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Matthew 27:35

Context
27:35 When 1  they had crucified 2  him, they divided his clothes by throwing dice. 3 

Mark 15:24

Context
15:24 Then 4  they crucified 5  him and divided his clothes, throwing dice 6  for them, to decide what each would take.

Luke 23:34

Context
23:34 [But Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they don’t know what they are doing.”] 7  Then 8  they threw dice 9  to divide his clothes. 10 

John 19:23

Context

19:23 Now when the soldiers crucified 11  Jesus, they took his clothes and made four shares, one for each soldier, 12  and the tunic 13  remained. (Now the tunic 14  was seamless, woven from top to bottom as a single piece.) 15 

1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

2 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.

3 tn Grk “by throwing the lot” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent, “throwing dice,” was chosen here because of its association with gambling. According to L&N 6.219 a term for “dice” is particularly appropriate.

sn An allusion to Ps 22:18.

4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

5 sn See the note on Crucify in 15:13.

6 tn Grk “by throwing the lot” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent, “throwing dice,” was chosen here because of its association with gambling. According to L&N 6.219 a term for “dice” is particularly appropriate.

sn An allusion to Ps 22:18.

7 tc Many important mss (Ì75 א1 B D* W Θ 070 579 1241 pc sys sa) lack v. 34a. It is included in א*,2 (A) C D2 L Ψ 0250 Ë1,(13) 33 Ï lat syc,p,h. It also fits a major Lukan theme of forgiving the enemies (6:27-36), and it has a parallel in Stephen’s response in Acts 7:60. The lack of parallels in the other Gospels argues also for inclusion here. On the other hand, the fact of the parallel in Acts 7:60 may well have prompted early scribes to insert the saying in Luke’s Gospel alone. Further, there is the great difficulty of explaining why early and diverse witnesses lack the saying. A decision is difficult, but even those who regard the verse as inauthentic literarily often consider it to be authentic historically. For this reason it has been placed in single brackets in the translation.

8 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

9 tn Grk “cast lots” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent “threw dice” was chosen here because of its association with gambling.

10 sn An allusion to Ps 22:18, which identifies Jesus as the suffering innocent one.

11 sn See the note on Crucify in 19:6.

12 sn Four shares, one for each soldier. The Gospel of John is the only one to specify the number of soldiers involved in the crucifixion. This was a quaternion, a squad of four soldiers. It was accepted Roman practice for the soldiers who performed a crucifixion to divide the possessions of the person executed among themselves.

13 tn Or “shirt” (a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin). The name for this garment (χιτών, citwn) presents some difficulty in translation. Most modern readers would not understand what a ‘tunic’ was any more than they would be familiar with a ‘chiton.’ On the other hand, attempts to find a modern equivalent are also a problem: “Shirt” conveys the idea of a much shorter garment that covers only the upper body, and “undergarment” (given the styles of modern underwear) is more misleading still. “Tunic” was therefore employed, but with a note to explain its nature.

14 tn Or “shirt” (a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin). See the note on the same word earlier in this verse.

15 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.



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