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Matthew 3:7

Context

3:7 But when he saw many Pharisees 1  and Sadducees 2  coming to his baptism, he said to them, “You offspring of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath?

Matthew 16:1-12

Context
The Demand for a Sign

16:1 Now when the Pharisees 3  and Sadducees 4  came to test Jesus, 5  they asked him to show them a sign from heaven. 6  16:2 He 7  said, “When evening comes you say, ‘It will be fair weather, because the sky is red,’ 16:3 and in the morning, ‘It will be stormy today, because the sky is red and darkening.’ 8  You know how to judge correctly the appearance of the sky, 9  but you cannot evaluate the signs of the times. 16:4 A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah.” Then 10  he left them and went away.

The Yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees

16:5 When the disciples went to the other side, they forgot to take bread. 16:6 “Watch out,” Jesus said to them, “beware of the yeast of the Pharisees 11  and Sadducees.” 12  16:7 So 13  they began to discuss this among themselves, saying, “It is because we brought no bread.” 16:8 When Jesus learned of this, 14  he said, “You who have such little faith! 15  Why are you arguing 16  among yourselves about having no bread? 16:9 Do you still not understand? Don’t you remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you took up? 16:10 Or the seven loaves for the four thousand and how many baskets you took up? 16:11 How could you not understand that I was not speaking to you about bread? But beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees!” 16:12 Then they understood that he had not told them to be on guard against the yeast in bread, but against the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees.

Matthew 22:23-34

Context
Marriage and the Resurrection

22:23 The same day Sadducees 17  (who say there is no resurrection) 18  came to him and asked him, 19  22:24 “Teacher, Moses said, ‘If a man dies without having children, his brother must marry the widow and father children 20  for his brother.’ 21  22:25 Now there were seven brothers among us. The first one married and died, and since he had no children he left his wife to his brother. 22:26 The second did the same, and the third, down to the seventh. 22:27 Last 22  of all, the woman died. 22:28 In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife of the seven will she be? For they all had married her.” 23  22:29 Jesus 24  answered them, “You are deceived, 25  because you don’t know the scriptures or the power of God. 22:30 For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels 26  in heaven. 22:31 Now as for the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was spoken to you by God, 27  22:32I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? 28  He is not the God of the dead but of the living!” 29  22:33 When the crowds heard this, they were amazed at his teaching.

The Greatest Commandment

22:34 Now when the Pharisees 30  heard that he had silenced the Sadducees, 31  they assembled together. 32 

1 sn Pharisees were members of one of the most important and influential religious and political parties of Judaism in the time of Jesus. There were more Pharisees than Sadducees (according to Josephus, Ant. 17.2.4 [17.42] there were more than 6,000 Pharisees at about this time). Pharisees differed with Sadducees on certain doctrines and patterns of behavior. The Pharisees were strict and zealous adherents to the laws of the OT and to numerous additional traditions such as angels and bodily resurrection.

2 sn The Sadducees controlled the official political structures of Judaism at this time, being the majority members of the Sanhedrin. They were known as extremely strict on law and order issues (Josephus, J. W. 2.8.2 [2.119], 2.8.14 [2.164-166]; Ant. 13.5.9 [13.171-173], 13.10.6 [13.293-298], 18.1.2 [18.11], 18.1.4 [18.16-17], 20.9.1 [20.199]; Life 2 [10-11]). See also Matt 16:1-12; 22:23-34; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-38; Acts 5:17; 23:6-8.

3 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

4 sn See the note on Sadducees in 3:7.

5 tn The object of the participle πειράζοντες (peirazontes) is not given in the Greek text but has been supplied here for clarity.

6 sn What exactly this sign would have been, given what Jesus was already doing, is not clear. But here is where the fence-sitters reside, refusing to commit to him.

7 tn Grk “But answering, he said to them.” The construction has been simplified in the translation and δέ (de) has not been translated.

8 tn Or “red and gloomy” (L&N 14.56).

9 tn Grk “The face of the sky you know how to discern.”

10 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

11 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

12 sn See the note on Sadducees in 3:7.

13 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ saying about the Pharisees and Sadducees.

14 tn Or “becoming aware of it.”

15 tn Grk “Those of little faith.”

16 tn Or “discussing.”

17 sn See the note on Sadducees in 3:7.

18 sn This remark is best regarded as a parenthetical note by the author.

19 tn Grk “and asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

20 tn Grk “and raise up seed,” an idiom for fathering children (L&N 23.59).

21 sn A quotation from Deut 25:5. This practice is called levirate marriage (see also Ruth 4:1-12; Mishnah, m. Yevamot; Josephus, Ant. 4.8.23 [4.254-256]). The levirate law is described in Deut 25:5-10. The brother of a man who died without a son had an obligation to marry his brother’s widow. This served several purposes: It provided for the widow in a society where a widow with no children to care for her would be reduced to begging, and it preserved the name of the deceased, who would be regarded as the legal father of the first son produced from that marriage.

22 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

23 tn Grk “For all had her.”

24 tn Grk “And answering, Jesus said to them.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

25 tn Or “mistaken” (cf. BDAG 822 s.v. πλανάω 2.c.γ).

26 tc Most witnesses have “of God” after “angels,” although some mss read ἄγγελοι θεοῦ (angeloi qeou; א L Ë13 {28} 33 892 1241 1424 al) while others have ἄγγελοι τοῦ θεοῦ (angeloi tou qeou; W 0102 0161 Ï). Whether with or without the article, the reading “of God” appears to be motivated as a natural expansion. A few important witnesses lack the adjunct (B D Θ {0233} Ë1 700 {sa}); this coupled with strong internal evidence argues for the shorter reading.

sn Angels do not die, nor do they eat according to Jewish tradition (1 En. 15:6; 51:4; Wis 5:5; 2 Bar. 51:10; 1QH 3.21-23).

27 tn Grk “spoken to you by God, saying.” The participle λέγοντος (legontos) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.

28 sn A quotation from Exod 3:6.

29 sn He is not God of the dead but of the living. Jesus’ point was that if God could identify himself as God of the three old patriarchs, then they must still be alive when God spoke to Moses; and so they must be raised.

30 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

31 sn See the note on Sadducees in 3:7.

32 tn Grk “for the same.” That is, for the same purpose that the Sadducees had of testing Jesus.



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