery and bloodshot, impairing his vision. See Ps 69:3.

683 tn Heb “saying.”

684 tn Or “even though.”

685 tn The Hebrew word נֹאד (nod, “leather container”) refers to a container made from animal skin which is used to hold wine or milk (see Josh 9:4, 13; Judg 4:19; 1 Sam 16:20).

686 tn Heb “in the smoke.”

687 tn Heb “How long are the days of your servant?”

688 tn Heb “for me.”

689 tn Heb “which [is] not according to your law.”

690 sn God’s commands are a reliable guide to right and wrong. By keeping them the psalmist is doing what is right, yet he is still persecuted.

691 tn Heb “according to.”

692 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

693 tn Heb “of your mouth.”

694 tn Heb “Forever, O Lord, your word stands firm in heaven,” or “Forever, O Lord, [is] your word; it stands firm in heaven.” The translation assumes that “your word” refers here to the body of divine instructions contained in the law (note the frequent references to the law in vv. 92-96). See vv. 9, 16-17, 57, 101, 105, 130, 139 and 160-61. The reference in v. 86 to God’s law being faithful favors this interpretation. Another option is that “your word” refers to God’s assuring word of promise, mentioned in vv. 25, 28, 42, 65, 74, 81, 107, 114, 147 and 169. In this case one might translate, “O Lord, your promise is reliable, it stands firm in heaven.”

695 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation [is] your faithfulness.”

696 tn Heb “if your law had not been my delight.”

697 tn Or “my suffering.”

698 tn Heb “the wicked wait for me to kill me.”

699 tn Heb “to every perfection I have seen an end, your command is very wide.” God’s law is beyond full comprehension, which is why the psalmist continually studies it (vv. 95, 97).

700 tn The plural form needs to be revocalized as a singular in order to agree with the preceding singular verb and the singular pronoun in the next line. The Lord’s “command” refers here to the law (see Ps 19:8).

701 tn Heb “I hold back my feet.”

702 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural.

703 tn Heb “How smooth they are to my palate, your word, more than honey to my mouth.” A few medieval Hebrew mss, as well as several other ancient witnesses, read the plural “your words,” which can then be understood as the subject of the plural verb “they are smooth.”

704 tn Heb “every false path.”

705 tn Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural (“words”).

706 tn Heb “[is] a lamp for my foot and a light for my path.”

707 tn Heb “according to your word.”

708 tn Heb “of my mouth.”

709 tn Heb “my life [is] in my hands continually.”

710 tn Heb “for the joy of my heart [are] they.”

711 tn Heb “I turn my heart to do.”

712 tn Heb “divided ones.” The word occurs only here; it appears to be derived from a verbal root, attested in Arabic, meaning “to split” (see HALOT 762 s.v. *סֵעֵף). Since the psalmist is emphasizing his unswerving allegiance to God and his law, the term probably refers to those who lack such loyalty. The translation is similar to that suggested by L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 131.

713 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

714 tn The psalmist has already declared that he observes God’s commands despite persecution, so here the idea must be “so that I might observe the commands of my God unhindered by threats.”

715 tn Heb “according to your word.”

716 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

717 tn Heb “do not make me ashamed of my hope.” After the Hebrew verb בּוֹשׁ (bosh, “to be ashamed”) the preposition מִן (min, “from”) often introduces the reason for shame.

718 tn Or “and that I might focus.” The two cohortatives with vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose/result after the imperative at the beginning of the verse.

719 tn The Hebrew verb סָלָה (salah, “to disdain”) occurs only here and in Lam 1:15. Cognate usage in Aramaic and Akkadian, as well as Lam 1:15, suggest it may have a concrete nuance of “to throw away.”

720 tn Heb “for their deceit [is] falsehood.”

721 sn Traditionally “dross” (so KJV, ASV, NIV). The metaphor comes from metallurgy; “slag” is the substance left over after the metallic ore has been refined.

722 sn As he explains in the next verse, the psalmist’s fear of judgment motivates him to obey God’s rules.

723 tn Heb “my flesh.”

724 tn The Hebrew verb סָמַר (samar, “to tremble”) occurs only here and in Job 4:15.

725 tn Heb “from fear of you.” The pronominal suffix on the noun is an objective genitive.

726 tn Heb “do justice and righteousness.”

727 tn Heb “be surety for your servant for good.”

728 tn Heb “my eyes fail for your deliverance.” The psalmist has intently kept his eyes open, looking for God to intervene, but now his eyes are watery and bloodshot, impairing his vision. See the similar phrase in v. 82.

729 tn Heb “and for the word of your faithfulness.”

730 tn Heb “do with your servant according to your loyal love.”

731 tn or “know.” The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

732 tn “For this reason” connects logically with the statement made in v. 126. Because the judgment the psalmist fears (see vv. 119-120) is imminent, he remains loyal to God’s law.

733 tn Heb “for this reason all the precepts of everything I regard as right.” The phrase “precepts of everything” is odd. It is preferable to take the kaf (כ) on כֹּל (kol, “everything) with the preceding form as a pronominal suffix, “your precepts,” and the lamed (ל) with the following verb as an emphatic particle. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 138.

734 tn Heb “every false path.”

735 tn Heb “the doorway of your words gives light.” God’s “words” refer here to the instructions in his law (see vv. 9, 57).

736 tn Heb “it [i.e., the doorway] gives.”

737 tn Or “the [morally] naive,” that is, the one who is young and still in the process of learning right from wrong and distinguishing wisdom from folly. See Pss 19:7; 116:6.

738 tn The verb occurs only here in the OT.

739 tn Heb “according to custom toward the lovers of your name.” The “lovers of” God’s “name” are the Lord’s loyal followers. See Pss 5:11; 69:36; Isa 56:6.

740 tn God’s “word” refers here to his law (see v. 11).

741 tn Or “redeem me.”

742 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

743 tn Heb “cause your face to shine.”

744 tn Heb “[with] flowing streams my eyes go down.”

745 tn Heb “they”; even though somewhat generic, the referent (people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

746 tn Heb “you commanded [in] justice your rules.”

747 tn or “zeal.”

748 tn Heb “destroys,” in a hyperbolic sense.

749 tn Heb “your words.”

750 tn Heb “your justice [is] justice forever.”

751 tn Or “truth.”

752 tn Heb “find.”

753 tn Heb “just are your rules forever.”

754 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

755 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

756 tn Heb “my voice.”

757 tn Heb “according to.”

758 tn Heb “according to your custom.”

759 tn Heb “those who pursue.”

760 tn Or “truth.”

761 tn Heb “long ago I knew concerning your rules, that forever you established them.” See v. 89 for the same idea. The translation assumes that the preposition מִן (min) prefixed to “your rules” introduces the object of the verb יָדַע (yada’), as in 1 Sam 23:23. Another option is that the preposition indicates source, in which case one might translate, “Long ago I realized from your rules that forever you established them” (cf. NIV, NRSV).

762 tn Or “argue my case.”

763 tn Heb “and redeem me.” The verb “redeem” casts the Lord in the role of a leader who protects members of his extended family in times of need and crisis (see Ps 19:14).

764 tn Heb “far from the wicked [is] deliverance.”

765 tn Heb “according to your customs.”

766 tn Heb “many [are] those who chase me and my enemies.”

767 tn Heb “your word.”

768 tn Heb “the head of your word is truth, and forever [is] all your just regulation.” The term “head” is used here of the “sum total” of God’s instructions.

769 tn Heb “and because of your instructions my heart trembles.” The psalmist’s healthy “fear” of the consequences of violating God’s instructions motivates him to obey them. See v. 120.

770 tn Heb “like one who finds great plunder.” See Judg 5:30. The image is that of a victorious warrior who finds a large amount of plunder on the field of battle.

771 tn The number “seven” is use rhetorically to suggest thoroughness.

772 tn Heb “great peace [is] to the lovers of your law.”

773 tn Heb “and there is no stumbling to them.”

774 tn Heb “do.”

775 tn Heb “for all my ways [are] before you.”

776 tn Heb “may my cry approach before you.”

777 tn Heb “may my appeal for mercy come before you.”

778 tn Heb “according to your speech.”

779 tn Heb “your word.”

780 tn The words “to obey” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarity.

781 tn Heb “my life.”

782 tn God’s regulations will “help” the psalmist by giving him moral and ethical guidance.

783 tn Heb “I stray like a lost sheep.” It is possible that the point of the metaphor is vulnerability: The psalmist, who is threatened by his enemies, feels as vulnerable as a straying, lost sheep. This would not suggest, however, that he has wandered from God’s path (see the second half of the verse, as well as v. 110).

784 sn Psalm 120. The genre and structure of this psalm are uncertain. It begins like a thanksgiving psalm, with a brief notice that God has heard the psalmist’s prayer for help and has intervened. But v. 2 is a petition for help, followed by a taunt directed toward enemies (vv. 3-4) and a lament (vv. 5-7). Perhaps vv. 2-7 recall the psalmist’s prayer when he cried out to the Lord.

785 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

786 tn The words “I said” are supplied in the translation for clarification. See the introductory note for this psalm.

787 tn Or “my life.”

788 tn Heb “from a lip of falsehood.”

789 tn Heb “from a tongue of deception.”

790 tn Heb “What will he give to you, and what will he add to you, O tongue of deception?” The psalmist addresses his deceptive enemies. The Lord is the understood subject of the verbs “give” and “add.” The second part of the question echoes a standard curse formula, “thus the Lord/God will do … and thus he will add” (see Ruth 1:17; 1 Sam 3:17; 14:44; 20:13; 25:22; 2 Sam 3:9, 35; 19:13; 1 Kgs 2:23; 2 Kgs 6:31).

791 tn The words “here’s how” are supplied in the translation as a clarification. In v. 4 the psalmist answers the question he raises in v. 3.

792 tn Heb “with coals of the wood of the broom plant.” The wood of the broom plant was used to make charcoal, which in turn was used to fuel the fire used to forge the arrowheads.

793 tn Or “woe to me.” The Hebrew term אוֹיָה (’oyah, “woe”) which occurs only here, is an alternate form of אוֹי (’oy).

794 tn Heb “I live as a resident alien.”

795 sn Meshech was located in central Anatolia (modern Turkey). Kedar was located in the desert to east-southeast of Israel. Because of the reference to Kedar, it is possible that Ps 120:5 refers to a different Meshech, perhaps one associated with the individual mentioned as a descendant of Aram in 1 Chr 1:17. (However, the LXX in 1 Chr 1:17 follows the parallel text in Gen 10:23, which reads “Mash,” not Meshech.) It is, of course, impossible that the psalmist could have been living in both the far north and the east at the same time. For this reason one must assume that he is recalling his experience as a wanderer among the nations or that he is using the geographical terms metaphorically and sarcastically to suggest that the enemies who surround him are like the barbarians who live in these distant regions. For a discussion of the problem, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 146.

796 tn The singular participial form probably has a representative function here. The psalmist envisions the typical hater of peace who represents the entire category of such individuals.

797 tn Heb “I, peace.”

798 tn Heb “they [are] for war.”

799 sn Psalm 121. The psalm affirms that the Lord protects his people Israel. Unless the psalmist addresses an observer (note the second person singular forms in vv. 3-8), it appears there are two or three speakers represented in the psalm, depending on how one takes v. 3. The translation assumes that speaker one talks in vv. 1-2, that speaker two responds to him with a prayer in v. 3 (this assumes the verbs are true jussives of prayer), and that speaker three responds with words of assurance in vv. 4-8. If the verbs in v. 3 are taken as a rhetorical use of the jussive, then there are two speakers. Verses 3-8 are speaker two’s response to the words of speaker one. See the note on the word “sleep” at the end of v. 3.

800 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

801 tn Heb “I lift my eyes.”

802 tn The Hebrew term מֵאַיִן (meayin) is interrogative, not relative, in function. Rather than directly stating that his source of help descends from the hills, the psalmist is asking, “From where does my help come?” Nevertheless, the first line does indicate that he is looking toward the hills for help, probably indicating that he is looking up toward the sky in anticipation of supernatural intervention. The psalmist assumes the dramatic role of one needing help. He answers his own question in v. 2.

803 tn Heb “my help [is] from with the Lord.”

804 tn Or “Maker.”

805 tn Heb “the one who guards you.”

806 tn The prefixed verbal forms following the negative particle אל appear to be jussives. As noted above, if they are taken as true jussives of prayer, then the speaker in v. 3 would appear to be distinct from both the speaker in vv. 1-2 and the speaker in vv. 4-8. However, according to GKC 322 §109.e), the jussives are used rhetorically here “to express the conviction that something cannot or should not happen.” In this case one should probably translate, “he will not allow your foot to slip, your protector will not sleep,” and understand just one speaker in vv. 4-8.

807 tn Heb “the one who guards Israel.”

808 sn One hardly thinks of the moon’s rays as being physically harmful, like those of the sun. The reference to the moon may simply lend poetic balance to the verse, but it is likely that the verse reflects an ancient, primitive belief that the moon could have an adverse effect on the mind (note the English expression “moonstruck,” which reflects such a belief). Another possibility is that the sun and moon stand by metonymy for harmful forces characteristic of the day and night, respectively.

809 tn Heb “your going out and your coming in.”

810 sn Psalm 122. The psalmist expresses his love for Jerusalem and promises to pray for the city’s security.

811 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

812 tn Heb “in the ones saying to me.” After the verb שָׂמַח (samakh), the preposition בְּ (bet) usually introduces the reason for joy.

813 tn Or “were.”

814 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

815 tc Heb “Jerusalem, which is built like a city which is joined to her together.” The meaning of the Hebrew text is unclear. Many regard this as a description of the compact way in which the city was designed or constructed. The translation assumes an emendation of the verb חֻבְּרָה (khubbÿrah, “is joined”) to a noun חֶבְרָה (khevrah, “association; company”). The text then reads literally, “Jerusalem, which is built like a city which has a company together.” This in turn can be taken as a reference to Jerusalem’s role as a city where people congregated for religious festivals and other civic occasions (see vv. 4-5).

816 tn Or “went up.”

817 tn Heb “which is where the tribes go up.”

818 tn Heb “[it is] a statute for Israel to give thanks to the name of the Lord.”

819 tn Or “for.”

820 tn Or “sat.”

821 tn Heb “Indeed, there they sit [on] thrones for judgment, [on] thrones [belonging] to the house of David.”

822 tn Heb “ask [for].”

823 tn Or “be secure.”

824 tn or “security.”

825 tn The psalmist uses second feminine singular pronominal forms to address personified Jerusalem.

826 tn Heb “I will seek good for you.” The psalmist will seek Jerusalem’s “good” through prayer.

827 sn Psalm 123. The psalmist, speaking for God’s people, acknowledges his dependence on God in the midst of a crisis.

828 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

829 tn Heb “I lift my eyes.”

830 tn Heb “sitting.” The Hebrew verb יָשַׁב (yashav) is here used metonymically of “sitting enthroned” (see Pss 9:7; 29:10; 55:19; 102:12).

831 sn Servants look to their master for food, shelter, and other basic needs.

832 tn Heb “for greatly we are filled [with] humiliation.”

833 tn Heb “greatly our soul is full to it.”

834 sn Psalm 124. Israel acknowledges that the Lord delivered them from certain disaster.

835 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

836 tn Heb “rose up against us.”

837 tn Or “stream.”

838 tn Heb “would have passed over.”

839 tn Heb “our being.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).

840 tn Heb “then they would have passed over our being, the raging waters.”

841 tn Heb “blessed [be] the Lord.”

842 tn Heb “[the one] who.”

843 tn Heb “our life escaped.”

844 tn Heb “our help [is] in the name of the Lord.”

845 tn Or “Maker.”

846 sn Psalm 125. The psalmist affirms his confidence in the Lord’s protection and justice.

847 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

848 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

849 tn Or “for.”

850 tn Heb “a scepter of wickedness.” The “scepter” symbolizes royal authority; when collocated with “wickedness” the phrase refers to an oppressive foreign conqueror.

851 tn Or “rest.”

852 tn Heb “so that the godly might not stretch out their hands in wrongdoing.” A wicked king who sets a sinful example can have an adverse moral and ethical effect on the people he rules.

853 tn Heb “pure of heart.” The “heart” is here viewed as the seat of one’s moral character and motives. The “pure of heart” are God’s faithful followers who trust in and love the Lord and, as a result, experience his deliverance (see Pss 7:10; 11:2; 32:11; 36:10; 64:10; 94:15; 97:11).

854 tn Heb “and the ones making their paths twisted.” A sinful lifestyle is compared to a twisting, winding road.

855 tn Heb “lead them away.” The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer here (note the prayers directly before and after this). Another option is to translate, “the Lord will remove them” (cf. NIV, NRSV).

856 tn Heb “the workers of wickedness.”

857 tn Heb “peace [be] upon Israel.” The statement is understood as a prayer (see Ps 122:8 for a similar prayer for peace).

858 sn Psalm 126. Recalling the joy of past deliverance, God’s covenant community asks for a fresh display of God’s power and confidently anticipate their sorrow being transformed into joy.

859 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

860 tn Heb “turns with a turning [toward] his people.” The Hebrew noun שִׁיבַת (shivat) occurs only here in the OT. For this reason many prefer to emend the form to the more common שְׁבִית (shevit) or שְׁבוּת (shÿvut), both of which are used as a cognate accusative of שׁוּב (shuv; see Ps 14:7). However an Aramaic cognate of שְׁבִית appears in an eighth century b.c. Old Aramaic inscription with the verb שׁוּב. This cognate noun appears to mean “return” (see J. Fitzmyer, The Aramaic Treaties of Sefire [BibOr], 119-20) or “restoration” (see DNWSI 2:1125). Therefore it appears that שְׁבִית should be retained and understood as a cognate accusative of שׁוּב. In addition to Fitzmyer (119-20) see L. C. Allen, who offers the literal translation, “turn with a turning toward” (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 170). Allen takes שְׁבִית as construct and understands “Zion” as an objective genitive.

861 tn Heb “we were like dreamers.” This could mean the speakers were so overcome with ecstatic joy (see v. 3b) that they were like those who fantasize about pleasurable experiences in their sleep (see Isa 29:7-8). Since dreams are more commonly associated in the OT with prophetic visions, the community may be comparing their experience of God’s renewed favor to a prophet’s receiving divine visions. Just as a prophetic dream sweeps the individual into a different dimension and sometimes brings one face-to-face with God himself (see Gen 28:11-15; 1 Kgs 3:5-15), so the community was aware of God’s presence in a special way in the day of Zion’s restoration. Though the MT as it stands makes good sense, some choose to understand a homonymic root here meaning “to be healthy; to be strong” (see BDB 321 s.v. I חָלַם) and translate, “we were like those restored to health.” This reading appears to have the support of several ancient translations as well as 11QPsa. See L. C. Allen (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 170-71) for a discussion of the viewpoints.

862 tn Heb “then our mouth was filled with laughter, and our tongue with a shout.”

863 tn Heb “they said among the nations.”

864 tn Heb “like the streams in the Negev.”

sn The streams in the arid south. Y. Aharoni writes of the streams in the Negev: “These usually dry wadis collect water on rainy days from vast areas. The situation is also aggravated by floods from the desert mountains and southern Judah. For a day or two or, more frequently, for only a few hours they turn into dangerous torrents” (Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 26). God’s people were experiencing a “dry season” after a time of past blessing; they pray here for a “flash flood” of his renewed blessing. This does not imply that they are requesting only a brief display of God’s blessing. Rather the point of comparison is the suddenness with which the wadis swell during a rain, as well as the depth and power of these raging waters. The community desires a sudden display of divine favor in which God overwhelms them with blessings.

865 sn O. Borowski says regarding this passage: “The dependence on rain for watering plants, the uncertainty of the quantity and timing of the rains, and the possibility of crop failure due to pests and diseases appear to have kept the farmer in a gloomy mood during sowing” (Agriculture in Iron Age Israel, 54). Perhaps the people were experiencing a literal drought, the effects of which cause them to lament their plight as they plant their seed in hopes that the rain would come. However, most take the language as metaphorical. Like a farmer sowing his seed, the covenant community was enduring hardship as they waited for a new outpouring of divine blessing. Yet they are confident that a time of restoration will come and relieve their anxiety, just as the harvest brings relief and joy to the farmer.

866 tn The noun occurs only here and in Job 28:18 in the OT. See HALOT 646 s.v. I מֶשֶׁךְ which gives “leather pouch” as the meaning.

867 tn The Hebrew noun אֲלֻמָּה (’alummah, “sheaf”) occurs only here and in Gen 37:7 in the OT.

sn Verse 6 expands the image of v. 5. See the note on the word “harvest” there.

868 sn Psalm 127. In this wisdom psalm the psalmist teaches that one does not find security by one’s own efforts, for God alone gives stability and security.

869 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

870 sn The expression build a house may have a double meaning here. It may refer on the surface level to a literal physical structure in which a family lives, but at a deeper, metaphorical level it refers to building, perpetuating, and maintaining a family line. See Deut 25:9; Ruth 4:11; 1 Sam 2:35; 2 Sam 7:27; 1 Kgs 11:38; 1 Chr 17:10, 25. Having a family line provided security in ancient Israel.

871 sn The city symbolizes community security, which is the necessary framework for family security.

872 tn Heb “[it is] vain for you, you who are early to rise, who delay sitting, who eat the food of hard work.” The three substantival participles are parallel and stand in apposition to the pronominal suffix on the preposition. See לָכֶם (lakhem, “for you”).

873 tn Here the Hebrew particle כֵּן (ken) is used to stress the following affirmation (see Josh 2:4; Ps 63:2).

874 tn Heb “he gives to his beloved, sleep.” The translation assumes that the Hebrew term שֵׁנָא (shena’, “sleep,” an alternate form of שֵׁנָה, shenah) is an adverbial accusative. The point seems to be this: Hard work by itself is not what counts, but one’s relationship to God, for God is able to bless an individual even while he sleeps. (There may even be a subtle allusion to the miracle of conception following sexual intercourse; see the reference to the gift of sons in the following verse.) The statement is not advocating laziness, but utilizing hyperbole to give perspective and to remind the addressees that God must be one’s first priority. Another option is to take “sleep” as the direct object: “yes, he gives sleep to his beloved” (cf. NIV, NRSV). In this case the point is this: Hard work by itself is futile, for only God is able to bless one with sleep, which metonymically refers to having one’s needs met. He blesses on the basis of one’s relationship to him, not on the basis of physical energy expended.

875 tn or “look.”

876 tn Some prefer to translate this term with the gender neutral “children,” but “sons” are plainly in view here, as the following verses make clear. Daughters are certainly wonderful additions to a family, but in ancient Israelite culture sons were the “arrows” that gave a man security in his old age, for they could defend the family interests at the city gate, where the legal and economic issues of the community were settled.

877 tn Heb “like arrows in the hand of a warrior, so [are] sons of youth.” Arrows are used in combat to defend oneself against enemies; sons are viewed here as providing social security and protection (see v. 5). The phrase “sons of youth” is elliptical, meaning “sons [born during the father’s] youth.” Such sons will have grown up to be mature adults and will have children of their own by the time the father reaches old age and becomes vulnerable to enemies. Contrast the phrase “son of old age” in Gen 37:3 (see also 44:20), which refers to Jacob’s age when Joseph was born.

878 tn Being “put to shame” is here metonymic for being defeated, probably in a legal context, as the reference to the city gate suggests. One could be humiliated (Ps 69:12) or deprived of justice (Amos 5:12) at the gate, but with strong sons to defend the family interests this was less likely to happen.

879 tn Heb “speak with.”

880 sn Psalm 128. The psalmist observes that the godly individual has genuine happiness because the Lord rewards such a person with prosperity and numerous children.

881 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

882 tn Heb “every fearer of the Lord.”

883 tn Heb “the one who walks in his ways.”

884 tn The psalmist addresses the representative God-fearing man, as indicated by the references to “your wife” (v. 3) and “the man” (v. 4), as well as the second masculine singular pronominal and verbal forms in vv. 2-6.

885 tn Heb “the work of your hands, indeed you will eat.”

886 tn Heb “how blessed you [will be] and it will be good for you.”

887 sn The metaphor of the fruitful vine pictures the wife as fertile; she will give her husband numerous children (see the next line).

888 tn One could translate “sons” (see Ps 127:3 and the note on the word “sons” there), but here the term seems to refer more generally to children of both genders.

889 tn Heb “look, indeed thus will the man, the fearer of the Lord, be blessed.”

890 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer (note the imperatives that are subordinated to this clause in vv. 5b-6a). Having described the blessings that typically come to the godly, the psalmist concludes by praying that this ideal may become reality for the representative godly man being addressed.

891 tn The imperative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding jussive.

892 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

893 tn The imperative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the jussive in v. 5a.

894 tn Heb “sons to your sons.”

895 tn Heb “peace [be] upon Israel.” The statement is understood as a prayer (see Ps 125:5).

896 sn Psalm 129. Israel affirms God’s justice and asks him to destroy the enemies of Zion.

897 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

898 tn The background of the metaphor is not entirely clear. Perhaps the “ropes” are those used to harness the ox for plowing (see Job 39:10). Verse 3 pictures the wicked plowing God’s people as if they were a field. But when God “cut the ropes” of their ox, as it were, they could no longer plow. The point of the metaphor seems to be that God took away the enemies’ ability to oppress his people. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 187.

899 tn The Hebrew verb שָׁלַף (shalaf) normally means “to draw [a sword]” or “to pull.” BDB 1025 s.v. suggests the meaning “to shoot up” here, but it is more likely that the verb here means “to pluck; to pull up,” a nuance attested for this word in later Hebrew and Aramaic (see Jastrow 1587 s.v. שָׁלַף).

900 tn The perfect verbal form is used for rhetorical effect; it describes an anticipated development as if it were already reality.

901 sn Psalm 130. The psalmist, confident of the Lord’s forgiveness, cries out to the Lord for help in the midst of his suffering and urges Israel to do the same.

902 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

903 tn Heb “depths,” that is, deep waters (see Ps 69:2, 14; Isa 51:10), a metaphor for the life-threatening danger faced by the psalmist.

904 tn Heb “my voice.”

905 tn Heb “may your ears be attentive to the voice of.”

906 tn Heb “observe.”

907 tn The words “before you” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The psalmist must be referring to standing before God’s judgment seat. The rhetorical question expects the answer, “No one.”

908 tn Or “surely.”

909 tn Heb “for with you [there is] forgiveness.”

910 tn Or “consequently you are.”

911 tn Heb “feared.”

912 tn Or “wait for.”

913 tn Heb “my soul waits.”

914 tn Heb “his word.”

915 tn Heb “my soul for the master.”

916 tn Heb “more than watchmen for the morning, watchmen for the morning.” The words “yes, more” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

917 tn Heb “for with the Lord [is] loyal love.”

918 tn Heb “and abundantly with him [is] redemption.”

919 tn Or “redeem.”

920 tn The Hebrew noun עָוֹן (’avon) can refer to sin, the guilt sin produces, or the consequences of sin. Only here is the noun collocated with the verb פָּדָה (padah, “to redeem; to deliver”). The psalmist may refer to forgiveness per se (v. 4), but the emphasis in this context is likely on deliverance from the national consequences of sin. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 192.

921 sn Psalm 131. The psalmist affirms his humble dependence on the Lord and urges Israel to place its trust in God.

922 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

923 tn Heb “and my eyes are not lifted up.”

924 tn Heb “I do not walk in great things, and in things too marvelous for me.”

925 tn Or “but.”

926 tn Heb “I make level and make quiet my soul.”

927 tn Heb “like a weaned [one] upon his mother.”

928 tn Heb “like the weaned [one] upon me, my soul.”

929 sn Psalm 132. The psalmist reminds God of David’s devotion and of his promises concerning David’s dynasty and Zion.

930 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

931 tn Heb “all his affliction.” This may refer to David’s strenuous and tireless efforts to make provision for the building of the temple (see 1 Chr 22:14). Some prefer to revocalize the text as עַנַוָתוֹ (’anavato, “his humility”).

932 tn Heb “the powerful [one] of Jacob.”

933 tn The words “he said” are supplied in the translation to clarify that what follows is David’s vow.

934 tn Heb “the tent of my house.”

935 tn Heb “go up upon the bed of my couch.”

936 tn The plural form of the noun may indicate degree or quality; David envisions a special dwelling place (see Pss 43:3; 46:4; 84:1).

937 tn Heb “the powerful [one] of Jacob.”

938 tn Rather than having an antecedent, the third feminine singular pronominal suffix here (and in the next line) appears to refer to the ark of the covenant, mentioned in v. 8. (The Hebrew term אָרוֹן [’aron, “ark”] is sometimes construed as grammatically feminine. See 1 Sam 4:17; 2 Chr 8:11.)

939 sn Some understand Ephrathah as a reference to Kiriath-jearim because of the apparent allusion to this site in the next line (see the note on “Jaar”). The ark was kept in Kiriath-jearim after the Philistines released it (see 1 Sam 6:21-7:2). However, the switch in verbs from “heard about” to “found” suggests that Ephrathah not be equated with Jair. The group who is speaking heard about the ark while they were in Ephrath. They then went to retrieve it from Kiriath-jearim (“Jaar”). It is more likely that Ephrathah refers to a site near Bethel (Gen 35:16, 19; 48:7) or to Bethlehem (Ruth 4:11; Mic 5:2).

940 tn Heb “fields of the forest.” The Hebrew term יָעַר (yaad, “forest”) is apparently a shortened alternative name for קִרְיַת יְעָרִים (qiryat yÿarim, “Kiriath-jearim”), the place where the ark was kept after it was released by the Philistines and from which David and his men retrieved it (see 1 Chr 13:6).

941 tn Or “bow down.”

942 tn Or “righteousness.”

943 tn Heb “do not turn away the face of your anointed one.”

944 tn Heb “the Lord swore an oath to David [in] truth.”

945 tn Heb “he will not turn back from it.”

946 tn The words “he said” are supplied in the translation to clarify that what follows are the Lord’s words.

947 tn Heb “the fruit of your body.”

948 tn Or “for.”

949 tn Heb “he desired it for his dwelling place.”

950 tn The words “he said” are added in the translation to clarify that what follows are the Lord’s words.

951 tn Heb “for I desired it.”

952 tn Heb “I will greatly bless her provision.” The infinitive absolute is used to emphasize the verb.

953 tn Heb “her poor I will satisfy [with] food.”

954 tn Heb “and her priests I will clothe [with] deliverance.”

955 tn Heb “[with] shouting they will shout.” The infinitive absolute is used to emphasize the verb.

956 tn Heb “there I will cause a horn to sprout for David.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (cf. Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Pss 18:2; 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17). In the ancient Near East powerful warrior-kings would sometimes compare themselves to a goring bull that used its horns to kill its enemies. For examples, see P. Miller, “El the Warrior,” HTR 60 (1967): 422-25, and R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 135-36.

957 tn Heb “I have arranged a lamp for my anointed one.” Here the “lamp” is a metaphor for the Davidic dynasty (see 1 Kgs 11:36).

958 tn Heb “his enemies I will clothe [with] shame.”

959 sn Psalm 133. The psalmist affirms the benefits of family unity.

960 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

961 sn This statement refers to the extended family structure of ancient Israel, where brothers would often live in proximity to one another (Deut 25:5), giving the family greater social prominence and security. However, in its later application in the Israelite cult it probably envisions unity within the covenant community. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 212-15.

962 tn Heb “[it is] like the good oil on the head, going down on the beard.”

963 tn Heb “which goes down in accordance with his measured things.” The Hebrew phrase מִדּוֹתָיו (middotayv, “his measured things”) refers here to the robes worn by Aaron. HALOT 546 s.v. *מַד derives the form from מַד (midah, “robe”) rather than מִדָּה (middah, “measured thing”). Ugaritic md means “robe” and is pluralized mdt.

964 sn Hermon refers to Mount Hermon, located north of Israel.

965 sn The hills of Zion are those surrounding Zion (see Pss 87:1; 125:2). The psalmist does not intend to suggest that the dew from Mt. Hermon in the distant north actually flows down upon Zion. His point is that the same kind of heavy dew that replenishes Hermon may also be seen on Zion’s hills. See A. Cohen, Psalms (SoBB), 439. “Dew” here symbolizes divine blessing, as the next line suggests.

966 tn Or “for.”

967 tn Heb “there the Lord has commanded the blessing, life forever.”

968 sn Psalm 134. The psalmist calls on the temple servants to praise God (vv. 1-2). They in turn pronounce a blessing on the psalmist (v. 3).

969 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

970 tn Heb “Look!”

971 tn Heb “stand.”

972 tn The pronominal suffix is second masculine singular, suggesting that the servants addressed in vv. 1-2 are responding to the psalmist.

973 tn Heb “may the Lord bless you from Zion, the maker of heaven and earth.”

974 sn Psalm 135. The psalmist urges God’s people to praise him because he is the incomparable God and ruler of the world who has accomplished great things for Israel.

975 tn Heb “stand.”

976 tn Heb “for [it is] pleasant.” The translation assumes that it is the Lord’s “name” that is pleasant. Another option is to understand the referent of “it” as the act of praising (see Ps 147:1).

977 tn Or “for.”

978 sn His special possession. The language echoes Exod 19:5; Deut 7:6; 14:2; 26:18. See also Mal 3:17.

979 tn Or “for.”

980 tn Or “signs” (see Ps 65:8).

981 tn Or “portents”; “omens” (see Ps 71:7). The Egyptian plagues are alluded to here.

982 tn Or “is forever.”

983 tn Heb “O Lord, your remembrance [is] for a generation and a generation.” See Ps 102:12.

984 tn Heb “judges,” but here the idea is that the Lord “judges on behalf of” his people. The imperfect verbal forms here and in the next line draw attention to the Lord’s characteristic actions.

985 sn Verse 14 echoes Deut 32:36, where Moses affirms that God mercifully relents from fully judging his wayward people.

986 tn Heb “the work of the hands of man.”

987 tn Heb “indeed, there is not breath in their mouth.” For the collocation אַף אֵין (’afen, “indeed, there is not”) see Isa 41:26. Another option is to take אַף as “nose” (see Ps 115:6), in which case one might translate, “a nose, [but] they have no breath in their mouths.”

988 tn Heb “will be.” Another option is to take the prefixed verbal form as a prayer, “may those who make them end up like them.”

sn Because the idols are lifeless, they cannot help their worshipers in times of crisis. Consequently the worshipers end up as dead as the gods in which they trust.

989 tn Heb “house” (here and in the next two lines).

990 tn Heb “fearers.”

991 tn Heb “praised be the Lord from Zion.”

992 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

993 sn Psalm 136. In this hymn the psalmist affirms that God is praiseworthy because of his enduring loyal love, sovereign authority, and compassion. Each verse of the psalm concludes with the refrain “for his loyal love endures.”

994 tn Or “is forever.”

995 tn Or “cut.”

996 tn Heb “Reed Sea” (also in v. 15). “Reed Sea” (or “Sea of Reeds”) is a more accurate rendering of the Hebrew expression יָם סוּף (yam suf), traditionally translated “Red Sea.” See the note on the term “Red Sea” in Exod 13:18.

997 tn Heb “into pieces.”

998 tn Or “shook off.”

999 tn Heb “who, in our low condition, remembered us.”

1000 tn Heb “to all flesh,” which can refer to all people (see Pss 65:2; 145:21) or more broadly to mankind and animals. Elsewhere the psalms view God as the provider for all living things (see Pss 104:27-28; 145:15).

1001 sn Psalm 137. The Babylonian exiles lament their condition, vow to remain loyal to Jerusalem, and appeal to God for revenge on their enemies.

1002 tn Heb “there we sit down, also we weep.”

1003 tn Heb “ask us [for] the words of a song.”

1004 tn Heb “our [?] joy.” The derivation and meaning of the Hebrew phrase תוֹלָלֵינוּ (tolalenu, “our [?]”) are uncertain. A derivation from תָּלַל (talal, “to mock”) fits contextually, but this root occurs only in the Hiphil stem. For a discussion of various proposals, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 236.

1005 tn Heb “from a song of Zion.” Most modern translations read, “one of the songs of Zion,” taking the preposition מִן (min, “from”) as partitive and “song” as collective. The present translation assumes the mem (ם) is enclitic, being misunderstood later as the prefixed preposition.

1006 tn Heb “may my right hand forget.” In this case one must supply an object, such as “how to move.” The elliptical nature of the text has prompted emendations (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 236). The translation assumes an emendation to תִּכְשַׁח (tikhshakh), from an otherwise unattested root כשׁח, meaning “to be crippled; to be lame.” See HALOT 502 s.v. כשׁח, which cites Arabic cognate evidence in support of the proposal. The corruption of the MT can be explained as an error of transposition facilitated by the use of שָׁכַח (shakhakh, “forget”) just before this.

1007 tn Heb “if I do not lift up Jerusalem over the top of my joy.”

1008 tn Heb “remember, O Lord, against the sons of Edom, the day of Jerusalem.”

1009 tn Heb “lay [it] bare, lay [it] bare.”

1010 tn Heb “O devastated daughter of Babylon.” The psalmist dramatically anticipates Babylon’s demise.

1011 tn Heb “O the happiness of the one who repays you your wage which you paid to us.”

1012 sn For other references to the wholesale slaughter of babies in the context of ancient Near Eastern warfare, see 2 Kgs 8:12; Isa 13:16; Hos 13:16; Nah 3:10.

1013 sn Psalm 138. The psalmist vows to thank the Lord for his deliverance and protection.

1014 tn The referent of the Hebrew term אֱלֹהִים (’elohim) is unclear. It refers either to the angelic assembly (see Gen 3:5; Ps 8:5) or to the pagan gods (see Pss 82:1, 6; 86:8; 97:7), in which case the psalmist’s praise takes on a polemical tone.

1015 tc The MT reads, “for you have made great over all your name your word.” If retained, this must mean that God's mighty intervention, in fulfillment of his word of promise, surpassed anything he had done prior to this. However, the statement is odd and several emendations have been proposed. Some read, “for you have exalted over everything your name and your word,” while others suggest, “for you have exalted over all the heavens your name and your word.” The translation assumes an emendation of “your name” to “your heavens” (a construction that appears in Pss 8:3 and 144:5). The point is that God has been faithful to his promise and the reliability of that promise is apparent to all. For a fuller discussion of these options, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 244.

1016 tn Heb “in the day.”

1017 tn Heb “you made me bold in my soul [with] strength.”

1018 tn The prefixed verbal forms here and in the following verse are understood as jussives, for the psalmist appears to be calling upon the kings to praise God. Another option is to take them as imperfects and translate, “the kings of the earth will give thanks…and will sing.” In this case the psalmist anticipates a universal response to his thanksgiving song.

1019 tn Heb “the words of your mouth.”

1020 tn Heb “ways.”

1021 tn Heb “great.”

1022 tn Or “distress.”

1023 tn Heb “against the anger of my enemies you extend your hand.”

1024 tn Heb “avenges on my behalf.” For the meaning “to avenge” for the verb גָּמַר (gamar), see HALOT 197-98 s.v. גמר.

1025 tn Heb “the works of your hands.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the singular, “work of your hands.”

1026 sn Psalm 139. The psalmist acknowledges that God, who created him, is aware of his every action and thought. He invites God to examine his motives, for he is confident they are pure.

1027 tn The statement is understood as generalizing – the psalmist describes what God typically does.

1028 tn Heb “my traveling and my lying down you measure.” The verb זָרָה (zarah, “to measure”) is probably here a denominative from זָרָת (zarat, “a span; a measure”), though some derive it from זָרָה (zarat, “to winnow; to sift”; see BDB 279-80 s.v. זָרָה).

1029 tn Heb “all my ways.”

1030 tn Or “for.”

1031 tn Heb “look, O Lord, you know all of it.”

1032 tn Heb “too amazing [is this] knowledge for me, it is elevated, I cannot attain to it.”

1033 tn Heb “Where can I go from your spirit, and where from your face can I flee?” God’s “spirit” may refer here (1) to his presence (note the parallel term, “your face,” and see Ps 104:29-30, where God’s “face” is his presence and his “spirit” is the life-giving breath he imparts) or (2) to his personal Spirit (see Ps 51:10).

1034 tn The Hebrew verb סָלַק (salaq, “to ascend”) occurs only here in the OT, but the word is well-attested in Aramaic literature from different time periods and displays a wide semantic range (see DNWSI 2:788-90).

1035 tn Heb “look, you.”

1036 tn Heb “rise up.”

1037 sn On the wings of the dawn. This personification of the “dawn” may find its roots in mythological traditions about the god Shachar, whose birth is described in an Ugaritic myth (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 126) and who is mentioned in Isa 14:12 as the father of Helel.

1038 tn Heb “at the end.”

1039 tn The Hebrew verb שׁוּף (shuf), which means “to crush; to wound,” in Gen 3:15 and Job 9:17, is problematic here. For a discussion of attempts to relate the verb to Arabic roots, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 251. Many emend the form to יְשׂוּכֵּנִי (yesukkeniy), from the root שׂכך (“to cover,” an alternate form of סכך), a reading assumed in the present translation.

1040 tn Heb “and night, light, around me.”

1041 tn The words “to see” are supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.

1042 tn Heb “shines like.”

1043 tn Heb “like darkness, like light.”

1044 tn Or “for.”

1045 tn Heb “my kidneys.” The kidneys were sometimes viewed as the seat of one’s emotions and moral character (cf. Pss 7:9; 26:2). A number of translations, recognizing that “kidneys” does not communicate this idea to the modern reader, have generalized the concept: “inmost being” (NAB, NIV); “inward parts” (NASB, NRSV); “the delicate, inner parts of my body” (NLT). In the last instance, the focus is almost entirely on the physical body rather than the emotions or moral character. The present translation, by using a hendiadys (one concept expressed through two terms), links the concepts of emotion (heart) and moral character (mind).

1046 tn The Hebrew verb סָכַךְ (sakhakh, “to weave together”) is an alternate form of שָׂכַךְ (sakhakh, “to weave”) used in Job 10:11.

1047 tc Heb “because awesome things, I am distinct, amazing [are] your works.” The text as it stands is syntactically problematic and makes little, if any, sense. The Niphal of פָּלָה (pala’) occurs elsewhere only in Exod 33:16. Many take the form from פָלָא (pala’; see GKC 216 §75.qq), which in the Niphal perfect means “to be amazing” (see 2 Sam 1:26; Ps 118:23; Prov 30:18). Some, following the LXX and some other ancient witnesses, also prefer to emend the verb from first to second person, “you are amazing” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 249, 251). The present translation assumes the text conflates two variants: נפלאים, the otherwise unattested masculine plural participle of פָלָא, and נִפְלָאוֹת (niflaot), the usual (feminine) plural form of the Niphal participle. The latter has been changed to a verb by later scribes in an attempt to accommodate it syntactically. The original text likely read, נוראות נפלאותים מעשׂיך (“your works [are] awesome [and] amazing”).

1048 tc Heb “and my being knows very much.” Better parallelism is achieved (see v. 15a) if one emends יֹדַעַת (yodaat), a Qal active participle, feminine singular form, to יָדַעְתָּ (yadata), a Qal perfect second masculine singular perfect. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 252.

1049 tc The Hebrew term אֲשֶׁר (’asher, “which”) should probably be emended to כֲּאַשֶׁר (kaasher, “when”). The kaf (כ) may have been lost by haplography (note the kaf at the end of the preceding form).

1050 sn The phrase depths of the earth may be metaphorical (euphemistic) or it may reflect a prescientific belief about the origins of the embryo deep beneath the earth’s surface (see H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 96-97). Job 1:21 also closely associates the mother’s womb with the earth.

1051 tn Heb “Your eyes saw my shapeless form.” The Hebrew noun גֹּלֶם (golem) occurs only here in the OT. In later Hebrew the word refers to “a lump, a shapeless or lifeless substance,” and to “unfinished matter, a vessel wanting finishing” (Jastrow 222 s.v. גּוֹלֶם). The translation employs the dynamic rendering “when I was inside the womb” to clarify that the speaker was still in his mother’s womb at the time he was “seen” by God.

1052 tn Heb “and on your scroll all of them were written, [the] days [which] were formed, and [there was] not one among them.” This “scroll” may be the “scroll of life” mentioned in Ps 69:28 (see the note on the word “living” there).

1053 tn Heb “and to me how precious are your thoughts, O God.” The Hebrew verb יָקַר (yaqar) probably has the sense of “difficult [to comprehend]” here (see HALOT 432 s.v. יקר qal.1 and note the use of Aramaic יַקִּר in Dan 2:11). Elsewhere in the immediate context the psalmist expresses his amazement at the extent of God’s knowledge about him (see vv. 1-6, 17b-18).

1054 tn Heb “how vast are their heads.” Here the Hebrew word “head” is used of the “sum total” of God’s knowledge of the psalmist.

1055 tc Heb “I awake and I [am] still with you.” A reference to the psalmist awaking from sleep makes little, if any, sense contextually. For this reason some propose an emendation to הֲקִצּוֹתִי (haqitsoti), a Hiphil perfect form from an otherwise unattested verb קָצַץ (qatsats) understood as a denominative of קֵץ (qets, “end”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 252-53.

1056 tn The Hebrew particle אִם (’im, “if”) and following prefixed verbal form here express a wish (see Pss 81:8; 95:7, as well as GKC 321 §109.b).

1057 tn Heb “men of bloodshed.”

1058 tn Heb “who.”

1059 tc Heb “they speak [of] you.” The suffixed form of the verb אָמַר (’amar, “to speak”) is peculiar. The translation assumes an emendation to יַמְרֻךָ (yamrukha), a Hiphil form from מָרָה (marah, “to rebel”; see Ps 78:40).

1060 tn Heb “by deceit.”

1061 tc Heb “lifted up for emptiness, your cities.” The Hebrew text as it stands makes no sense. The form נָשֻׂא (nasu’; a Qal passive participle) should be emended to נָשְׂאוּ (nosÿu; a Qal perfect, third common plural, “[they] lift up”). Many emend עָרֶיךָ (’arekha, “your cities”) to עָלֶיךָ (’alekha, “against you”), but it is preferable to understand the noun as an Aramaism and translate “your enemies” (see Dan 4:16 and L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 253).

1062 tc Heb “who raise themselves up against you.” The form וּבִתְקוֹמְמֶיךָ (uvitqomÿmekha) should be emended to וּבְמִתְקוֹמְמֶיךָ (uvÿmitqomÿmekha), a Hitpolel participle (the prefixed mem [מ] of the participle is accidentally omitted in the MT, though a few medieval Hebrew mss have it).

1063 tn Heb “[with] completeness of hatred I hate them.”

1064 tn Heb “and know my heart.”

1065 tn The Hebrew noun שַׂרְעַפַּי (sarapay, “concerns”) is used of “worries” in Ps 94:19.

1066 tn Many understand the Hebrew term עֹצֶב (’otsev) as a noun meaning “pain,” and translate the phrase דֶּרֶךְ עֹצֶב (derekhotsev) as “of pain,” but this makes little sense here. (Some interpret it to refer to actions which bring pain to others.) It is preferable to take עֹצֶב as “idol” (see HALOT 865 s.v. I עֹצֶב) and understand “way of an idol” to refer to idolatrous actions or tendency. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 253.

1067 tn Heb “in the path of antiquity.” This probably refers to the moral path prescribed by the Lord at the beginning of Israel’s history. See Jer 6:16; 18:15, as well as L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 253.

1068 sn Psalm 140. The psalmist asks God to deliver him from his deadly enemies, calls judgment down upon them, and affirms his confidence in God’s justice.

1069 tn Heb “from a wicked man.” The Hebrew uses the singular in a representative or collective sense (note the plural verbs in v. 2).

1070 tn Heb “a man of violent acts.” The Hebrew uses the singular in a representative or collective sense (note the plural verbs in v. 2).

1071 tn Heb “they devise wicked [plans] in [their] mind.”

1072 tc Heb “they attack [for] war.” Some revocalize the verb (which is a Qal imperfect from גּוּר, gur, “to attack”) as יְגָרוּ (yÿgaru), a Piel imperfect from גָרָה (garah, “stir up strife”). This is followed in the present translation.

1073 tn Heb “they sharpen their tongue like a serpent.” Ps 64:3 reads, “they sharpen their tongues like sword.” Perhaps Ps 140:3 uses a mixed metaphor, the point being that “they sharpen their tongues [like a sword],” as it were, so that when they speak, their words wound like a serpent’s bite. Another option is that the language refers to the pointed or forked nature of a serpent’s tongue, which is viewed metaphorically as “sharpened.”

1074 tn The Hebrew term is used only here in the OT.

1075 tn Heb “under.”

1076 tn Heb “hands.”

1077 tn Heb “to push down my steps.”

1078 tn Heb “and ropes,” but many prefer to revocalize the noun as a participle (חֹבְלִים, khovÿlim) from the verb חָבַל (khaval, “act corruptly”).

1079 tn Heb “the strength of my deliverance.”

1080 tn Heb “cover.”

1081 tn Heb “do not grant the desires of the wicked.”

1082 tn Heb “his.” The singular is used in a representative sense (see v. 1).

1083 tn Heb “his plot do not promote, they rise up.” The translation understands the final verb as being an unmarked temporal clause. Another option is to revocalize the verb as a Hiphil and take the verb with the next verse, “those who surround me lift up [their] head,” which could refer to their proud attitude as they anticipate victory (see Ps 27:6).

1084 tn Heb “harm of their lips.” The genitive here indicates the source or agent of the harm.

1085 tn The verb form in the Kethib (consonantal Hebrew text) appears to be a Hiphil imperfect from the root מוּט (mut, “to sway”), but the Hiphil occurs only here and in Ps 55:3, where it is preferable to read יַמְטִירוּ (yamtiru, “they rain down”). In Ps 140:10 the form יַמְטֵר (yamter, “let him rain down”) should probably be read.

1086 tn Heb “into bottomless pits, they will not arise.” The translation assumes that the preposition -בְּ (bet) has the nuance “from” here. Another option is to connect the line with what precedes, take the final clause as an asyndetic relative clause, and translate, “into bottomless pits [from which] they cannot arise.” The Hebrew noun מַהֲמֹרָה (mahamorah, “bottomless pit”) occurs only here in the OT.

1087 tn Heb “a man of a tongue.”

1088 tn Heb “be established in.”

1089 tn Heb “for blows.” The Hebrew noun מַדְחֵפֹה (madkhefoh, “blow”) occurs only here in the OT.

1090 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading a first person verb form here. The Kethib reads the second person.

1091 tn Heb “and the just cause of the poor.”

1092 sn Psalm 141. The psalmist asks God to protect him from sin and from sinful men.

1093 tn Heb “may my prayer be established [like] incense before you, the uplifting of my hands [like] an evening offering.”

1094 tn Heb “door.” The Hebrew word occurs only here in the OT.

1095 sn My mouth…my lips. The psalmist asks God to protect him from speaking inappropriately or sinfully.

1096 tn Heb “do not turn my heart toward an evil thing.”

1097 tn Heb “to act sinfully in practices in wickedness with men, doers of evil.”

1098 sn Their delicacies. This probably refers to the enjoyment that a sinful lifestyle appears to offer.

1099 tn The form יָנִי (yaniy) appears to be derived from the verbal root נוּא (nu’). Another option is to emend the form to יְנָא (yÿna’), a Piel from נָאָה (naah), and translate “may choice oil not adorn my head” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 271). In this case, choice oil, like delicacies in v. 4, symbolize the pleasures of sin.

1100 sn May my head not refuse choice oil. The psalmist compares the constructive criticism of the godly (see the previous line) to having refreshing olive oil poured over one’s head.

1101 tc Heb “for still, and my prayer [is] against their evil deeds.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult; the sequence -כִּי־עוֹד וּ (kiy-od u-, “for still and”) occurs only here. The translation assumes an emendation to כִּי עֵד תְפלָּתִי (“indeed a witness [is] my prayer”). The psalmist’s lament about the evil actions of sinful men (see v. 4) testifies against the wicked in the divine court.

1102 tn Heb “they are thrown down by the hands of a cliff, their judges.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult and the meaning uncertain. The perfect verbal form is understood as rhetorical; the psalmist describes the anticipated downfall of the wicked as if it had already occurred. “Their judges” could be taken as the subject of the verb, but this makes little, if any, sense. The translation assumes the judges are the agents and that the wicked, mentioned earlier in the psalm, are the subjects of the verb.

1103 tn It is unclear how this statement relates to the preceding sentence. Perhaps the judges are the referent of the pronominal subject (“they”) of the verb “will listen,” and “my words” are the referent of the pronominal subject (“they”) of the phrase “are pleasant.” The psalmist may be affirming here his confidence that he will be vindicated when he presents his case before the judges, while the wicked will be punished.

1104 tn Heb “like splitting and breaking open in the earth.” The meaning of the statement and the point of the comparison are not entirely clear. Perhaps the psalmist is suggesting that he and other godly individuals are as good as dead; their bones are scattered about like dirt that is dug up and tossed aside.

1105 tn Heb “my eyes [are] toward you.”

1106 tn Heb “do not lay bare my life.” Only here is the Piel form of the verb collocated with the term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “life”). In Isa 53:12 the Lord’s servant “lays bare (the Hiphil form of the verb is used) his life to death.”

1107 tn Heb “and the traps of the doers of evil.”

1108 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer. Another option is to translate, “the wicked will fall.”

1109 tn Heb “his.”

1110 tn Heb “at the same [that] I, until I pass by.” Another option is to take יַחַד (yakhad) with the preceding line, “let the wicked fall together into their own nets.”

1111 sn Psalm 142. The psalmist laments his persecuted state and asks the Lord to deliver him from his enemies.

1112 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.

1113 sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm while in “the cave.” This probably refers to either the incident recorded in 1 Sam 22:1 or to the one recorded in 1 Sam 24:3. See the superscription of Ps 57.

1114 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the Lord I cry out.”

1115 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the Lord I plead for mercy.”

1116 tn Heb “my trouble before him I declare.”

1117 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”

1118 tn Heb “you know my path.”

1119 tn Heb “there is no one who recognizes me.”

1120 tn Heb “ a place of refuge perishes from me.”

1121 tn Heb “there is no one who seeks for the sake of my life.”

1122 tn Heb “my portion.” The psalmist compares the Lord to landed property, which was foundational to economic stability in ancient Israel.

1123 tn Heb “for I am very low.”

1124 tn Heb “bring out my life.”

1125 tn Or “gather around.”

1126 tn The Hebrew idiom גָּמַל עַל (gamalal) means “to repay,” here in a positive sense.

1127 sn Psalm 143. As in the previous psalm, the psalmist laments his persecuted state and asks the Lord to deliver him from his enemies.

1128 tn Heb “do not enter into judgment with.”

1129 tn Heb “for no one living is innocent before you.”

1130 tn Or “for.”

1131 tn Heb “an enemy.” The singular is used in a representative sense to describe a typical member of the larger group of enemies (note the plural “enemies” in vv. 9, 12).

1132 tn Heb “he crushes on the ground my life.”

1133 tn Or “sit.”

1134 sn Dark regions refers to Sheol, which the psalmist views as a dark place located deep in the ground (see Ps 88:6).

1135 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”

1136 tn Heb “in my midst my heart is shocked.” For a similar use of the Hitpolel of שָׁמֵם (shamem), see Isa 59:16; 63:5.

1137 tn Or “ancient times”; Heb “days from before.”

1138 tn Heb “the work of your hands.”

1139 tn The words “in prayer” are supplied in the translation to clarify that the psalmist is referring to a posture of prayer.

1140 tn Heb “faint” or “weary.” See Ps 63:1.

1141 tc Heb “my soul like a faint land for you.” A verb (perhaps “thirsts”) is implied (see Ps 63:1). The translation assumes an emendation of the preposition -כְּ (kÿ, “like”) to -בְּ (bÿ, “in,” see Ps 63:1; cf. NEB “athirst for thee in a thirsty land”). If the MT is retained, one might translate, “my soul thirsts for you, as a parched land does for water/rain” (cf. NIV, NRSV).

1142 tn Heb “my spirit is failing.”

1143 tn Heb “do not hide your face from me.” The idiom “hide the face” (1) can mean “ignore” (see Pss 10:11; 13:1; 51:9) or (2) can carry the stronger idea of “reject” (see Pss 30:7; 88:14).

1144 tn Heb “I will be equal with.”

1145 tn Heb “the pit.” The Hebrew noun בּוֹר (bor, “pit; cistern”) is sometimes used of the grave and/or the realm of the dead. See Ps 28:1.

1146 tn Heb “cause me to hear in the morning your loyal love.” Here “loyal love” probably stands metonymically for an oracle of assurance promising God’s intervention as an expression of his loyal love.

sn The morning is sometimes viewed as the time of divine intervention (see Pss 30:5; 59:16; 90:14).

1147 sn The way probably refers here to God’s moral and ethical standards and requirements (see v. 10).

1148 tn Heb “for to you I lift up my life.” The Hebrew expression נָאָשׂ נֶפֶשׁ (naas nefesh, “to lift up [one’s] life”) means “to desire; to long for” (see Deut 24:15; Prov 19:18; Jer 22:27; 44:14; Hos 4:8, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 16).

1149 tn Heb “to you I cover,” which makes no sense. The translation assumes an emendation to נַסְתִּי (nastiy, “I flee,” a Qal perfect, first singular form from נוּס, nos). Confusion of kaf (כ) and nun (נ) is attested elsewhere (see P. K. McCarter, Textual Criticism [GBS], 48). The collocation of נוּס (“flee”) with אֶל (’el, “to”) is well-attested.

1150 tn Or “your will.” See Ps 40:8.

1151 tn Heb “your good spirit.” God’s “spirit” may refer here to his presence (see the note on the word “presence” in Ps 139:7) or to his personal Spirit (see Ps 51:10).

1152 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive. Taking the statement as a prayer fits well with the petitionary tone of vv. 7-10a.

1153 sn A level land (where one can walk free of obstacles) here symbolizes divine blessing and protection. See Pss 26:12 and 27:11 for similar imagery.

1154 tn Heb “name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.

1155 tn The imperfect verbal forms in vv. 11-12a are understood as expressing the psalmist’s desire. Note the petitionary tone of vv. 7-10a.

1156 tn Heb “by your justice bring out my life from trouble.”

1157 tn Heb “in [or “by”] your faithfulness.”

1158 tn The perfect with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the mood of the preceding imperfect.

1159 tn Heb “all the enemies of my life.”

1160 sn Psalm 144. The psalmist expresses his confidence in God, asks for a mighty display of divine intervention in an upcoming battle, and anticipates God’s rich blessings on the nation in the aftermath of military victory.

1161 tn Heb “my rocky summit.” The Lord is compared to a rocky summit where one can find protection from enemies. See Ps 18:2.

1162 tn Heb “blessed [be] the Lord, my rocky summit.”

1163 sn The one who trains my hands for battle. The psalmist attributes his skill with weapons to divine enablement (see Ps 18:34). Egyptian reliefs picture gods teaching the king how to shoot a bow. See O. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 265.

1164 tn Heb “my loyal love,” which is probably an abbreviated form of “the God of my loyal love” (see Ps 59:10, 17).

1165 tn Or “my elevated place.”

1166 tn Heb “the one who subdues nations beneath me.”

1167 tn Heb “What is mankind?” The singular noun אֱנוֹשׁ (’enosh) is used here in a collective sense and refers to the human race. See Ps 8:5.

1168 tn Heb “and the son of man.” The phrase “son of man” is used here in a collective sense and refers to human beings. For other uses of the phrase in a collective or representative manner, see Num 23:19; Ps 146:3; Isa 51:12.

1169 tn Heb “take account of him.” The two imperfect verbal forms in v. 4 describe God’s characteristic activity.

1170 tn Heb “man,” or “mankind.”

1171 tn Heb “his days [are] like a shadow that passes away,” that is, like a late afternoon shadow made by the descending sun that will soon be swallowed up by complete darkness. See Ps 102:11.

1172 tn The Hebrew verb נָטָה (natah) can carry the sense “to [cause to] bend; to [cause to] bow down.” For example, Gen 49:15 pictures Issachar as a donkey that “bends” its shoulder or back under a burden. Here the Lord causes the sky, pictured as a dome or vault, to sink down as he descends in the storm. See Ps 18:9.

1173 tn Heb “so you might come down.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose after the preceding imperative. The same type of construction is utilized in v. 6.

1174 tn Heb “so they might smolder.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose after the preceding imperative.

1175 sn Arrows and lightning bolts are associated in other texts (see Pss 18:14; 77:17-18; Zech 9:14), as well as in ancient Near Eastern art (see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” [Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983], 187).

1176 tn Heb “stretch out your hands.”

1177 tn Heb “mighty waters.” The waters of the sea symbolize the psalmist’s powerful foreign enemies, as well as the realm of death they represent (see the next line and Ps 18:16-17).

1178 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”

1179 tn Heb “who [with] their mouth speak falsehood, and their right hand is a right hand of falsehood.” The reference to the “right hand” is probably a metonymy for an oath. When making an oath, one would raise the hand as a solemn gesture. See Exod 6:8; Num 14:30; Deut 32:40. The figure thus represents the making of false oaths (false promises).

1180 tn Heb “grants deliverance to.”

1181 tn Heb “harmful.”

1182 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”

1183 tn Heb “who [with] their mouth speak falsehood, and their right hand is a right hand of falsehood.” See v. 8 where the same expression occurs.

1184 tn Some consider אֲשֶׁר (’asher) problematic, but here it probably indicates the anticipated consequence of the preceding request. (For other examples of אֲשֶׁר indicating purpose/result, see BDB 83 s.v. and HALOT 99 s.v.) If the psalmist – who appears to be a Davidic king preparing to fight a battle (see vv. 10-11) – is victorious, the whole nation will be spared invasion and defeat (see v. 14) and can flourish. Some prefer to emend the form to אַשְׁרֵי (“how blessed [are our sons]”). A suffixed noun sometimes follows אַשְׁרֵי (’ashrey; see 1 Kgs 10:8; Prov 20:7), but the presence of a comparative element (see “like plants”) after the suffixed noun makes the proposed reading too awkward syntactically.

1185 tn Heb “grown up in their youth.” The translation assumes that “grown up” modifies “plants” (just as “carved” modifies “corner pillars” in the second half of the verse). Another option is to take “grown up” as a predicate in relation to “our sons,” in which case one might translate, “they will be strapping youths.”

1186 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here and in Zech 9:15, where it refers to the corners of an altar.

1187 tn Heb “carved [in] the pattern of a palace.”

1188 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here.

1189 tn Heb “from kind to kind.” Some prefer to emend the text to מָזוֹן עַל מָזוֹן (mazonal mazon, “food upon food”).

1190 tn Heb “they are innumerable.”

1191 tn Heb “in outside places.” Here the term refers to pastures and fields (see Job 5:10; Prov 8:26).

1192 tn Heb “weighted down.” This probably refers (1) to the cattle having the produce from the harvest placed on their backs to be transported to the storehouses (see BDB 687 s.v. סָבַל). Other options are (2) to take this as reference to the cattle being pregnant (see HALOT 741 s.v. סבל pu) or (3) to their being well-fed or fattened (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 288).

1193 tn Heb “there [will be] no breach, and there [will be] no going out, and there [will be] no crying out in our broad places.”

1194 tn Heb “[O] the happiness of the people who [it is] such to them.”

1195 sn Psalm 145. The psalmist praises God because he is a just and merciful king who cares for his people.

1196 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”

1197 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”

1198 tn Heb “and concerning his greatness there is no searching.”

1199 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 4 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may one generation praise…and tell about.”

1200 tn Heb “the splendor of the glory of your majesty, and the matters of your amazing deeds I will ponder.”

1201 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as an imperfect, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as a jussive, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they proclaim.”

1202 tn Heb “the fame of the greatness of your goodness.”

1203 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 7 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they talk…and sing.”

1204 tn Heb “slow to anger” (see Pss 86:15; 103:8).

1205 tn Heb “and great of loyal love” (see Pss 86:15; 103:8).

1206 tn Heb “and his compassion is over all his works.”

1207 tn Heb “the sons of man.”

1208 tn Heb “a kingdom of all ages.”

1209 tc Psalm 145 is an acrostic psalm, with each successive verse beginning with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet. However, in the traditional Hebrew (Masoretic) text of Psalm 145 there is no verse beginning with the letter nun. One would expect such a verse to appear as the fourteenth verse, between the mem (מ) and samek (ס) verses. Several ancient witnesses, including one medieval Hebrew manuscript, the Qumran scroll from cave 11, the LXX, and the Syriac, supply the missing nun (נ) verse, which reads as follows: “The Lord is reliable in all his words, and faithful in all his deeds.” One might paraphrase this as follows: “The Lord’s words are always reliable; his actions are always faithful.” Scholars are divided as to the originality of this verse. L. C. Allen argues for its inclusion on the basis of structural considerations (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 294-95), but there is no apparent explanation for why, if original, it would have been accidentally omitted. The psalm may be a partial acrostic, as in Pss 25 and 34 (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 3:335). The glaring omission of the nun line would have invited a later redactor to add such a line.

1210 tn Perhaps “discouraged” (see Ps 57:6).

1211 tn Heb “the eyes of all wait for you.”

1212 tn Heb “and you give to them their food in its season” (see Ps 104:27).

1213 tn Heb “[with what they] desire.”

1214 tn Heb “in all his ways.”

1215 tn Heb “and [is] loving in all his deeds.”

1216 tn Heb “in truth.”

1217 tn In this context “desire” refers to the followers’ desire to be delivered from wicked enemies.

1218 tn Heb “the desire of those who fear him, he does.”

1219 tn Heb “the praise of the Lord my mouth will speak.”

1220 tn Heb “all flesh.”

1221 sn Psalm 146. The psalmist urges his audience not to trust in men, but in the Lord, the just king of the world who cares for the needy.

1222 tn Heb “in a son of man, to whom there is no deliverance.”

1223 tn Heb “his spirit goes out, it returns to his ground; in that day his plans die.” The singular refers to the representative man mentioned in v. 3b.

1224 tn Heb “the one who guards faithfulness forever.”

1225 tn Heb “executes justice for the oppressed.”

1226 tn Perhaps “discouraged” (see Ps 57:6).

1227 sn God is depicted here as a just ruler. In the ancient Near Eastern world a king was responsible for promoting justice, including caring for the weak and vulnerable, epitomized by resident aliens, the fatherless, and widows.

1228 tn Heb “he makes the way of the wicked twisted.” The “way of the wicked” probably refers to their course of life (see Prov 4:19; Jer 12:1). God makes their path tortuous in the sense that he makes them pay the harmful consequences of their actions.

1229 tn Heb “for a generation and a generation.”

1230 sn Psalm 147. The psalmist praises the Lord for he is the sovereign ruler of the world who cares for the needs of his covenant people.

1231 tn Or “for.”

1232 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

1233 tn Heb “the one who heals.”

1234 tn Heb “and great of strength.”

1235 tn Heb “to his wisdom there is no counting.”

1236 tn Heb “brings down.”

1237 tn Heb “sing to the Lord with thanksgiving.”

1238 tn Heb “the one who covers.”

1239 tn Heb “hills.”

1240 tn Heb “which cry out.”

1241 tn Heb “he does not desire the strength of the horse, he does not take delight in the legs of the man.” Here “the horse” refers to the war horse used by ancient Near Eastern chariot forces, and “the man” refers to the warrior whose muscular legs epitomize his strength.

1242 tn Heb “those who fear him.”

1243 tn Heb “your sons.”

1244 tn Heb “the one who.”

1245 tn Heb “he makes your boundary peace.”

1246 tn Heb “satisfies you with.”

1247 tn Heb “the one who.”

1248 tn Heb “the one who sends his word, the earth.” The Hebrew term אֶרֶץ (’erets, “earth”) is an adverbial accusative; one must supply a preposition before it (such as “through” or “to”) in the English translation.

1249 tn Heb “swiftly his word runs.”

1250 tn Heb “the one who gives snow like wool, frost like ashes he scatters.”

1251 tn Heb “his ice.”

1252 tn Heb “Before his cold, who can stand?”

1253 tn Heb “he sends his word and melts them.”

1254 tn Heb “he blows his breath.”

1255 sn Psalm 148. The psalmist calls upon all creation to praise the Lord, for he is the creator and sovereign king of the world.

1256 tn Or “heavenly messengers.”

1257 tn Heb “all his host.”

1258 tn Heb “stars of light.”

1259 sn The “water” mentioned here corresponds to the “waters above” mentioned in Gen 1:7. See also Ps 104:3. For a discussion of the picture envisioned by the psalmist, see L. I. J. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World, 47.

1260 tn Or “forever and ever.”

1261 tn Heb “and it will not pass away.”

1262 tn In Ps 119:83 the noun refers to “smoke,” but here, where the elements of nature are addressed, the clouds, which resemble smoke, are probably in view.

1263 tn Heb “[that] does his word.”

1264 tn Or “judges.”

1265 tn Heb “and he lifted up a horn for his people.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 75:10; 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17). Another option is to take the “horn” as a symbol for the Davidic king, through whom the Lord gives his people military victory.

1266 tn “[there is] praise for all his loyal followers, to the sons of Israel, the people near him.” Here “praise” stands by metonymy for the victory that prompts it.

1267 sn Psalm 149. The psalmist calls upon God’s people to praise him because he is just and avenges them.

1268 tn Heb “his praise in the assembly of the godly ones.”

1269 tn Heb “sons.”

1270 sn The Lord is the king here, as the parallelism in the previous line (“their creator”) indicates.

1271 tn Heb “he honors the oppressed [with] deliverance.”

1272 tn Heb “in glory.” Here “glory” probably refers to the “honor” that belongs to the Lord’s people as a result of their deliverance (see v. 4).

1273 tn The significance of the reference to “beds” is unclear. Perhaps the point is that they should rejoice at all times, even when falling asleep or awaking.

1274 tn Heb “[May] praises of God [be] in their throat, and a two-edged sword in their hand.”

1275 tn Heb “to do.”

1276 tn Heb “to bind.”

1277 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the enemies of the people of God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1278 tn Heb “to do against them judgment [that] is written.”

1279 tn Heb “it is honor for all his godly ones.” The judgment of the oppressive kings will bring vindication and honor to God’s people (see vv. 4-5).

1280 sn Psalm 150. The Psalter concludes with a resounding call for praise from everything that has breath.

1281 tn Heb “the sky of his strength.”



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