1:10 “Because 1 you violently slaughtered 2 your relatives, 3 the people of Jacob, 4
shame will cover you, and you will be destroyed 5 forever.
1:11 You stood aloof 6 while strangers took his army 7 captive,
and foreigners advanced to his gates. 8
When they cast lots 9 over Jerusalem, 10
you behaved as though you were in league 11 with them.
1:12 You should not 12 have gloated 13 when your relatives 14 suffered calamity. 15
You should not have rejoiced over the people of Judah when they were destroyed. 16
You should not have boasted 17 when they suffered adversity. 18
1 tn Heb “from.” The preposition is used here with a causal sense.
2 tn Heb “because of the slaughter and because of the violence.” These two expressions form a hendiadys meaning “because of the violent slaughter.” Traditional understanding connects the first phrase “because of the slaughter” with the end of v. 9 (cf. KJV, NASB, NIV, NLT). It is preferable, however, to regard it as parallel to the reference to violence at the beginning of v. 11. Both the parallel linguistic structure of the two phrases and the metrical structure of the verse favor connecting this phrase with the beginning of v. 10 (cf. NRSV, TEV).
3 tn Heb “the violence of your brother.” The genitive construction is to be understood as an objective genitive. The meaning is not that Jacob has perpetrated violence (= subjective genitive), but that violence has been committed against him (= objective genitive).
4 tn Heb “your brother Jacob” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NCV “your relatives, the Israelites.”
5 tn Heb “be cut off” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV).
6 tn Heb “in the day of your standing”; NAB “On the day when you stood by.”
7 tn Or perhaps, “wealth” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). The Hebrew word is somewhat ambiguous here. This word also appears in v. 13, where it clearly refers to wealth.
8 tc The present translation follows the Qere which reads the plural (“gates”) rather than the singular.
9 sn Casting lots seems to be a way of deciding who would gain control over material possessions and enslaved peoples following a military victory.
10 map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.
11 tn Heb “like one from them”; NASB “You too were as one of them.”
12 tn In vv. 12-14 there are eight prohibitions which summarize the nature of the Lord’s complaint against Edom. Each prohibition alludes to something that Edom did to Judah that should not have been done by one “brother” to another. It is because of these violations that the Lord has initiated judgment against Edom. In the Hebrew text these prohibitions are expressed by אַל (’al, “not”) plus the jussive form of the verb, which is common in negative commands of immediate urgency. Such constructions would normally have the sense of prohibiting something either not yet begun (i.e., “do not start to …”) or something already in process at the time of speaking (i.e., “stop…”). Here, however, it seems more likely that the prohibitions refer to a situation in past rather than future time (i.e., “you should not have …”). If so, the verbs are being used in a rhetorical fashion, as though the prophet were vividly projecting himself back into the events that he is describing and urging the Edomites not to do what in fact they have already done.
13 tn The Hebrew expression “to look upon” often has the sense of “to feast the eyes upon” or “to gloat over” (cf. v. 13).
14 tn Heb “your brother” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV); NCV “your brother Israel.”
15 tn Heb “in the day of your brother, in the day of his calamity.” This expression is probably a hendiadys meaning, “in the day of your brother’s calamity.” The Hebrew word נָכְרוֹ (nokhro, “his calamity”)_is probably a word-play on נָכְרִים (nokherim, “foreigners”) in v. 11.
16 tn Heb “in the day of their destruction” (so KJV, NASB, NIV); NAB, NRSV “on the day of their ruin.”
17 tn Or “boasted with your mouth.” The Hebrew text includes the phrase “with your mouth,” which is redundant in English and has been left untranslated.
18 tn Heb “in the day of adversity”; NASB “in the day of their distress.”