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Matthew 24:3--25:46

Context
Signs of the End of the Age

24:3 As 1  he was sitting on the Mount of Olives, his disciples came to him privately and said, “Tell us, when will these things 2  happen? And what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?” 24:4 Jesus answered them, 3  “Watch out 4  that no one misleads you. 24:5 For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ 5  and they will mislead many. 24:6 You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. Make sure that you are not alarmed, for this must happen, but the end is still to come. 6  24:7 For nation will rise up in arms 7  against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. And there will be famines 8  and earthquakes 9  in various places. 24:8 All 10  these things are the beginning of birth pains.

Persecution of Disciples

24:9 “Then they will hand you over to be persecuted and will kill you. You will be hated by all the nations 11  because of my name. 12  24:10 Then many will be led into sin, 13  and they will betray one another and hate one another. 24:11 And many false prophets will appear and deceive 14  many, 24:12 and because lawlessness will increase so much, the love of many will grow cold. 24:13 But the person who endures to the end will be saved. 15  24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the whole inhabited earth as a testimony to all the nations, 16  and then the end will come.

The Abomination of Desolation

24:15 “So when you see the abomination of desolation 17  – spoken about by Daniel the prophet – standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), 24:16 then those in Judea must flee 18  to the mountains. 24:17 The one on the roof 19  must not come down 20  to take anything out of his house, 24:18 and the one in the field must not turn back to get his cloak. 24:19 Woe 21  to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! 24:20 Pray 22  that your flight may not be in winter or on a Sabbath. 24:21 For then there will be great suffering 23  unlike anything that has happened 24  from the beginning of the world until now, or ever will happen. 24:22 And if those days had not been cut short, no one would be saved. But for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short. 24:23 Then if anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Christ!’ 25  or ‘There he is!’ do not believe him. 24:24 For false messiahs 26  and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect. 24:25 Remember, 27  I have told you ahead of time. 24:26 So then, if someone 28  says to you, ‘Look, he is in the wilderness,’ 29  do not go out, or ‘Look, he is in the inner rooms,’ do not believe him. 24:27 For just like the lightning 30  comes from the east and flashes to the west, so the coming of the Son of Man will be. 24:28 Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures 31  will gather. 32 

The Arrival of the Son of Man

24:29 “Immediately 33  after the suffering 34  of those days, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of heaven will be shaken. 35  24:30 Then 36  the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, 37  and 38  all the tribes of the earth will mourn. They 39  will see the Son of Man arriving on the clouds of heaven 40  with power and great glory. 24:31 And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet blast, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven 41  to the other.

The Parable of the Fig Tree

24:32 “Learn 42  this parable from the fig tree: Whenever its branch becomes tender and puts out its leaves, you know that summer is near. 24:33 So also you, when you see all these things, know 43  that he is near, right at the door. 24:34 I tell you the truth, 44  this generation 45  will not pass away until all these things take place. 24:35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away. 46 

Be Ready!

24:36 “But as for that day and hour no one knows it – not even the angels in heaven 47  – except the Father alone. 24:37 For just like the days of Noah 48  were, so the coming of the Son of Man will be. 24:38 For in those days before the flood, people 49  were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day Noah entered the ark. 24:39 And they knew nothing until the flood came and took them all away. 50  It will be the same at the coming of the Son of Man. 51  24:40 Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one left. 52  24:41 There will be two women grinding grain with a mill; 53  one will be taken and one left.

24:42 “Therefore stay alert, because you do not know on what day 54  your Lord will come. 24:43 But understand this: If the owner of the house had known at what time of night the thief 55  was coming, he would have been alert and would not have let his house be broken into. 24:44 Therefore you also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him. 56 

The Faithful and Wise Slave

24:45 “Who then is the faithful and wise slave, 57  whom the master has put in charge of his household, to give the other slaves 58  their food at the proper time? 24:46 Blessed is that slave whom the master finds at work 59  when he comes. 24:47 I tell you the truth, 60  the master 61  will put him in charge of all his possessions. 24:48 But if 62  that evil slave should say to himself, 63  ‘My master is staying away a long time,’ 24:49 and he begins to beat his fellow slaves and to eat and drink with drunkards, 24:50 then the master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not foresee, 24:51 and will cut him in two, 64  and assign him a place with the hypocrites, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

The Parable of the Ten Virgins

25:1 “At that time the kingdom of heaven will be like ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom. 25:2 Five 65  of the virgins 66  were foolish, and five were wise. 25:3 When 67  the foolish ones took their lamps, they did not take extra 68  olive oil 69  with them. 25:4 But the wise ones took flasks of olive oil with their lamps. 25:5 When 70  the bridegroom was delayed a long time, they all became drowsy and fell asleep. 25:6 But at midnight there was a shout, ‘Look, the bridegroom is here! Come out to meet him.’ 71  25:7 Then all the virgins woke up and trimmed their lamps. 25:8 The 72  foolish ones said to the wise, ‘Give us some of your oil, because our lamps are going out.’ 25:9 ‘No,’ they replied. 73  ‘There won’t be enough for you and for us. Go instead to those who sell oil and buy some for yourselves.’ 25:10 But while they had gone to buy it, the bridegroom arrived, and those who were ready went inside with him to the wedding banquet. Then 74  the door was shut. 25:11 Later, 75  the other virgins came too, saying, ‘Lord, lord! Let us in!’ 76  25:12 But he replied, 77  ‘I tell you the truth, 78  I do not know you!’ 25:13 Therefore stay alert, because you do not know the day or the hour. 79 

The Parable of the Talents

25:14 “For it is like a man going on a journey, who summoned his slaves 80  and entrusted his property to them. 25:15 To 81  one he gave five talents, 82  to another two, and to another one, each according to his ability. Then he went on his journey. 25:16 The one who had received five talents went off right away and put his money to work 83  and gained five more. 25:17 In the same way, the one who had two gained two more. 25:18 But the one who had received one talent went out and dug a hole in the ground and hid his master’s money in it. 25:19 After 84  a long time, the master of those slaves came and settled his accounts with them. 25:20 The 85  one who had received the five talents came and brought five more, saying, ‘Sir, 86  you entrusted me with five talents. See, I have gained five more.’ 25:21 His master answered, 87  ‘Well done, good and faithful slave! You have been faithful in a few things. I will put you in charge of many things. Enter into the joy of your master.’ 25:22 The 88  one with the two talents also came and said, ‘Sir, you entrusted two talents to me. See, I have gained two more.’ 25:23 His master answered, ‘Well done, good and faithful slave! You have been faithful with a few things. I will put you in charge of many things. Enter into the joy of your master.’ 25:24 Then the one who had received the one talent came and said, ‘Sir, I knew that you were a hard man, harvesting where you did not sow, and gathering where you did not scatter seed, 25:25 so 89  I was afraid, and I went and hid your talent in the ground. See, you have what is yours.’ 25:26 But his master answered, 90  ‘Evil and lazy slave! So you knew that I harvest where I didn’t sow and gather where I didn’t scatter? 25:27 Then you should have deposited my money with the bankers, 91  and on my return I would have received my money back with interest! 92  25:28 Therefore take the talent from him and give it to the one who has ten. 93  25:29 For the one who has will be given more, 94  and he will have more than enough. But the one who does not have, even what he has will be taken from him. 95  25:30 And throw that worthless slave into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’

The Judgment

25:31 “When 96  the Son of Man comes in his glory and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne. 25:32 All 97  the nations will be assembled before him, and he will separate people one from another like a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 25:33 He 98  will put the sheep on his right and the goats on his left. 25:34 Then the king will say to those on his right, ‘Come, you who are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. 25:35 For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you invited me in, 25:36 I was naked and you gave me clothing, I was sick and you took care of me, I was in prison and you visited me.’ 25:37 Then the righteous will answer him, 99  ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry and feed you, or thirsty and give you something to drink? 25:38 When 100  did we see you a stranger and invite you in, or naked and clothe you? 25:39 When 101  did we see you sick or in prison and visit you?’ 25:40 And the king will answer them, 102  ‘I tell you the truth, 103  just as you did it for one of the least of these brothers or sisters 104  of mine, you did it for me.’

25:41 “Then he will say 105  to those on his left, ‘Depart from me, you accursed, into the eternal fire that has been prepared for the devil and his angels! 25:42 For I was hungry and you gave me nothing to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink. 25:43 I was a stranger and you did not receive me as a guest, naked and you did not clothe me, sick and in prison and you did not visit me.’ 25:44 Then they too will answer, 106  ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not give you whatever you needed?’ 25:45 Then he will answer them, 107  ‘I tell you the truth, 108  just as you did not do it for one of the least of these, you did not do it for me.’ 25:46 And these will depart into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.”

Mark 13:3-37

Context
Signs of the End of the Age

13:3 So 109  while he was sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter, James, John, 110  and Andrew asked him privately, 13:4 “Tell us, when will these things 111  happen? And what will be the sign that all these things are about to take place?” 13:5 Jesus began to say to them, “Watch out 112  that no one misleads you. 13:6 Many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am he,’ 113  and they will mislead many. 13:7 When you hear of wars and rumors of wars, do not be alarmed. These things must happen, but the end is still to come. 114  13:8 For nation will rise up in arms 115  against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and there will be famines. 116  These are but the beginning of birth pains.

Persecution of Disciples

13:9 “You must watch out for yourselves. You will be handed over 117  to councils 118  and beaten in the synagogues. 119  You will stand before governors and kings 120  because of me, as a witness to them. 13:10 First the gospel must be preached to all nations. 13:11 When they arrest you and hand you over for trial, do not worry about what to speak. But say whatever is given you at that time, 121  for it is not you speaking, but the Holy Spirit. 13:12 Brother will hand over brother to death, and a father his child. Children will rise against 122  parents and have them put to death. 13:13 You will be hated by everyone because of my name. 123  But the one who endures to the end will be saved. 124 

The Abomination of Desolation

13:14 “But when you see the abomination of desolation 125  standing where it should not be (let the reader understand), then those in Judea must flee 126  to the mountains. 13:15 The one on the roof 127  must not come down or go inside to take anything out of his house. 128  13:16 The one in the field must not turn back to get his cloak. 13:17 Woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! 13:18 Pray that it may not be in winter. 13:19 For in those days there will be suffering 129  unlike anything that has happened 130  from the beginning of the creation that God created until now, or ever will happen. 13:20 And if the Lord had not cut short those days, no one would be saved. But because of the elect, whom he chose, he has cut them 131  short. 13:21 Then 132  if anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Christ!’ 133  or ‘Look, there he is!’ do not believe him. 13:22 For false messiahs 134  and false prophets will appear and perform signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, the elect. 13:23 Be careful! I have told you everything ahead of time.

The Arrival of the Son of Man

13:24 “But in those days, after that suffering, 135  the sun will be darkened and the moon will not give its light; 13:25 the stars will be falling from heaven, and the powers in the heavens will be shaken. 136  13:26 Then everyone 137  will see the Son of Man arriving in the clouds 138  with great power and glory. 13:27 Then he will send angels and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven. 139 

The Parable of the Fig Tree

13:28 “Learn this parable from the fig tree: Whenever its branch becomes tender and puts out its leaves, you know that summer is near. 13:29 So also you, when you see these things happening, know 140  that he is near, right at the door. 13:30 I tell you the truth, 141  this generation 142  will not pass away until all these things take place. 13:31 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away. 143 

Be Ready!

13:32 “But as for that day or hour no one knows it – neither the angels in heaven, nor the Son 144  – except the Father. 13:33 Watch out! Stay alert! 145  For you do not know when the time will come. 13:34 It is like a man going on a journey. He left his house and put his slaves 146  in charge, assigning 147  to each his work, and commanded the doorkeeper to stay alert. 13:35 Stay alert, then, because you do not know when the owner of the house will return – whether during evening, at midnight, when the rooster crows, or at dawn – 13:36 or else he might find you asleep when he returns suddenly. 13:37 What I say to you I say to everyone: Stay alert!”

Luke 21:7-37

Context
21:7 So 148  they asked him, 149  “Teacher, when will these things 150  happen? And what will be the sign that 151  these things are about to take place?” 21:8 He 152  said, “Watch out 153  that you are not misled. For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am he,’ 154  and, ‘The time is near.’ Do not follow them! 21:9 And when you hear of wars and rebellions, 155  do not be afraid. 156  For these things must happen first, but the end will not come at once.” 157 

Persecution of Disciples

21:10 Then he said to them, “Nation will rise up in arms 158  against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 21:11 There will be great earthquakes, and famines 159  and plagues in various places, and there will be terrifying sights 160  and great signs 161  from heaven. 21:12 But before all this, 162  they will seize 163  you and persecute you, handing you over to the synagogues 164  and prisons. You 165  will be brought before kings and governors because of my name. 21:13 This will be a time for you to serve as witnesses. 166  21:14 Therefore be resolved 167  not to rehearse 168  ahead of time how to make your defense. 21:15 For I will give you the words 169  along with the wisdom 170  that none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. 21:16 You will be betrayed even by parents, 171  brothers, relatives, 172  and friends, and they will have some of you put to death. 21:17 You will be hated by everyone because of my name. 173  21:18 Yet 174  not a hair of your head will perish. 175  21:19 By your endurance 176  you will gain 177  your lives. 178 

The Desolation of Jerusalem

21:20 “But when you see Jerusalem 179  surrounded 180  by armies, then know that its 181  desolation 182  has come near. 21:21 Then those who are in Judea must flee 183  to the mountains. Those 184  who are inside the city must depart. Those 185  who are out in the country must not enter it, 21:22 because these are days of vengeance, 186  to fulfill 187  all that is written. 21:23 Woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! For there will be great distress 188  on the earth and wrath against this people. 21:24 They 189  will fall by the edge 190  of the sword and be led away as captives 191  among all nations. Jerusalem 192  will be trampled down by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. 193 

The Arrival of the Son of Man

21:25 “And there will be signs in the sun and moon and stars, 194  and on the earth nations will be in distress, 195  anxious 196  over the roaring of the sea and the surging waves. 21:26 People will be fainting from fear 197  and from the expectation of what is coming on the world, for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 198  21:27 Then 199  they will see the Son of Man arriving in a cloud 200  with power and great glory. 21:28 But when these things 201  begin to happen, stand up and raise your heads, because your redemption 202  is drawing near.”

The Parable of the Fig Tree

21:29 Then 203  he told them a parable: “Look at the fig tree and all the other trees. 204  21:30 When they sprout leaves, you see 205  for yourselves and know that summer is now near. 21:31 So also you, when you see these things happening, know 206  that the kingdom of God 207  is near. 21:32 I tell you the truth, 208  this generation 209  will not pass away until all these things take place. 21:33 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away. 210 

Be Ready!

21:34 “But be on your guard 211  so that your hearts are not weighed down with dissipation and drunkenness and the worries of this life, and that day close down upon you suddenly like a trap. 212  21:35 For 213  it will overtake 214  all who live on the face of the whole earth. 215  21:36 But stay alert at all times, 216  praying that you may have strength to escape all these things that must 217  happen, and to stand before the Son of Man.”

21:37 So 218  every day Jesus 219  was teaching in the temple courts, 220  but at night he went and stayed 221  on the Mount of Olives. 222 

1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

2 sn Because the phrase these things is plural, more than the temple’s destruction is in view. The question may presuppose that such a catastrophe signals the end.

3 tn Grk “answering, Jesus said to them.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

4 tn Or “Be on guard.”

5 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.

6 tn Grk “it is not yet the end.”

7 tn For the translation “rise up in arms” see L&N 55.2.

8 sn See Isa 5:13-14; 13:6-16; Hag 2:6-7; Zech 14:4.

9 tc Most witnesses (C Θ 0102 Ë1,13 Ï) have “and plagues” (καὶ λοιμοί, kai loimoi) between “famines” (λιμοί, limoi) and “earthquakes” (σεισμοί, seismoi), while others have “plagues and famines and earthquakes” (L W 33 pc lat). The similarities between λιμοί and λοιμοί could explain how καὶ λοιμοί might have accidentally dropped out, but since the Lukan parallel has both terms (and W lat have the order λοιμοὶ καὶ λιμοί there too, as they do in Matthew), it seems more likely that scribes added the phrase here. The shorter reading does not enjoy overwhelming support ([א] B D 892 pc, as well as versional witnesses), but it is nevertheless significant; coupled with the internal evidence it should be given preference.

10 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

11 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “nations” or “Gentiles”).

12 sn See Matt 5:10-12; 1 Cor 1:25-31.

13 tn Or “many will fall away.” This could also refer to apostasy.

14 tn Or “and lead many astray.”

15 sn But the person who endures to the end will be saved. Jesus was not claiming here that salvation is by works. He was simply arguing that genuine faith evidences itself in persistence through even the worst of trials.

16 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “nations” or “Gentiles”).

17 sn The reference to the abomination of desolation is an allusion to Dan 9:27. Though some have seen the fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy in the actions of Antiochus IV (or a representative of his) in 167 b.c., the words of Jesus seem to indicate that Antiochus was not the final fulfillment, but that there was (from Jesus’ perspective) still another fulfillment yet to come. Some argue that this was realized in a.d. 70, while others claim that it refers specifically to Antichrist and will not be fully realized until the period of the great tribulation at the end of the age (cf. Mark 13:14, 19, 24; Rev 3:10).

18 sn Fleeing to the mountains is a key OT image: Gen 19:17; Judg 6:2; Isa 15:5; Jer 16:16; Zech 14:5.

19 sn On the roof. Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.

20 sn The swiftness and devastation of the judgment will require a swift escape. There will be no time to come down from the roof and pick up anything from inside one’s home.

21 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

22 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

23 tn Traditionally, “great tribulation.”

24 sn Suffering unlike anything that has happened. Some refer this event to the destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. While the events of a.d. 70 may reflect somewhat the comments Jesus makes here, the reference to the scope and severity of this judgment strongly suggest that much more is in view. Most likely Jesus is referring to the great end-time judgment on Jerusalem in the great tribulation.

25 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.

26 tn Or “false christs”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

27 tn Or “Pay attention!” Grk “Behold.”

28 tn Grk “they say.” The third person plural is used here as an indefinite and translated “someone” (ExSyn 402).

29 tn Or “in the desert.”

30 sn The Son of Man’s coming in power will be sudden and obvious like lightning. No one will need to point it out.

31 tn The same Greek term can refer to “eagles” or “vultures” (L&N 4.42; BDAG 22 s.v. ἀετός), but in this context it must mean vultures because the gruesome image is one of dead bodies being consumed by scavengers.

sn Jesus’ answer is that when the judgment comes, the scenes of death will be obvious and so will the location of the judgment. See also Luke 17:37.

32 tn Grk “will be gathered.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in English.

33 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

34 tn Traditionally, “tribulation.”

35 sn An allusion to Isa 13:10, 34:4 (LXX); Joel 2:10. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.

36 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

37 tn Or “in the sky”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context.

38 tn Here τότε (tote, “then”) has not been translated to avoid redundancy in English.

39 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

40 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13. Here is Jesus returning with full authority to judge.

41 tn Or “of the sky”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context.

42 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

43 tn The verb γινώσκετε (ginwskete, “know”) can be parsed as either present indicative or present imperative. In this context the imperative fits better, since the movement is from analogy (trees and seasons) to the future (the signs of the coming of the kingdom) and since the emphasis is on preparation for this event.

44 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

45 sn This is one of the hardest verses in the gospels to interpret. Various views exist for what generation means. (1) Some take it as meaning “race” and thus as an assurance that the Jewish race (nation) will not pass away. But it is very questionable that the Greek term γενεά (genea) can have this meaning. Two other options are possible. (2) Generation might mean “this type of generation” and refer to the generation of wicked humanity. Then the point is that humanity will not perish, because God will redeem it. Or (3) generation may refer to “the generation that sees the signs of the end” (v. 30), who will also see the end itself. In other words, once the movement to the return of Christ starts, all the events connected with it happen very quickly, in rapid succession.

46 sn The words that Jesus predicts here will never pass away. They are more stable and lasting than creation itself. For this kind of image, see Isa 40:8; 55:10-11.

47 tc ‡ Some important witnesses, including early Alexandrian and Western mss (א*,2 B D Θ Ë13 pc it vgmss Irlat Hiermss), have the additional words οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός (oude Jo Juios, “nor the son”) here. Although the shorter reading (which lacks this phrase) is suspect in that it seems to soften the prophetic ignorance of Jesus, the final phrase (“except the Father alone”) already implies this. Further, the parallel in Mark 13:32 has οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός, with almost no witnesses lacking the expression. Hence, it is doubtful that the absence of “neither the Son” is due to the scribes. In keeping with Matthew’s general softening of Mark’s harsh statements throughout his Gospel, it is more likely that the absence of “neither the Son” is part of the original text of Matthew, being an intentional change on the part of the author. Further, this shorter reading is supported by the first corrector of א as well as L W Ë1 33 Ï vg sy co Hiermss. Admittedly, the external evidence is not as impressive for the shorter reading, but it best explains the rise of the other reading (in particular, how does one account for virtually no mss excising οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός at Mark 13:32 if such an absence here is due to scribal alteration? Although scribes were hardly consistent, for such a theologically significant issue at least some consistency would be expected on the part of a few scribes). Nevertheless, NA27 includes οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός here.

48 sn Like the days of Noah, the time of the flood in Gen 6:5-8:22, the judgment will come as a surprise as people live their day to day lives.

49 tn Grk “they,” but in an indefinite sense, “people.”

50 sn Like the flood that came and took them all away, the coming judgment associated with the Son of Man will condemn many.

51 tn Grk “So also will be the coming of the Son of Man.”

52 sn There is debate among commentators and scholars over the phrase one will be taken and one left about whether one is taken for judgment or for salvation. If the imagery is patterned after the rescue of Noah from the flood, as some suggest, the ones taken are the saved (as Noah was) andthose left behind are judged. The imagery, however, is not directly tied to theidentification of the two groups. Its primary purposein context is topicture the sudden, surprisingseparation of the righteous and the judged (i.e., condemned) at the return of the Son of Man.

53 tn According to L&N 46.16, this refers to a hand mill normally operated by two women.

54 tc Most later mss (L 0281 Ï lat) have here ὥρᾳ ({wra, “hour”) instead of ἡμέρα (Jemera, “day”). Although the merits of this reading could be argued either way, in light of the overwhelming and diverse early support for ἡμέρᾳ ({א B C D W Δ Θ Ë13 33 892 1424, as well as several versions and fathers}), the more general term is surely correct.

55 sn On Jesus pictured as a returning thief, see 1 Thess 5:2, 4; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 3:3; 16:15.

56 sn Jesus made clear that his coming could not be timed, and suggested it would take some time – so long, in fact, that some will not be looking for him any longer (at an hour when you do not expect him).

57 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.

58 tn Grk “give them.”

59 tn That is, doing his job, doing what he is supposed to be doing.

60 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

61 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the master) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

62 tn In the Greek text this is a third class condition that for all practical purposes is a hypothetical condition (note the translation of the following verb “should say”).

63 tn Grk “should say in his heart.”

64 tn The verb διχοτομέω (dicotomew) means to cut an object into two parts (L&N 19.19). This is an extremely severe punishment compared to the other two later punishments. To translate it simply as “punish” is too mild. If taken literally this servant is dismembered, although it is possible to view the stated punishment as hyperbole (L&N 38.12).

65 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

66 tn Grk “Five of them.”

67 tn Grk “For when.” Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.

68 tn The word “extra” is not in the Greek text but is implied. The point is that the five foolish virgins had only the oil in their lamps, but took along no extra supply from which to replenish them. This is clear from v. 8, where the lamps of the foolish virgins are going out because they are running out of oil.

69 tn On the use of olive oil in lamps, see L&N 6.202.

70 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

71 tc ‡ Most witnesses have αὐτοῦ (autou, “[with] him”) after ἀπάντησιν (apanthsin, “meeting”), a reading which makes explicit what is already implied in the shorter text (as found in א B 700). The translation likewise adds “him” for clarity’s sake even though the word is not considered part of the original text. NA27 has αὐτοῦ in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

72 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

73 tn Grk “The wise answered, saying, ‘No.’”

74 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

75 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

76 tn Grk “Open to us.”

77 tn Grk “But answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

78 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

79 tc Most later mss (C3 Ë13 1424c Ï) also read here “in which the Son of Man is coming” (ἐν ᾗ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεται, en |h Jo Juio" tou anqrwpou ercetai), reproducing almost verbatim the last line of Matt 24:44. The longer reading thus appears to be an explanatory expansion and should not be considered authentic. The earlier and better witnesses ({Ì35 א A B C* D L W Δ Θ Ë1 33 565 892 1424* lat co}) lack this phrase.

80 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.

81 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

82 sn A talent was equal to 6000 denarii. See the note on this term in 18:24.

83 tn Grk “traded with them.”

84 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

85 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

86 tn Grk Or “Lord; or “Master” (and so throughout this paragraph).

87 tn Grk “His master said to him.”

88 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

89 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

90 tn Grk “But answering, his master said to him.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

91 tn For the translation “deposited my money with the bankers,” see L&N 57.216.

92 sn That is, “If you really feared me you should have done a minimum to get what I asked for.”

93 tn Grk “the ten talents.”

94 tn Grk “to everyone who has, he will be given more.”

sn The one who has will be given more. Faithfulness yields great reward (see Matt 13:12; also Mark 4:25; Luke 8:18, 19:26).

95 sn The one who has nothing has even what he seems to have taken from him, ending up with no reward at all (see also Luke 8:18). The exact force of this is left ambiguous, but there is no comfort here for those who are pictured by the third slave as being totally unmoved by the master. Though not an outright enemy, there is no relationship to the master either.

96 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

97 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

98 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

99 tn Grk “answer him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

100 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

101 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

102 tn Grk “answering, the king will say to them.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

103 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

104 tn Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1, where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelfoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited). In this context Jesus is ultimately speaking of his “followers” (whether men or women, adults or children), but the familial connotation of “brothers and sisters” is also important to retain here.

105 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

106 tn Grk “Then they will answer, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

107 tn Grk “answer them, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

108 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

109 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

110 tn Grk “and James and John,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

111 sn Both references to these things are plural, so more than the temple’s destruction is in view. The question may presuppose that such a catastrophe signals the end.

112 tn Or “Be on guard.”

113 tn That is, “I am the Messiah.”

114 tn Grk “it is not yet the end.”

115 tn For the translation “rise up in arms” see L&N 55.2.

116 sn See Isa 5:13-14; 13:6-16; Hag 2:6-7; Zech 14:4.

117 tn Grk “They will hand you over.” “They” is an indefinite plural, referring to people in general. The parallel in Matt 10:17 makes this explicit.

118 sn Councils in this context refers to local judicial bodies attached to the Jewish synagogue. This group would be responsible for meting out justice and discipline within the Jewish community.

119 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21.

120 sn These statements look at persecution both from a Jewish context as the mention of councils and synagogues suggests, and from a Gentile one as the reference to governors and kings suggests. Some fulfillment of Jewish persecution can be seen in Acts.

121 tn Grk “in that hour.”

122 tn Or “will rebel against.”

123 sn See 1 Cor 1:25-31.

124 sn But the one who endures to the end will be saved. Jesus was not claiming here that salvation is by works, because he had already taught that it is by grace (cf. 10:15). He was simply arguing that genuine faith evidences itself in persistence through even the worst of trials.

125 sn The reference to the abomination of desolation is an allusion to Dan 9:27. Though some have seen the fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy in the actions of Antiochus IV (or a representative of his) in 167 b.c., the words of Jesus seem to indicate that Antiochus was not the final fulfillment, but that there was (from Jesus’ perspective) still another fulfillment yet to come. Some argue that this was realized in a.d. 70, while others claim that it refers specifically to Antichrist and will not be fully realized until the period of the great tribulation at the end of the age (cf. Mark 13:19, 24; Matt 24:21; Rev 3:10).

126 sn Fleeing to the mountains is a key OT image: Gen 19:17; Judg 6:2; Isa 15:5; Jer 16:16; Zech 14:5.

127 sn Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.

128 sn The nature of the judgment coming upon them will be so quick and devastating that one will not have time to come down or go inside to take anything out of his house. It is best just to escape as quickly as possible.

129 tn Traditionally, “tribulation.”

130 sn Suffering unlike anything that has happened. Some refer this event to the destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. While the events of a.d. 70 may reflect somewhat the comments Jesus makes here, the reference to the scope and severity of this judgment strongly suggest that much more is in view. Most likely Jesus is referring to the great end-time judgment on Jerusalem in the great tribulation.

131 tn Grk “the days.”

132 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

133 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 8:29.

134 tn Or “false christs”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

135 tn Traditionally, “tribulation.”

136 sn An allusion to Isa 13:10, 34:4 (LXX); Joel 2:10. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.

137 tn Grk “they.”

138 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13. Here is Jesus returning with full judging authority.

139 tn Or “of the sky”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context.

140 tn The verb γινώσκετε (ginwskete, “know”) can be parsed as either present indicative or present imperative. In this context the imperative fits better, since the movement is from analogy (trees and seasons) to the future (the signs of the coming of the kingdom) and since the emphasis is on preparation for this event.

141 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

142 sn This is one of the hardest verses in the gospels to interpret. Various views exist for what generation means. (1) Some take it as meaning “race” and thus as an assurance that the Jewish race (nation) will not pass away. But it is very questionable that the Greek term γενεά (genea) can have this meaning. Two other options are possible. (2) Generation might mean “this type of generation” and refer to the generation of wicked humanity. Then the point is that humanity will not perish, because God will redeem it. Or (3) generation may refer to “the generation that sees the signs of the end” (v. 26), who will also see the end itself. In other words, once the movement to the return of Christ starts, all the events connected with it happen very quickly, in rapid succession.

143 sn The words that Jesus predicts here will never pass away. They are more stable and lasting than creation itself! For this kind of image, see Isa 40:8; 55:10-11.

144 sn The phrase nor the Son has caused a great deal of theological debate because on the surface it appears to conflict with the concept of Jesus’ deity. The straightforward meaning of the text is that the Son does not know the time of his return. If Jesus were divine, though, wouldn’t he know this information? There are other passages which similarly indicate that Jesus did not know certain things. For example, Luke 2:52 indicates that Jesus grew in wisdom; this has to mean that Jesus did not know everything all the time but learned as he grew. So Mark 13:32 is not alone in implying that Jesus did not know certain things. The best option for understanding Mark 13:32 and similar passages is to hold the two concepts in tension: The Son in his earthly life and ministry had limited knowledge of certain things, yet he was still deity.

145 tc The vast majority of witnesses (א A C L W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat sy co) have καὶ προσεύχεσθε after ἀγρυπνεῖτε (agrupneite kai proseucesqe, “stay alert and pray”). This may be a motivated reading, influenced by the similar command in Mark 14:38 where προσεύχεσθε is solidly attested, and more generally from the parallel in Luke 21:36 (though δέομαι [deomai, “ask”] is used there). As B. M. Metzger notes, it is a predictable variant that scribes would have been likely to produce independently of each other (TCGNT 95). The words are not found in B D 2427 a c {d} k. Although the external evidence for the shorter reading is slender, it probably better accounts for the longer reading than vice versa.

146 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 10:44.

147 tn Grk “giving.”

148 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments about the temple’s future destruction.

149 tn Grk “asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

150 sn Both references to these things are plural, so more than the temple’s destruction is in view. The question may presuppose that such a catastrophe signals the end.

151 tn Grk “when.”

152 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

153 tn Or “Be on guard.”

154 tn That is, “I am the Messiah.”

155 tn Social and political chaos also precedes the end. This term refers to revolutions (L&N 39.34).

156 tn This is not the usual term for fear, but refers to a deep sense of terror and emotional distress (Luke 24:37; BDAG 895 s.v. πτοέω).

157 sn The end will not come at once. This remark about timing not only indicates that there will be events before the end, but that some time will also pass before it comes.

158 tn For the translation “rise up in arms” see L&N 55.2.

159 sn See Isa 5:13-14; 13:6-16; Hag 2:6-7; Zech 14:4.

160 tn This term, φόβητρον (fobhtron), occurs only here in the NT. It could refer to an object, event, or condition that causes fear, but in the context it is linked with great signs from heaven, so the translation “sights” was preferred.

161 sn See Jer 4:13-22; 14:12; 21:6-7.

162 sn But before all this. Another note of timing is present, this one especially important in understanding the sequence in the discourse. Before the things noted in vv. 8-11 are the events of vv. 12-19.

163 tn Grk “will lay their hands on you.”

164 sn Some of the persecution is of Jewish origin (the synagogues). Some fulfillment of this can be seen in Acts. See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

165 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

166 tn Grk “This will turn out to you for [a] testimony.”

167 tn Grk “determine in your hearts.”

168 tn This term could refer to rehearsing a speech or a dance. On its syntax, see BDF §392.2.

169 tn Grk “a mouth.” It is a metonymy and refers to the reply the Lord will give to them.

170 tn Grk “and wisdom.”

171 sn To confess Christ might well mean rejection by one’s own family, even by parents.

172 tn Grk “and brothers and relatives,” but καί (kai) has not been translated twice here since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

173 sn See Luke 6:22, 27; 1 Cor 1:25-31.

174 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

175 sn Given v. 16, the expression not a hair of your head will perish must be taken figuratively and refer to living ultimately in the presence of God.

176 sn By your endurance is a call to remain faithful, because trusting in Jesus is the means to life.

177 tc Some important Greek witnesses plus the majority of mss (א D L W Ψ Ë1 Ï) read the aorist imperative κτήσασθε (kthsasqe) here, though some mss (A B Θ Ë13 33 pc lat sa) read the future indicative κτήσεσθε (kthsesqe). A decision is difficult because the evidence is so evenly balanced, but the aorist imperative is the harder reading and better explains the rise of the other. J. A. Fitzmyer assesses the translation options this way: “In English one has to use something similar [i.e., a future indicative], even if one follows the [aorist imperative]” (Luke [AB], 2:1341); in the same vein, although this translation follows the aorist imperative, because of English requirements it has been translated as though it were a future indicative.

178 tn Grk “your souls,” but ψυχή (yuch) is frequently used of one’s physical life. In light of v. 16 that does not seem to be the case here. The entire phrase could be taken as an idiom meaning “you will save yourselves” (L&N 21.20), or (as in v. 18) this could refer to living ultimately in the presence of God.

179 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

180 sn See Luke 19:41-44. This passage refers to the events associated with the fall of Jerusalem, when the city is surrounded by armies.

181 tn Grk “her,” referring to the city of Jerusalem (the name “Jerusalem” in Greek is a feminine noun).

182 sn The phrase its desolation is a reference to the fall of the city, which is the only antecedent present in Luke’s account. The parallels to this in Matt 24:15 and Mark 13:14 refer to the temple’s desolation, though Matthew’s allusion is clearer. They focus on the parallel events of the end, not on the short term realization in a.d. 70. The entire passage has a prophetic “two events in one” typology, where the near term destruction (a.d. 70) is like the end. So the evangelists could choose to focus on the near time realization (Luke) or on its long term fulfillment, which mirrors it (Matthew, Mark).

183 sn Fleeing to the mountains is a key OT image: Gen 19:17; Judg 6:2; Isa 15:5; Jer 16:16; Zech 14:5.

184 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

185 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

186 tn Or “of punishment.” This is a time of judgment.

187 tn The passive construction with the infinitive πλησθῆναι (plhsqhnai) has been translated as an active construction for simplicity, in keeping with contemporary English style.

188 sn Great distress means that this is a period of great judgment.

189 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

190 tn Grk “by the mouth of the sword” (an idiom for the edge of a sword).

191 sn Here is the predicted judgment against the nation until the time of Gentile rule has passed: Its people will be led away as captives.

192 tn Grk “And Jerusalem.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

193 sn Until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled implies a time when Israel again has a central role in God’s plan.

194 sn Signs in the sun and moon and stars are cosmic signs that turn our attention to the end and the Son of Man’s return for the righteous. OT imagery is present: See Isa 13:9-10; 24:18-20; 34:4; Ezek 32:7-8; Joel 2:1, 30-31; 3:15.

195 tn Grk “distress of nations.”

196 tn Or “in consternation” (L&N 32.9).

197 tn According to L&N 23.184 this could be mainly a psychological experience rather than actual loss of consciousness. It could also refer to complete discouragement because of fear, leading people to give up hope (L&N 25.293).

198 sn An allusion to Isa 34:4. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.

199 tn Grk “And then” (καὶ τότε, kai tote). Here καί has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

200 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13. Here is Jesus returning with full judging authority.

201 sn These things are all the events of vv. 8-27. Disciples represent the righteous here. The events surrounding the fall of the nation are a down payment on a fuller judgment to come on all humanity. The presence of one guarantees the other.

202 sn With Jesus’ return comes the manifestation of judgment and final salvation (redemption).

203 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

204 tn Grk “all the trees.”

205 tn Grk “seeing for yourselves, you know.” The participle βλέποντες (bleponte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

206 tn The verb γινώσκετε (ginwskete, “know”) can be parsed as either present indicative or present imperative. In this context the imperative fits better, since the movement is from analogy (trees and seasons) to the future (the signs of the coming of the kingdom) and since the emphasis is on preparation for this event.

207 sn The kingdom of God refers here to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37.

208 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

209 sn This is one of the hardest verses in the gospels to interpret. Various views exist for what generation means. (1) Some take it as meaning “race” and thus as an assurance that the Jewish race (nation) will not pass away. But it is very questionable that the Greek term γενεά (genea) can have this meaning. Two other options are possible. (2) Generation might mean “this type of generation” and refer to the generation of wicked humanity. Then the point is that humanity will not perish, because God will redeem it. Or (3) generation may refer to “the generation that sees the signs of the end” (vv. 25-26), who will also see the end itself. In other words, once the movement to the return of Christ starts, all the events connected with it happen very quickly, in rapid succession.

210 sn The words that Jesus predicts here will never pass away. They are more stable and lasting than creation itself. For this kind of image, see Isa 40:8; 55:10-11.

211 tn Grk “watch out for yourselves.”

sn Disciples are to watch out. If they are too absorbed into everyday life, they will stop watching and living faithfully.

212 sn Or like a thief, see Luke 12:39-40. The metaphor of a trap is a vivid one. Most modern English translations traditionally place the words “like a trap” at the end of v. 34, completing the metaphor. In the Greek text (and in the NRSV and REB) the words “like a trap” are placed at the beginning of v. 35. This does not affect the meaning.

213 tn There is debate in the textual tradition about the position of γάρ (gar) and whether v. 35 looks back to v. 34 or is independent. The textual evidence does slightly favor placing γάρ after the verb and thus linking it back to v. 34. The other reading looks like Isa 24:17. However, the construction is harsh and the translation prefers for stylistic reasons to start a new English sentence here.

214 tn Or “come upon.”

215 sn This judgment involves everyone: all who live on the face of the whole earth. No one will escape this evaluation.

216 sn The call to be alert at all times is a call to remain faithful in looking for the Lord’s return.

217 tn For the translation of μέλλω (mellw) as “must,” see L&N 71.36.

218 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” since vv. 37-38 serve as something of a summary or transition from the discourse preceding to the passion narrative that follows.

219 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

220 tn Grk “in the temple.”

221 tn Grk “and spent the night,” but this is redundant because of the previous use of the word “night.”

222 tn Grk “at the mountain called ‘of Olives.’”

sn See the note on the phrase Mount of Olives in 19:29.



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