25:1 1 When 2 Israel lived in Shittim, the people began to commit sexual immorality 3 with the daughters of Moab. 25:2 These women invited 4 the people to the sacrifices of their gods; then the people ate and bowed down to their gods. 5 25:3 When Israel joined themselves to Baal-peor, 6 the anger of the Lord flared up against Israel.
25:4 The Lord said to Moses, “Arrest all the leaders 7 of the people, and hang them up 8 before the Lord in broad daylight, 9 so that the fierce anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel.” 25:5 So Moses said to the judges of Israel, “Each of you must execute those of his men 10 who were joined to Baal-peor.”
25:6 Just then 11 one of the Israelites came and brought to his brothers 12 a Midianite woman in the plain view of Moses and of 13 the whole community of the Israelites, while they 14 were weeping at the entrance of the tent of meeting. 25:7 When Phinehas son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, 15 he got up from among the assembly, took a javelin in his hand, 25:8 and went after the Israelite man into the tent 16 and thrust through the Israelite man and into the woman’s abdomen. 17 So the plague was stopped from the Israelites. 18 25:9 Those that died in the plague were 24,000.
25:10 The Lord spoke to Moses: 25:11 “Phinehas son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, has turned my anger away from the Israelites, when he manifested such zeal 19 for my sake among them, so that I did not consume the Israelites in my zeal. 20 25:12 Therefore, announce: 21 ‘I am going to give 22 to him my covenant of peace. 23 25:13 So it will be to him and his descendants after him a covenant of a permanent priesthood, because he has been zealous for his God, 24 and has made atonement 25 for the Israelites.’”
25:14 Now the name of the Israelite who was stabbed – the one who was stabbed with the Midianite woman – was Zimri son of Salu, a leader of a clan 26 of the Simeonites. 25:15 The name of the Midianite woman who was killed was Cozbi daughter of Zur. He was a leader 27 over the people of a clan of Midian. 28
25:16 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 25:17 “Bring trouble 29 to the Midianites, and destroy them, 25:18 because they bring trouble to you by their treachery with which they have deceived 30 you in the matter of Peor, and in the matter of Cozbi, the daughter of a prince of Midian, 31 their sister, who was killed on the day of the plague that happened as a result of Peor.”
26:1 32 After the plague the Lord said to Moses and to Eleazar son of Aaron the priest, 33 26:2 “Take a census of the whole community of Israelites, from twenty years old and upward, by their clans, 34 everyone who can serve in the army of Israel.” 35 26:3 So Moses and Eleazar the priest spoke with them in the plains of Moab, by the Jordan River 36 across from Jericho. 37 They said, 26:4 “Number the people 38 from twenty years old and upward, just as the Lord commanded Moses and the Israelites who went out from the land of Egypt.”
26:5 Reuben was the firstborn of Israel. The Reubenites: from 39 Hanoch, the family of the Hanochites; from Pallu, the family of the Palluites; 26:6 from Hezron, the family of the Hezronites; from Carmi, the family of the Carmites. 26:7 These were the families of the Reubenites; and those numbered of them were 43,730. 40 26:8 Pallu’s descendant 41 was Eliab. 26:9 Eliab’s descendants were Nemuel, Dathan, and Abiram. It was Dathan and Abiram who as leaders of the community rebelled against Moses and Aaron with the followers 42 of Korah when they rebelled against the Lord. 26:10 The earth opened its mouth and swallowed them and Korah at the time that company died, when the fire consumed 250 men. So they became a warning. 26:11 But the descendants of Korah did not die.
26:12 The Simeonites by their families: from Nemuel, the family of the Nemuelites; from Jamin, the family of the Jaminites; from Jakin, the family of the Jakinites; 26:13 from Zerah, 43 the family of the Zerahites; and from Shaul, the family of the Shaulites. 26:14 These were the families of the Simeonites, 22,200. 44
26:15 The Gadites by their families: from Zephon, the family of the Zephonites; from Haggi, the family of the Haggites; from Shuni, the family of the Shunites; 26:16 from Ozni, 45 the family of the Oznites; from Eri, 46 the family of the Erites; 26:17 from Arod, 47 the family of the Arodites, and from Areli, the family of the Arelites. 26:18 These were the families of the Gadites according to those numbered of them, 40,500. 48
26:19 The descendants of Judah were Er and Onan, but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. 26:20 And the Judahites by their families were: from Shelah, the family of the Shelahites; from Perez, the family of the Perezites; and from Zerah, the family of the Zerahites. 26:21 And the Perezites were: from Hezron, the family of the Hezronites; from Hamul, 49 the family of the Hamulites. 26:22 These were the families of Judah according to those numbered of them, 76,500. 50
26:23 The Issacharites by their families: from Tola, the family of the Tolaites; from Puah, the family of the Puites; 26:24 from Jashub, the family of the Jashubites; and from Shimron, the family of the Shimronites. 26:25 These were the families of Issachar, according to those numbered of them, 64,300. 51
26:26 The Zebulunites by their families: from Sered, the family of the Sardites; from Elon, the family of the Elonites; from Jahleel, the family of the Jahleelites. 26:27 These were the families of the Zebulunites, according to those numbered of them, 60,500. 52
26:28 The descendants of Joseph by their families: Manasseh and Ephraim. 26:29 The Manassehites: from Machir, the family of the Machirites (now Machir became the father of Gilead); from Gilead, the family of the Gileadites. 26:30 These were the Gileadites: from Iezer, the family of the Iezerites; from Helek, the family of the Helekites; 26:31 from Asriel, the family of the Asrielites; from Shechem, the family of the Shechemites; 26:32 from Shemida, the family of the Shemidaites; from Hepher, the family of the Hepherites. 26:33 Now Zelophehad son of Hepher had no sons, but only daughters; and the names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. 26:34 These were the families of Manasseh; those numbered of them were 52,700. 53
26:35 These are the Ephraimites by their families: from Shuthelah, the family of the Shuthelahites; from Beker, the family of the Bekerites; from Tahan, the family of the Tahanites. 26:36 Now these were the Shuthelahites: from Eran, the family of the Eranites. 26:37 These were the families of the Ephraimites, according to those numbered of them, 32,500. 54 These were the descendants of Joseph by their families.
26:38 The Benjaminites by their families: from Bela, the family of the Belaites; from Ashbel, the family of the Ashbelites; from Ahiram, the family of the Ahiramites; 26:39 from Shupham, 55 the family of the Shuphamites; from Hupham, the family of the Huphamites. 26:40 The descendants of Bela were Ard 56 and Naaman. From Ard, 57 the family of the Ardites; from Naaman, the family of the Naamanites. 26:41 These are the Benjaminites, according to their families, and according to those numbered of them, 45,600. 58
26:42 These are the Danites by their families: from Shuham, the family of the Shuhamites. These were the families of Dan, according to their families. 26:43 All the families of the Shuhahites according to those numbered of them were 64,400. 59
26:44 The Asherites by their families: from Imnah, the family of the Imnahites; from Ishvi, the family of the Ishvites; from Beriah, the family of the Beriahites. 26:45 From the Beriahites: from Heber, the family of the Heberites; from Malkiel, the family of the Malkielites. 26:46 Now the name of the daughter of Asher was Serah. 60 26:47 These are the families of the Asherites, according to those numbered of them, 53,400. 61
26:48 The Naphtalites by their families: from Jahzeel, the family of the Jahzeelites; from Guni, the family of the Gunites; 26:49 from Jezer, the family of the Jezerites; from Shillem, the family of the Shillemites. 26:50 These were the families of Naphtali according to their families; and those numbered of them were 45,400. 62
26:51 These were those numbered of the Israelites, 601,730. 63
26:52 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 26:53 “To these the land must be divided as an inheritance according to the number of the names. 26:54 To a larger group you will give a larger inheritance, 64 and to a smaller group you will give a smaller inheritance. 65 To each one its inheritance must be given according to the number of people in it. 66 26:55 The land must be divided by lot; and they will inherit in accordance with the names of their ancestral tribes. 26:56 Their inheritance must be apportioned 67 by lot among the larger and smaller groups.
26:57 And these are the Levites who were numbered according to their families: from Gershon, the family of the Gershonites; of Kohath, the family of the Kohathites; from Merari, the family of the Merarites. 26:58 These are the families of the Levites: the family of the Libnites, the family of the Hebronites, the family of the Mahlites, the family of the Mushites, the family of the Korahites. Kohath became the father of Amram. 26:59 Now the name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, daughter of Levi, who was born 68 to Levi in Egypt. And to Amram she bore Aaron, Moses, and Miriam their sister. 26:60 And to Aaron were born Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 26:61 But Nadab and Abihu died when they offered strange fire 69 before the Lord. 26:62 Those of them who were numbered were 23,000, all males from a month old and upward, for they were not numbered among the Israelites; no inheritance was given to them among the Israelites.
26:63 These are those who were numbered by Moses and Eleazar the priest, who numbered the Israelites in the plains of Moab along the Jordan River opposite Jericho. 70 26:64 But there was not a man among these who had been 71 among those numbered by Moses and Aaron the priest when they numbered the Israelites in the wilderness of Sinai. 26:65 For the Lord had said of them, “They will surely die in the wilderness.” And there was not left a single man of them, except Caleb son of Jephunneh and Joshua son of Nun.
27:1 72 Then the daughters of Zelophehad son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh of the families of Manasseh, 73 the son Joseph came forward. Now these are the names of his daughters: Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. 27:2 And they stood before Moses and Eleazar the priest and the leaders of the whole assembly at the entrance to the tent of meeting and said, 27:3 “Our father died in the wilderness, although 74 he was not part of 75 the company of those that gathered themselves together against the Lord in the company of Korah; but he died for his own sin, 76 and he had no sons. 27:4 Why should the name of our father be lost from among his family because he had no son? Give us a possession 77 among the relatives 78 of our father.”
27:5 So Moses brought their case before the Lord. 27:6 The Lord said to Moses: 27:7 “The daughters of Zelophehad have a valid claim. 79 You must indeed 80 give them possession of an inheritance among their father’s relatives, and you must transfer 81 the inheritance of their father to them. 27:8 And you must tell the Israelites, ‘If a man dies 82 and has no son, then you must transfer his inheritance to his daughter; 27:9 and if he has no daughter, then you are to give his inheritance to his brothers; 27:10 and if he has no brothers, then you are to give his inheritance to his father’s brothers; 27:11 and if his father has no brothers, then you are to give his inheritance to his relative nearest to him from his family, and he will possess it. This will be for the Israelites a legal requirement, 83 as the Lord commanded Moses.’”
27:12 84 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go up this mountain of the Abarim range, 85 and see 86 the land I have given 87 to the Israelites. 27:13 When you have seen it, you will be gathered 88 to your ancestors, 89 as Aaron your brother was gathered to his ancestors. 90 27:14 For 91 in the wilderness of Zin when the community rebelled against me, you 92 rebelled against my command 93 to show me as holy 94 before their eyes over the water – the water of Meribah in Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.”
27:15 Then Moses spoke to the Lord: 27:16 “Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all humankind, 95 appoint 96 a man over the community, 27:17 who will go out before them, and who will come in before them, 97 and who will lead them out, and who will bring them in, so that 98 the community of the Lord may not be like sheep that have no shepherd.”
27:18 The Lord replied 99 to Moses, “Take Joshua son of Nun, a man in whom is such a spirit, 100 and lay your hand on him; 101 27:19 set him 102 before Eleazar the priest and before the whole community, and commission 103 him publicly. 104 27:20 Then you must delegate 105 some of your authority 106 to him, so that the whole community of the Israelites will be obedient. 107 27:21 And he will stand before Eleazar the priest, who 108 will seek counsel 109 for him before the Lord by the decision of the Urim. 110 At his command 111 they will go out, and at his command they will come in, he and all the Israelites with him, the whole community.”
27:22 So Moses did as the Lord commanded him; he took Joshua and set 112 him before Eleazar the priest and before the whole community. 27:23 He laid his hands on him and commissioned him, just as the Lord commanded, 113 by the authority 114 of Moses.
1 sn Chapter 25 tells of Israel’s sins on the steppes of Moab, and God’s punishment. In the overall plan of the book, here we have another possible threat to God’s program, although here it comes from within the camp (Balaam was the threat from without). If the Moabites could not defeat them one way, they would try another. The chapter has three parts: fornication (vv. 1-3), God’s punishment (vv. 4-9), and aftermath (vv. 10-18). See further G. E. Mendenhall, The Tenth Generation, 105-21; and S. C. Reif, “What Enraged Phinehas? A Study of Numbers 25:8,” JBL 90 (1971): 200-206.
2 tn This first preterite is subordinated to the next as a temporal clause; it is not giving a parallel action, but the setting for the event.
3 sn The account apparently means that the men were having sex with the Moabite women. Why the men submitted to such a temptation at this point is hard to say. It may be that as military heroes the men took liberties with the women of occupied territories.
4 tn The verb simply says “they called,” but it is a feminine plural. And so the women who engaged in immoral acts with Hebrew men invited them to their temple ritual.
5 sn What Israel experienced here was some of the debased ritual practices of the Canaanite people. The act of prostrating themselves before the pagan deities was probably participation in a fertility ritual, nothing short of cultic prostitution. This was a blatant disregard of the covenant and the Law. If something were not done, the nation would have destroyed itself.
6 tn The verb is “yoked” to Baal-peor. The word is unusual, and may suggest the physical, ritual participation described below. It certainly shows that they acknowledge the reality of the local god.
sn The evidence indicates that Moab was part of the very corrupt Canaanite world, a world that was given over to the fertility ritual of the times.
7 sn The meaning must be the leaders behind the apostasy, for they would now be arrested. They were responsible for the tribes’ conformity to the Law, but here they had not only failed in their duty, but had participated. The leaders were executed; the rest of the guilty died by the plague.
8 sn The leaders who were guilty were commanded by God to be publicly exposed by hanging, probably a reference to impaling, but possibly some other form of harsh punishment. The point was that the swaying of their executed bodies would be a startling warning for any who so blatantly set the Law aside and indulged in apostasy through pagan sexual orgies.
9 tn Heb “in the sun.” This means in broad daylight.
10 tn Heb “slay – a man his men.” The imperative is plural, and so “man” is to be taken collectively as “each of you men.”
11 tn The verse begins with the deictic particle וְהִנֵּה (vÿhinneh), pointing out the action that was taking place. It stresses the immediacy of the action to the reader.
12 tn Or “to his family”; or “to his clan.”
13 tn Heb “before the eyes of Moses and before the eyes of.”
14 tn The vav (ו) at the beginning of the clause is a disjunctive because it is prefixed to the nonverbal form. In this context it is best interpreted as a circumstantial clause, stressing that this happened “while” people were weeping over the sin.
15 tn The first clause is subordinated to the second because both begin with the preterite verbal form, and there is clearly a logical and/or chronological sequence involved.
16 tn The word קֻבָּה (qubbah) seems to refer to the innermost part of the family tent. Some suggest it was in the tabernacle area, but that is unlikely. S. C. Reif argues for a private tent shrine (“What Enraged Phinehas? A Study of Numbers 25:8,” JBL 90 : 200-206).
17 tn Heb “and he thrust the two of them the Israelite man and the woman to her belly [lower abdomen].” Reif notes the similarity of the word with the previous “inner tent,” and suggests that it means Phinehas stabbed her in her shrine tent, where she was being set up as some sort of priestess or cult leader. Phinehas put a quick end to their sexual immorality while they were in the act.
18 sn Phinehas saw all this as part of the pagan sexual ritual that was defiling the camp. He had seen that the
19 tn Heb “he was zealous with my zeal.” The repetition of forms for “zeal” in the line stresses the passion of Phinehas. The word “zeal” means a passionate intensity to protect or preserve divine or social institutions.
20 tn The word for “zeal” now occurs a third time. While some English versions translate this word here as “jealousy” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV), it carries the force of God’s passionate determination to defend his rights and what is right about the covenant and the community and parallels the “zeal” that Phinehas had just demonstrated.
21 tn Heb “say.”
22 tn Here too the grammar expresses an imminent future by using the particle הִנְנִי (hinni) before the participle נֹתֵן (noten) – “here I am giving,” or “I am about to give.”
23 tn Or “my pledge of friendship” (NAB), or “my pact of friendship” (NJPS). This is the designation of the leadership of the priestly ministry. The terminology is used again in the rebuke of the priests in Mal 2.
24 tn The motif is reiterated here. Phinehas was passionately determined to maintain the rights of his God by stopping the gross sinful perversions.
25 sn The atonement that he made in this passage refers to the killing of the two obviously blatant sinners. By doing this he dispensed with any animal sacrifice, for the sinners themselves died. In Leviticus it was the life of the substitutionary animal that was taken in place of the sinners that made atonement. The point is that sin was punished by death, and so God was free to end the plague and pardon the people. God’s holiness and righteousness have always been every bit as important as God’s mercy and compassion, for without righteousness and holiness mercy and compassion mean nothing.
26 tn Heb “a father’s house.” So also in v. 15.
27 tn Heb “head.”
28 sn The passage makes it clear that this individual was a leader, one who was supposed to be preventing this thing from happening. The judgment was swift and severe, because the crime was so great, and the danger of it spreading was certain. Paul refers to this horrible incident when he reminds Christians not to do similar things (1 Cor 10:6-8).
29 tn The form is the infinitive absolute used in place of a verb here; it clearly is meant to be an instruction for Israel. The idea is that of causing trouble, harassing, vexing Midian. The verb is repeated as the active participle in the line, and so the punishment is talionic.
30 tn This is the same word as that translated “treachery.”
31 sn Cozbi’s father, Zur, was one of five Midianite kings who eventually succumbed to Israel (Num 31:8). When the text gives the name and family of a woman, it is asserting that she is important, at least for social reasons, among her people.
32 sn The breakdown of ch. 26 for outlining purposes will be essentially according to the tribes of Israel. The format and structure is similar to the first census, and so less comment is necessary here.
33 tc The MT has also “saying.”
34 tn Heb “house of their fathers.”
35 tn Heb “everyone who goes out in the army in Israel.”
36 tn The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied in the translation for clarity (also in v. 62).
37 map For the location of Jericho see Map5-B2; Map6-E1; Map7-E1; Map8-E3; Map10-A2; Map11-A1.
38 tn “Number the people” is added here to the text for a smooth reading.
39 tc The Hebrew text has no preposition here, but one has been supplied in the translation for clarity. Cf. vv. 23, 30, 31, 32.
40 sn The Reubenites had decreased from 46,500 to 43,730.
41 tc The MT has “and the sons of Pallu.”
42 tn Or “company” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); Heb “congregation.”
43 tc This is “Zohar” in Exod 6:15 and Gen 46:10.
44 sn Before entering Sinai the tribe numbered 59,300, the third largest. Now it was about one-third its original size.
45 tc The MT of Gen 46:16 reads this as “Ezbon.”
46 tc The Greek version and Smr have “Ad[d]i,” probably by confusion of letters.
47 tc Gen 46:16 and the LXX here read “Arodi.”
48 sn The Gadites decreased from 45,650 to 40,500.
49 tc Smr and the Greek version have “Hamuel.”
50 sn The Judahites increased from 74,600 to 76,500.
51 sn The Issacharites increased from 54,400 to 64,300.
52 sn The Zebulunites showed a slight increase from 57,400 to 60,500.
53 sn The Manassehites increased from 32,200 to 52,700.
54 sn This is a significant reduction from the first count of 40,500.
55 tc With the exception of a few manuscripts the MT has Shephupham. The spelling in the translation above is supported by Smr and the ancient versions.
56 tc The LXX has Adar. Cf. 1 Chr 8:3.
57 tc “From Ard” is not in the Hebrew text.
58 sn The Benjaminites increased from 35,400 to 45,600. The Greek version has here 35,500.
59 sn The Danites increased from 62,700 to 64,400.
60 tn Also mentioned in 1 Chr 7:30.
61 sn The Asherites increased from 41,500 to 53,400.
62 sn The Naphtalites decreased from 53,400 to 45,400.
63 sn This number shows only a slightly smaller total in the second census; the first was 603,550.
64 tn Heb “to many you will multiply his inheritance.”
65 tn Heb “to a few you will lessen his inheritance.”
66 tn Heb “according to those that were numbered of him,” meaning, in accordance with the number of people in his clan.
67 tn Heb “divided.”
68 tn Heb “who she bore him to Levi.” The verb has no expressed subject. Either one could be supplied, such as “her mother,” or it could be treated as a passive.
69 tn The expression אֵשׁ זָרָה (’esh zarah, “strange fire”) seems imprecise and has been interpreted numerous ways (see the helpful summary in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC 4], 132-33). The infraction may have involved any of the following or a combination thereof: (1) using coals from some place other than the burnt offering altar (i.e., “unauthorized coals” according to J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:598; cf. Lev 16:12 and cf. “unauthorized person” [אִישׁ זָר, ’ish zar] in Num 16:40 [17:5 HT], NASB “layman”), (2) using the wrong kind of incense (cf. the Exod 30:9 regulation against “strange incense” [קְטֹרֶת זָרָה, qÿtoret zarah] on the incense altar and the possible connection to Exod 30:34-38), (3) performing an incense offering at an unprescribed time (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 59), or (4) entering the Holy of Holies at an inappropriate time (Lev 16:1-2).
sn This event is narrated in Lev 10:1-7.
70 map For the location of Jericho see Map5-B2; Map6-E1; Map7-E1; Map8-E3; Map10-A2; Map11-A1.
71 tn “who had been” is added to clarify the text.
72 sn For additional information on this section, see N. H. Snaith, “The Daughters of Zelophehad,” VT 16 (1966): 124-27; and J. Weingreen, “The Case of the Daughters of Zelophehad,” VT 16 (1966): 518-22.
73 tc The phrase “of the families of Manasseh” is absent from the Latin Vulgate.
74 tn This clause begins with a vav (ו) on a pronoun, marking it out as a disjunctive vav. In this context it fits best to take it as a circumstantial clause introducing concession.
75 tn Heb “in the midst of.”
76 tn The word order is emphatic: “but in/on account of his own sins he died.”
77 tn That is, the possession of land, or property, among the other families of their tribe.
78 tn The word is “brothers,” but this can be interpreted more loosely to relatives. So also in v. 7.
79 tn Heb “[the daughters of Zelophehad] speak right” (using the participle דֹּבְרֹת [dovÿrot] with כֵּן [ken]).
80 tn The Hebrew text uses the infinitive absolute with the imperfect tense. The imperfect is functioning as the imperfect of instruction, and so the infinitive strengthens the force of the instruction.
81 tn The verb is the Hiphil perfect with a vav (ו) consecutive, from the root עָבַר (’avar, “to pass over”). Here it functions as the equivalent of the imperfect of instruction: “and you shall cause to pass,” meaning, “transfer.”
82 tn Heb “a man, if he dies.”
83 tn The expression is חֻקַּת מִשְׁפָּט (khuqqat mishpat, “a statute of judgment”), which means it is a fixed enactment that determines justice. It is one which is established by God.
84 sn See further J. Lindblom, “Lot Casting in the Old Testament,” VT 12 (1962): 164-78; E. Lipinski, “Urim and Thummim,” VT 20 (1970): 495-96; and S. E. Loewenstamm, “The Death of Moses,” Tarbiz 27 (1957/58): 142-57.
85 tc The Greek version adds “which is Mount Nebo.” This is a typical scribal change to harmonize two passages.
sn The area is in the mountains of Moab; Deut 34:1 more precisely identifies it as Mount Nebo.
86 tn The imperative could be subordinated to the first to provide a purpose clause, although a second instruction fits well enough.
87 tn This perfect tense would best be classified as a perfect of resolve: “which I have decided to give.” God had not yet given the land to them, but it was certain he would.
88 tn The first verb is a perfect tense with a vav (ו) consecutive, and the second verb is also. In such parallel clauses, the first may be subordinated, here as a temporal clause.
89 tn Heb “people.”
90 tn Heb “was gathered.” The phrase “to his ancestors” is elided in the Hebrew text, but is an implied repetition from the beginning of the verse, and has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
91 tn The preposition on the relative pronoun has the force of “because of the fact that.”
92 tn The verb is the second masculine plural form.
93 tn Heb “mouth.”
94 sn Using the basic meaning of the word קָדַשׁ (qadash, “to be separate, distinct, set apart”), we can understand better what Moses failed to do. He was supposed to have acted in a way that would have shown God to be distinct, different, holy. Instead, he gave the impression that God was capricious and hostile – very human. The leader has to be aware of what image he is conveying to the people.
95 tn Heb “flesh”; cf. NAB, NIV “all mankind”; NCV “all people”; NLT “all living things.”
96 tn This is the same verb פָּקַד (paqad) that is used throughout the book for the aspect of “numbering” the people.
97 sn This is probably technical terminology for a military leader (Josh 14:11; 1 Sam 18:13-16; 1 Kgs 3:7; 2 Kgs 11:9). The image of a shepherd can also be military in nature (1 Kgs 22:17).
98 tn The Hebrew text has the conjunction with the negated imperfect tense, “and it will not be.” This clause should be subordinated to the preceding to form a result clause, and the imperfect then function as a final imperfect.
99 tn Or “said.”
100 sn The word “spirit” probably refers to the Holy Spirit, in which case it would be rendered “in whom is the Spirit.” This would likely be a permanent endowment for Joshua. But it is also possible to take it to refer to a proper spirit to do all the things required of such a leader (which ultimately is a gift from the Spirit of God). The Hebrew text simply says “in whom is a spirit.”
101 sn This symbolic act would indicate the transfer of leadership to Joshua.
102 tn This could be translated “position him,” or “have him stand,” since it is the causative stem of the verb “to stand.”
103 tn The verb is the Piel perfect of צִוָּה (tsivvah, literally “to command”). The verb has a wide range of meanings, and so here in this context the idea of instructing gives way to a more general sense of commissioning for duty. The verb in sequence is equal to the imperfect of instruction.
104 tn Heb “in their eyes.”
105 tn The verb is simply “give,” but in this context giving some of Moses’ honor to Joshua in the presence of the people is essentially passing the leadership to him, or delegating the authority to him with the result that people would follow him.
106 tc The Greek, Syriac, and Vulgate read “glory” for this form that occurs only here in the Pentateuch. Elsewhere it is rendered “majesty, splendor” (see Ps 96:6). It could even be “vitality” here. The authority being transferred here is both spiritual and civil.
107 tn Heb “hear.”
108 tn The passage simply has “and he will ask,” but Eleazar is clearly the subject now.
109 tn Heb “ask.”
110 sn The new leader would not have the privilege that Moses had in speaking to God face to face. Rather, he would have to inquire of the
111 tn Heb “mouth,” meaning what he will say.
112 tn Heb “stood.”
113 tn Heb “spoke.”
114 tn Heb “hand.”