5:5 “Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth.
5:7 “Blessed are the merciful, for they will be shown mercy.
5:8 “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God.
5:10 “Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to them.
5:11 “Blessed are you when people 11 insult you and persecute you and say all kinds of evil things about you falsely 12 on account of me. 5:12 Rejoice and be glad because your reward is great in heaven, for they persecuted the prophets before you in the same way.
5:13 “You are the salt 13 of the earth. But if salt loses its flavor, 14 how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything except to be thrown out and trampled on by people. 5:14 You are the light of the world. A city located on a hill cannot be hidden. 5:15 People 15 do not light a lamp and put it under a basket 16 but on a lampstand, and it gives light to all in the house. 5:16 In the same way, let your light shine before people, so that they can see your good deeds and give honor to your Father in heaven.
5:17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets. I have not come to abolish these things but to fulfill them. 17 5:18 I 18 tell you the truth, 19 until heaven and earth pass away not the smallest letter or stroke of a letter 20 will pass from the law until everything takes place. 5:19 So anyone who breaks one of the least of these commands and teaches others 21 to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever obeys them and teaches others to do so will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 5:20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness goes beyond that of the experts in the law 22 and the Pharisees, 23 you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.
5:21 “You have heard that it was said to an older generation, 24 ‘Do not murder,’ 25 and ‘whoever murders will be subjected to judgment.’ 5:22 But I say to you that anyone who is angry with a brother 26 will be subjected to judgment. And whoever insults 27 a brother will be brought before 28 the council, 29 and whoever says ‘Fool’ 30 will be sent 31 to fiery hell. 32 5:23 So then, if you bring your gift to the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you, 5:24 leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to your brother and then come and present your gift. 5:25 Reach agreement 33 quickly with your accuser while on the way to court, 34 or he 35 may hand you over to the judge, and the judge hand you over to the warden, and you will be thrown into prison. 5:26 I tell you the truth, 36 you will never get out of there until you have paid the last penny! 37
5:27 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Do not commit adultery.’ 38 5:28 But I say to you that whoever looks at a woman to desire her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. 5:29 If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away! It is better to lose one of your members than to have your whole body thrown into hell. 39 5:30 If your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away! It is better to lose one of your members than to have your whole body go into hell.
5:31 “It was said, ‘Whoever divorces his wife must give her a legal document.’ 40 5:32 But I say to you that everyone who divorces his wife, except for immorality, makes her commit adultery, and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.
5:33 “Again, you have heard that it was said to an older generation, 41 ‘Do not break an oath, but fulfill your vows to the Lord.’ 42 5:34 But I say to you, do not take oaths at all – not by heaven, because it is the throne of God, 5:35 not by earth, because it is his footstool, and not by Jerusalem, 43 because it is the city of the great King. 5:36 Do not take an oath by your head, because you are not able to make one hair white or black. 5:37 Let your word be ‘Yes, yes’ or ‘No, no.’ More than this is from the evil one. 44
5:38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ 45 5:39 But I say to you, do not resist the evildoer. 46 But whoever strikes you on the 47 right cheek, turn the other to him as well. 5:40 And if someone wants to sue you and to take your tunic, 48 give him your coat also. 5:41 And if anyone forces you to go one mile, 49 go with him two. 5:42 Give to the one who asks you, 50 and do not reject 51 the one who wants to borrow from you.
5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor’ 52 and ‘hate your enemy.’ 5:44 But I say to you, love your enemy and 53 pray for those who persecute you, 5:45 so that you may be like 54 your Father in heaven, since he causes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Even the tax collectors 55 do the same, don’t they? 5:47 And if you only greet your brothers, what more do you do? Even the Gentiles do the same, don’t they? 5:48 So then, be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. 56
6:1 “Be 57 careful not to display your righteousness merely to be seen by people. 58 Otherwise you have no reward with your Father in heaven. 6:2 Thus whenever you do charitable giving, 59 do not blow a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in synagogues 60 and on streets so that people will praise them. I tell you the truth, 61 they have their reward. 6:3 But when you do your giving, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, 6:4 so that your gift may be in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 62
6:5 “Whenever you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, because they love to pray while standing in synagogues 63 and on street corners so that people can see them. Truly I say to you, they have their reward. 6:6 But whenever you pray, go into your room, 64 close the door, and pray to your Father in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 65 6:7 When 66 you pray, do not babble repetitiously like the Gentiles, because they think that by their many words they will be heard. 6:8 Do 67 not be like them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him. 6:9 So pray this way: 68
may your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.
6:16 “When 77 you fast, do not look sullen like the hypocrites, for they make their faces unattractive 78 so that people will see them fasting. I tell you the truth, 79 they have their reward. 6:17 When 80 you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, 6:18 so that it will not be obvious to others when you are fasting, but only to your Father who is in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you.
6:19 “Do not accumulate for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth 81 and rust destroy and where thieves break in and steal. 6:20 But accumulate for yourselves treasures in heaven, where moth and rust do not destroy, and thieves do not break in and steal. 6:21 For where your 82 treasure 83 is, there your heart will be also.
6:22 “The eye is the lamp of the body. If then your eye is healthy, 84 your whole body will be full of light. 6:23 But if your eye is diseased, 85 your whole body will be full of darkness. If then the light in you is darkness, how great is the darkness!
6:25 “Therefore I tell you, do not worry 89 about your life, what you will eat or drink, or about your body, what you will wear. Isn’t there more to life than food and more to the body than clothing? 6:26 Look at the birds in the sky: 90 They do not sow, or reap, or gather into barns, yet your heavenly Father feeds 91 them. Aren’t you more valuable 92 than they are? 6:27 And which of you by worrying can add even one hour to his life? 93 6:28 Why do you worry about clothing? Think about how the flowers 94 of the field grow; they do not work 95 or spin. 6:29 Yet I tell you that not even Solomon in all his glory was clothed like one of these! 6:30 And if this is how God clothes the wild grass, 96 which is here today and tomorrow is tossed into the fire to heat the oven, 97 won’t he clothe you even more, 98 you people of little faith? 6:31 So then, don’t worry saying, ‘What will we eat?’ or ‘What will we drink?’ or ‘What will we wear?’ 6:32 For the unconverted 99 pursue these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them. 6:33 But above all pursue his kingdom 100 and righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well. 6:34 So then, do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Today has enough trouble of its own. 101
7:1 “Do not judge so that you will not be judged. 102 7:2 For by the standard you judge you will be judged, and the measure you use will be the measure you receive. 103 7:3 Why 104 do you see the speck 105 in your brother’s eye, but fail to see 106 the beam of wood 107 in your own? 7:4 Or how can you say 108 to your brother, ‘Let me remove the speck from your eye,’ while there is a beam in your own? 7:5 You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye. 7:6 Do not give what is holy to dogs or throw your pearls before pigs; otherwise they will trample them under their feet and turn around and tear you to pieces. 109
7:7 “Ask 110 and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door 111 will be opened for you. 7:8 For everyone who asks 112 receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks, the door will be opened. 7:9 Is 113 there anyone among you who, if his son asks for bread, will give him a stone? 7:10 Or if he asks for a fish, will give him a snake? 114 7:11 If you then, although you are evil, 115 know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father in heaven give good gifts 116 to those who ask him! 7:12 In 117 everything, treat others as you would want them 118 to treat you, 119 for this fulfills 120 the law and the prophets.
7:13 “Enter through the narrow gate, because the gate is wide and the way is spacious that leads to destruction, and there are many who enter through it. 7:14 But the gate is narrow and the way is difficult that leads to life, and there are few who find it.
7:15 “Watch out for false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are voracious wolves. 121 7:16 You will recognize them by their fruit. Grapes are not gathered 122 from thorns or figs from thistles, are they? 123 7:17 In the same way, every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad 124 tree bears bad fruit. 7:18 A good tree is not able to bear bad fruit, nor a bad tree to bear good fruit. 7:19 Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 7:20 So then, you will recognize them by their fruit.
7:21 “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ 125 will enter into the kingdom of heaven – only the one who does the will of my Father in heaven. 7:22 On that day, many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophesy in your name, and in your name cast out demons and do 126 many powerful deeds?’ 7:23 Then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you. Go away from me, you lawbreakers!’ 127
7:24 “Everyone 128 who hears these words of mine and does them is like 129 a wise man 130 who built his house on rock. 7:25 The rain fell, the flood 131 came, and the winds beat against that house, but it did not collapse because it had been founded on rock. 7:26 Everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them is like a foolish man who built his house on sand. 7:27 The rain fell, the flood came, and the winds beat against that house, and it collapsed; it was utterly destroyed!” 132
6:17 Then 136 he came down with them and stood on a level place. 137 And a large number 138 of his disciples had gathered 139 along with 140 a vast multitude from all over Judea, from 141 Jerusalem, 142 and from the seacoast of Tyre 143 and Sidon. 144 They came to hear him and to be healed 145 of their diseases,
“Blessed are you who weep now, for you will laugh. 153
6:22 “Blessed are you when people 154 hate you, and when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil 155 on account of the Son of Man! 6:23 Rejoice in that day, and jump for joy, because 156 your reward is great in heaven. For their ancestors 157 did the same things to the prophets. 158
6:27 “But I say to you who are listening: Love your enemies, 168 do good to those who hate you, 6:28 bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat 169 you. 6:29 To the person who strikes you on the cheek, 170 offer the other as well, 171 and from the person who takes away your coat, 172 do not withhold your tunic 173 either. 174 6:30 Give to everyone who asks you, 175 and do not ask for your possessions 176 back 177 from the person who takes them away. 6:31 Treat others 178 in the same way that you would want them to treat you. 179
6:32 “If 180 you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners 181 love those who love them. 182 6:33 And 183 if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? Even 184 sinners 185 do the same. 6:34 And if you lend to those from whom you hope to be repaid, 186 what credit is that to you? Even sinners 187 lend to sinners, so that they may be repaid in full. 188 6:35 But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back. 189 Then 190 your reward will be great, and you will be sons 191 of the Most High, 192 because he is kind to ungrateful and evil people. 193 6:36 Be merciful, 194 just as your Father is merciful.
6:37 “Do 195 not judge, 196 and you will not be judged; 197 do not condemn, and you will not be condemned; forgive, 198 and you will be forgiven. 6:38 Give, and it will be given to you: A good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, 199 will be poured 200 into your lap. For the measure you use will be the measure you receive.” 201
6:39 He also told them a parable: “Someone who is blind cannot lead another who is blind, can he? 202 Won’t they both fall 203 into a pit? 6:40 A disciple 204 is not greater than 205 his teacher, but everyone when fully trained will be like his teacher. 6:41 Why 206 do you see the speck 207 in your brother’s eye, but fail to see 208 the beam of wood 209 in your own? 6:42 How can you say to your brother, ‘Brother, let me remove the speck from your eye,’ while you yourself don’t see the beam in your own? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye.
6:43 “For 210 no good tree bears bad 211 fruit, nor again 212 does a bad tree bear good fruit, 6:44 for each tree is known 213 by its own fruit. For figs are not gathered 214 from thorns, nor are grapes picked 215 from brambles. 216 6:45 The good person out of the good treasury of his 217 heart 218 produces good, and the evil person out of his evil treasury 219 produces evil, for his mouth speaks 220 from what fills 221 his heart.
6:47 “Everyone who comes to me and listens to my words and puts them into practice 225 – I will show you what he is like: 6:48 He is like a man 226 building a house, who dug down deep, 227 and laid the foundation on bedrock. When 228 a flood came, the river 229 burst against that house but 230 could not shake it, because it had been well built. 231 6:49 But the person who hears and does not put my words into practice 232 is like a man who built a house on the ground without a foundation. When 233 the river burst against that house, 234 it collapsed immediately, and was utterly destroyed!” 235
1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
2 tn Or “up a mountain” (εἰς τὸ ὄρος, eis to oro").
sn The expression up the mountain here may be idiomatic or generic, much like the English “he went to the hospital” (cf. 15:29), or even intentionally reminiscent of Exod 24:12 (LXX), since the genre of the Sermon on the Mount seems to be that of a new Moses giving a new law.
3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
4 tn Grk “And opening his mouth he taught them, saying.” The imperfect verb ἐδίδασκεν (edidasken) has been translated ingressively.
5 sn The term Blessed introduces the first of several beatitudes promising blessing to those whom God cares for. They serve as an invitation to come into the grace God offers.
7 sn The present tense (belongs) here is significant. Jesus makes the kingdom and its blessings currently available. This phrase is unlike the others in the list with the possessive pronoun being emphasized.
8 sn The promise they will be comforted is the first of several “reversals” noted in these promises. The beatitudes and the reversals that accompany them serve in the sermon as an invitation to enter into God’s care, because one can know God cares for those who turn to him.
9 sn Those who hunger are people like the poor Jesus has already mentioned. The term has OT roots both in conjunction with the poor (Isa 32:6-7; 58:6-7, 9-10; Ezek 18:7, 16) or by itself (Ps 37:16-19; 107:9).
10 tn Grk “sons,” though traditionally English versions have taken this as a generic reference to both males and females, hence “children” (cf. KJV, NAB, NRSV, NLT).
11 tn Grk “when they insult you.” The third person pronoun (here implied in the verb ὀνειδίσωσιν [ojneidiswsin]) has no specific referent, but refers to people in general.
12 tc Although ψευδόμενοι (yeudomenoi, “bearing witness falsely”) could be a motivated reading, clarifying that the disciples are unjustly persecuted, its lack in only D it sys Tert does not help its case. Since the Western text is known for numerous free alterations, without corroborative evidence the shorter reading must be judged as secondary.
13 sn Salt was used as seasoning or fertilizer (BDAG 41 s.v. ἅλας a), or as a preservative. If salt ceased to be useful, it was thrown away. With this illustration Jesus warned about a disciple who ceased to follow him.
14 sn The difficulty of this saying is understanding how salt could lose its flavor since its chemical properties cannot change. It is thus often assumed that Jesus was referring to chemically impure salt, perhaps a natural salt which, when exposed to the elements, had all the genuine salt leached out, leaving only the sediment or impurities behind. Others have suggested that the background of the saying is the use of salt blocks by Arab bakers to line the floor of their ovens; under the intense heat these blocks would eventually crystallize and undergo a change in chemical composition, finally being thrown out as unserviceable. A saying in the Talmud (b. Bekhorot 8b) attributed to R. Joshua ben Chananja (ca.
15 tn Grk “Nor do they light.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general.
16 tn Or “a bowl”; this refers to any container for dry material of about eight liters (two gallons) capacity. It could be translated “basket, box, bowl” (L&N 6.151).
17 tn Grk “not come to abolish but to fulfill.” Direct objects (“these things,” “them”) were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but have been supplied here to conform to contemporary English style.
18 tn Grk “For I tell.” Here an explanatory γάρ (gar) has not been translated.
19 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”
20 tn Grk “Not one iota or one serif.”
sn The smallest letter refers to the smallest Hebrew letter (yod) and the stroke of a letter to a serif (a hook or projection on a Hebrew letter).
21 tn Grk “teaches men” ( in a generic sense, people).
24 tn Grk “to the ancient ones.”
26 tc The majority of
27 tn Grk “whoever says to his brother ‘Raca,’” an Aramaic word of contempt or abuse meaning “fool” or “empty head.”
28 tn Grk “subjected,” “guilty,” “liable.”
29 tn Grk “the Sanhedrin.”
30 tn The meaning of the term μωρός (mwros) is somewhat disputed. Most take it to mean, following the Syriac versions, “you fool,” although some have argued that it represents a transliteration into Greek of the Hebrew term מוֹרֵה (moreh) “rebel” (Deut 21:18, 20; cf. BDAG 663 s.v. μωρός c).
31 tn Grk “subjected,” “guilty,” “liable.”
32 tn Grk “the Gehenna of fire.”
sn The word translated hell is “Gehenna” (γέεννα, geenna), a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew words ge hinnom (“Valley of Hinnom”). This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. In OT times it was used for human sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (cf. Jer 7:31; 19:5-6; 32:35), and it came to be used as a place where human excrement and rubbish were disposed of and burned. In the intertestamental period, it came to be used symbolically as the place of divine punishment (cf. 1 En. 27:2, 90:26; 4 Ezra 7:36).
33 tn Grk “Make friends.”
34 tn The words “to court” are not in the Greek text but are implied.
35 tn Grk “the accuser.”
36 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”
sn The penny here was a quadrans, a Roman copper coin worth 1/64 of a denarius (L&N 6.78). The parallel passage in Luke 12:59 mentions the lepton, equal to one-half of a quadrans and thus the smallest coin available.
41 tn Grk “the ancient ones.”
44 tn The term πονηροῦ (ponhrou) may be understood as specific and personified, referring to the devil, or possibly as a general reference to evil. It is most likely personified, however, since it is articular (τοῦ πονηροῦ, tou ponhrou). Cf. also “the evildoer” in v. 39, which is the same construction.
46 tn The articular πονηρός (ponhro", “the evildoer”) cannot be translated simply as “evil” for then the command would be “do not resist evil.” Every instance of this construction in Matthew is most likely personified, referring either to an evildoer (13:49) or, more often, “the evil one” (as in 5:37; 6:13; 13:19, 38).
47 tc ‡ Many
48 tn Or “shirt” (a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin). The name for this garment (χιτών, citwn) presents some difficulty in translation. Most modern readers would not understand what a “tunic” was any more than they would be familiar with a “chiton.” On the other hand, attempts to find a modern equivalent are also a problem: “Shirt” conveys the idea of a much shorter garment that covers only the upper body, and “undergarment” (given the styles of modern underwear) is more misleading still. “Tunic” was therefore employed, but with a note to explain its nature.
49 sn If anyone forces you to go one mile. In NT times Roman soldiers had the authority to press civilians into service to carry loads for them.
50 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to the one who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).
51 tn Grk “do not turn away from.”
53 tc Most
54 tn Grk “be sons of your Father in heaven.” Here, however, the focus is not on attaining a relationship (becoming a child of God) but rather on being the kind of person who shares the characteristics of God himself (a frequent meaning of the Semitic idiom “son of”). See L&N 58.26.
55 sn The tax collectors would bid to collect taxes for the Roman government and then add a surcharge, which they kept. Since tax collectors worked for Rome, they were viewed as traitors to their own people and were not well liked.
57 tc ‡ Several
58 tn Grk “before people in order to be seen by them.”
61 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”
62 tc L W Θ 0250 Ï it read ἐν τῷ φανερῷ (en tw fanerw, “openly”) at the end of this verse, giving a counterweight to what is done in secret. But this reading is suspect because of the obvious literary balance, because of detouring the point of the passage (the focus of vv. 1-4 is not on two kinds of public rewards but on human vs. divine approbation), and because of superior external testimony that lacks this reading (א B D Z Ë1,13 33 al).
64 sn The term translated room refers to the inner room of a house, normally without any windows opening outside, the most private location possible (BDAG 988 s.v. ταμεῖον 2).
66 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
67 tn Grk “So do not.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.
68 sn Pray this way. What follows, although traditionally known as the Lord’s prayer, is really the disciples’ prayer. It represents how they are to approach God, by acknowledging his uniqueness and their need for his provision and protection.
69 sn God is addressed in terms of intimacy (Father). The original Semitic term here was probably Abba. The term is a little unusual in a personal prayer, especially as it lacks qualification. It is not the exact equivalent of “daddy” (as is sometimes popularly suggested), but it does suggest a close, familial relationship.
70 tn Grk “hallowed be your name.”
71 sn Your kingdom come represents the hope for the full manifestation of God’s promised rule.
72 tn Or “Give us bread today for the coming day,” or “Give us today the bread we need for today.” The term ἐπιούσιος (epiousio") does not occur outside of early Christian literature (other occurrences are in Luke 11:3 and Didache 8:2), so its meaning is difficult to determine. Various suggestions include “daily,” “the coming day,” and “for existence.” See BDAG 376-77 s.v.; L&N 67:183, 206.
73 tn Or “as even we.” The phrase ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς (Jw" kai Jhmei") makes ἡμεῖς emphatic. The translation above adds an appropriate emphasis to the passage.
74 tn Or “into a time of testing.”
sn The request do not lead us into temptation is not to suggest God causes temptation, but is a rhetorical way to ask for his protection from sin.
75 tc Most
tn The term πονηροῦ (ponhrou) may be understood as specific and personified, referring to the devil, or possibly as a general reference to evil. It is most likely personified since it is articular (τοῦ πονηροῦ, tou ponhrou). Cf. also “the evildoer” in 5:39, which is the same construction.
76 tn Here ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense: “people, others.”
77 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
78 tn Here the term “disfigure” used in a number of translations was not used because it could convey to the modern reader the notion of mutilation. L&N 79.17 states, “‘to make unsightly, to disfigure, to make ugly.’ ἀφανίζουσιν γὰρ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν ‘for they make their faces unsightly’ Mt 6:16.”
79 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”
80 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
81 tn The term σής (shs) refers to moths in general. It is specifically the larvae of moths that destroy clothing by eating holes in it (L&N 4.49; BDAG 922 s.v.). See Jas 5:2, which mentions “moth-eaten” clothing.
82 tn The pronouns in this verse are singular while the pronouns in vv. 19-20 are plural. The change to singular emphasizes personal responsibility as opposed to corporate responsibility; even if others do not listen, the one who hears Jesus’ commands should obey.
83 sn Seeking heavenly treasure means serving others and honoring God by doing so.
84 tn Or “sound” (so L&N 23.132 and most scholars). A few scholars take this word to mean something like “generous” here (L&N 57.107). partly due to the immediate context concerning money, in which case the “eye” is a metonymy for the entire person (“if you are generous”).
85 tn Or “if your eye is sick” (L&N 23.149).
sn There may be a slight wordplay here, as this term can also mean “evil,” so the figure uses a term that points to the real meaning of being careful as to what one pays attention to or looks at.
86 sn The contrast between hate and love here is rhetorical. The point is that one will choose the favorite if a choice has to be made.
87 tn Or “and treat [the other] with contempt.”
88 tn Grk “God and mammon.”
sn The term money is used to translate mammon, the Aramaic term for wealth or possessions. The point is not that money is inherently evil, but that it is often misused so that it is a means of evil; see 1 Tim 6:6-10, 17-19. God must be first, not money or possessions.
89 tn Or “do not be anxious,” and so throughout the rest of this paragraph.
90 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).
91 tn Or “God gives them food to eat.” L&N 23.6 has both “to provide food for” and “to give food to someone to eat.”
92 tn Grk “of more value.”
93 tn Or “a cubit to his height.” A cubit (πῆχυς, phcu") can measure length (normally about 45 cm or 18 inches) or time (a small unit, “hour” is usually used [BDAG 812 s.v.] although “day” has been suggested [L&N 67.151]). The term ἡλικία (Jhlikia) is ambiguous in the same way as πῆχυς (phcus). Most scholars take the term to describe age or length of life here, although a few refer it to bodily stature (see BDAG 436 s.v. 3 for discussion). Worry about length of life seems a more natural figure than worry about height. However, the point either way is clear: Worrying adds nothing to life span or height.
94 tn Traditionally, “lilies.” According to L&N 3.32, “Though traditionally κρίνον has been regarded as a type of lily, scholars have suggested several other possible types of flowers, including an anemone, a poppy, a gladiolus, and a rather inconspicuous type of daisy.” In view of the uncertainty, the more generic “flowers” has been used in the translation.
95 tn Or, traditionally, “toil.” Although it might be argued that “work hard” would be a more precise translation of κοπιάω (kopiaw) here, the line in English reads better in terms of cadence with a single syllable.
96 tn Grk “grass of the field.”
97 tn Grk “into the oven.” The expanded translation “into the fire to heat the oven” has been used to avoid misunderstanding; most items put into modern ovens are put there to be baked, not burned.
sn The oven was most likely a rounded clay oven used for baking bread, which was heated by burning wood and dried grass.
98 sn The phrase even more is a typical form of rabbinic argumentation, from the lesser to the greater. If God cares for the little things, surely he will care for the more important things.
99 tn Or “unbelievers”; Grk “Gentiles.”
100 tc ‡ Most
sn God’s kingdom is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong.
101 tn Grk “Sufficient for the day is its evil.”
102 sn The point of the statement do not judge so that you will not be judged is that the standards we apply to others God applies to us. The passive verbs in this verse look to God’s action.
103 tn Grk “by [the measure] with which you measure it will be measured to you.”
104 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
105 sn The term translated speck refers to a small piece of wood, chaff, or straw; see L&N 3.66.
106 tn Or “do not notice.”
107 sn The term beam of wood refers to a very big piece of wood, the main beam of a building, in contrast to the speck in the other’s eye (L&N 7.78).
108 tn Grk “how will you say?”
109 tn Or “otherwise the latter will trample them under their feet and the former will turn around and tear you to pieces.” This verse is sometimes understood as a chiasm of the pattern a-b-b-a, in which the first and last clauses belong together (“dogs…turn around and tear you to pieces”) and the second and third clauses belong together (“pigs…trample them under their feet”).
110 sn The three present imperatives in this verse (Ask…seek…knock) are probably intended to call for a repeated or continual approach before God.
113 tn Grk “Or is there.”
115 tn The participle ὄντες (ontes) has been translated concessively.
116 sn The provision of the good gifts is probably a reference to the wisdom and guidance supplied in response to repeated requests. The teaching as a whole stresses not that we get everything we want, but that God gives the good that we need.
117 tn Grk “Therefore in.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.
118 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.
119 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others as you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but here it is stated in its most emphatic, selfless form.
120 tn Grk “is.”
121 sn Sheep’s clothing…voracious wolves. Jesus uses a metaphor here to point out that these false prophets appear to be one thing, but in reality they are something quite different and dangerous.
122 tn Grk “They do not gather.” This has been simplified to the passive voice in the translation since the subject “they” is not specified further in the context.
123 sn The statement illustrates the principle: That which cannot produce fruit does not produce fruit.
125 sn The double use of the vocative is normally used in situations of high emotion or emphasis. Even an emphatic confession without action means little.
126 tn Grk “and in your name do.” This phrase was not repeated here in the translation for stylistic reasons.
127 tn Grk “workers of lawlessness.”
128 tn Grk “Therefore everyone.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.
131 tn Grk “the rivers.”
132 tn Grk “and great was its fall.”
133 tn Grk “And it happened when.” The introductory phrase καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto, “it happened that”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
134 sn Jesus’ teaching impressed the hearers with the directness of its claim; he taught with authority. A study of Jewish rabbinic interpretation shows that it was typical to cite a list of authorities to make one’s point. Apparently Jesus addressed the issues in terms of his own understanding.
136 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
137 tn Or “on a plateau.” This could refer to a message given in a flat locale or in a flat locale in the midst of a more mountainous region (Jer 21:13; Isa 13:2). It is quite possible that this sermon is a summary version of the better known Sermon on the Mount from Matt 5-7.
138 tn Grk “large crowd.”
139 tn There is no verb in Greek at this point, but since “a large crowd” (see preceding tn) is in the nominative case, one needs to be supplied.
140 tn Grk “and.”
141 tn Grk “and from,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
144 sn These last two locations, Tyre and Sidon, represented an expansion outside of traditional Jewish territory. Jesus’ reputation continued to expand into new regions.
145 sn To hear him and to be healed. Jesus had a two-level ministry: The word and then wondrous acts of service that showed his message of God’s care were real.
146 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
147 tn Grk “lifting up his eyes” (an idiom). The participle ἐπάρας (epara") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
148 sn The term Blessed introduces the first of several beatitudes promising blessing to those whom God cares for. They serve as an invitation to come into the grace God offers.
150 sn The present tense (belongs) here is significant. Jesus makes the kingdom and its blessings currently available. This phrase is unlike the others in the list with the possessive pronoun being emphasized. Jesus was saying, in effect, “the kingdom belongs even now to people like you.”
151 sn You who hunger are people like the poor Jesus has already mentioned. The term has OT roots both in conjunction with the poor (Isa 32:6-7; 58:6-7, 9-10; Ezek 18:7, 16) or by itself (Ps 37:16-19; 107:9).
152 sn The promise you will be satisfied is the first of several “reversals” noted in these promises. The beatitudes and the reversals that accompany them serve in the sermon as an invitation to enter into God’s care, because one can know God cares for those who turn to him.
153 sn You will laugh alludes to the joy that comes to God’s people in the salvation to come.
154 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.
155 tn Or “disdain you”; Grk “cast out your name as evil.” The word “name” is used here as a figure of speech to refer to the person as a whole.
sn The phrase when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil alludes to a person being ostracized and socially isolated because of association with the Son of Man, Jesus.
156 tn Grk “because behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this clause has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
157 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
159 sn Jesus promises condemnation (woe) to those who are callous of others, looking only to their own comforts. On Luke and the rich see 1:53; 12:16; 14:12; 16:1, 21-22; 18:23; 19:2; 21:1. These woes are unique to Luke.
160 sn Ironically the language of reward shows that what the rich have received is all they will get. This result looks at a current situation, just as the start of the beatitudes did. The rest of the conclusions to the woes look to the future at the time of judgment.
161 tn Grk “your consolation.”
162 tn Grk “who are filled.” See L&N 23.18 for the translation “well satisfied with food.”
163 tc The wording “to you” (ὑμῖν, Jumin) is lacking in several witnesses (א B K L T W Θ Ξ 0147 Ë1,13 579 700 892 1241 2542 al), though found in most (Ì75 A D Q Ψ 33 Ï lat co). The longer reading looks to be a clarifying addition; nevertheless, “to you” is included in the translation because of English requirements.
164 sn That is, laugh with happiness and joy.
165 tc The wording “to you” (ὑμῖν, Jumin) is lacking throughout the ms tradition except for a few witnesses (D W* Δ 1424 pc co). The Western witnesses tend to add freely to the text. Supported by the vast majority of witnesses and the likelihood that “to you” is a clarifying addition, the shorter reading should be considered original; nevertheless, “to you” is included in the translation because of English requirements.
166 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.
167 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
168 sn Love your enemies is the first of four short exhortations that call for an unusual response to those who are persecuting disciples. Disciples are to relate to hostility in a completely unprecedented manner.
169 tn The substantival participle ἐπηρεαζόντων (ephreazontwn), sometimes translated “those who abuse” (NRSV), is better rendered “those who mistreat,” a more general term (see L&N 88.129).
170 sn The phrase strikes you on the cheek probably pictures public rejection, like the act that indicated expulsion from the synagogue.
171 sn This command to offer the other cheek as well is often misunderstood. It means that there is risk involved in reaching out to people with God’s hope. But if one is struck down in rejection, the disciple is to continue reaching out.
172 tn Or “cloak.”
174 sn The command do not withhold your tunic either is again an image of continually being totally at risk as one tries to keep contact with those who are hostile to what Jesus and his disciples offer.
175 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to everyone who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).
176 tn Grk “your things,” sometimes translated “what is yours” or “what belongs to you.”
178 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.
179 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others in the same way you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but it is stated here in its most emphatic, selfless form.
180 tn Grk “And if.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. This is a first class condition, but the next two conditional clauses are third class conditions, so that stylistic variation is probably at work.
181 sn Here the term sinners may refer to people who had no concern for observing the details of the Mosaic law; these were often treated as social outcasts. See L&N 88.295.
183 tc ‡ Three key
184 tc Most
186 tn Grk “to receive”; but in context the repayment of the amount lent is implied. Jesus was noting that utilitarian motives are the way of the world.
188 tn Grk “to receive as much again.”
189 tn Or “in return.”
190 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the outcome or result. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.
191 sn The character of these actions reflects the grace and kindness of God, bearing witness to a “line of descent” or relationship of the individual to God (sons of the Most High). There is to be a unique kind of ethic at work with disciples. Jesus refers specifically to sons here because in the ancient world sons had special privileges which were rarely accorded to daughters. However, Jesus is most likely addressing both men and women in this context, so women too would receive these same privileges.
192 sn That is, “sons of God.”
193 tn Or “to the ungrateful and immoral.” The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.
194 sn Merciful is a characteristic of God often noted in the OT: Exod 34:6; Deut 4:31; Joel 2:31; Jonah 4:2; 2 Sam 24:14. This remark also echoes the more common OT statements like Lev 19:2 or Deut 18:13: “you must be holy as I am holy.”
195 tn Grk “And do.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
196 sn As the Gospel makes clear, with the statement do not judge Jesus had in mind making a judgment that caused one to cut oneself off from someone so that they ceased to be reached out to (5:27-32; 15:1-32). Jesus himself did make judgments about where people stand (11:37-54), but not in such a way that he ceased to continue to offer them God’s grace.
197 sn The point of the statement do not judge, and you will not be judged is that the standards one applies to others God applies back. The passive verbs in this verse look to God’s action.
199 sn The background to the image pressed down, shaken together, running over is pouring out grain for measure in the marketplace. One often poured the grain into a container, shook it to level out the grain and then poured in some more. Those who are generous have generosity running over for them.
200 tn Grk “they will give”; that is, “pour.” The third person plural has been replaced by the passive in the translation.
201 tn Grk “by [the measure] with which you measure it will be measured back to you.”
202 tn Questions prefaced with μή (mh) in Greek anticipate a negative answer. This can sometimes be indicated by using a “tag” at the end in English (here it is “can he?”).
203 sn The picture of a blind man leading a blind man is a warning to watch who one follows: Won’t they both fall into a pit? The sermon has been about religious choices and reacting graciously to those who oppose the followers of Jesus. Here Jesus’ point was to be careful who you follow and where they are taking you.
204 tn Or “student.”
205 tn Or “significantly different.” The idea, as the next phrase shows, is that teachers build followers who go the same direction they do.
206 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
208 tn Or “do not notice.”
210 tn The explanatory connective γάρ (gar) is often dropped from translations, but the point of the passage is that one should be self-corrective and be careful who one follows (vv. 41-42), because such choices also reflect what the nature of the tree is and its product.
211 tn Grk “rotten.” The word σαπρός, modifying both “fruit” and “tree,” can also mean “diseased” (L&N 65.28).
212 tc Most
213 sn The principle of the passage is that one produces what one is.
214 tn Grk “they do not gather”; this has been simplified to the passive voice in the translation since the subject “they” is not specified further in the context.
215 tn This is a different verb (τρυγῶσιν, trugwsin) for gathering from the previous one (συλλέγουσιν, sullegousin).
216 tn This is a different term (βάτος, batos) for a thorn or bramble bush than the previous one (ἄκανθα, akanqa).
sn The statement nor are grapes picked from brambles illustrates the principle: That which cannot produce fruit, does not produce fruit.
217 tn Grk “the”; the Greek article has been translated here and in the following clause (“out of the evil”) as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
218 sn Mention of the heart shows that Jesus is not interested in what is done, but why. Motives are more important than actions for him.
219 tn The word “treasury” is not repeated in the Greek text at this point, but is implied.
221 tn Grk “for out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaks.”
222 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
223 tn The double use of the vocative is normally used in situations of high emotion or emphasis. Even an emphatic confession without action means little.
224 sn Why do you call me ‘Lord, Lord,’ and don’t do what I tell you? Respect is not a matter of mere words, but is reflected in obedient action. This short saying, which is much simpler than its more developed conceptual parallel in Matt 7:21-23, serves in this form to simply warn and issue a call to hear and obey, as the last parable also does in vv. 47-49.
225 tn Grk “and does them.”
227 tn There are actually two different Greek verbs used here: “who dug (ἔσκαψεν, eskayen) and dug deep (ἐβάθυνεν, ebaqunen).” Jesus is placing emphasis on the effort to which the man went to prepare his foundation.
228 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
229 sn The picture here is of a river overflowing its banks and causing flooding and chaos.
230 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in the context.
231 tc Most
232 tn Grk “does not do [them].”
233 tn Grk “against which”; because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative clause was converted to a temporal clause in the translation and a new sentence started here.
234 tn Grk “it”; the referent (that house) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
235 tn Grk “and its crash was great.”
sn The extra phrase at the end of this description (and was utterly destroyed) portrays the great disappointment that the destruction of the house caused as it crashed and was swept away.