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Matthew 26:1--27:66

Context
The Plot Against Jesus

26:1 When 1  Jesus had finished saying all these things, he told his disciples, 26:2 “You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be handed over 2  to be crucified.” 3  26:3 Then the chief priests and the elders of the people met together in the palace of the high priest, who was named Caiaphas. 26:4 They 4  planned to arrest Jesus by stealth and kill him. 26:5 But they said, “Not during the feast, so that there won’t be a riot among the people.” 5 

Jesus’ Anointing

26:6 Now while Jesus was in Bethany at the house of Simon the leper, 26:7 a woman came to him with an alabaster jar 6  of expensive perfumed oil, 7  and she poured it on his head as he was at the table. 8  26:8 When 9  the disciples saw this, they became indignant and said, “Why this waste? 26:9 It 10  could have been sold at a high price and the money 11  given to the poor!” 26:10 When 12  Jesus learned of this, he said to them, “Why are you bothering this woman? She 13  has done a good service for me. 26:11 For you will always have the poor with you, but you will not always have me! 14  26:12 When 15  she poured this oil on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. 26:13 I tell you the truth, 16  wherever this gospel is proclaimed in the whole world, what she has done will also be told in memory of her.”

The Plan to Betray Jesus

26:14 Then one of the twelve, the one named Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests 26:15 and said, “What will you give me to betray him into your hands?” 17  So they set out thirty silver coins for him. 26:16 From that time 18  on, Judas 19  began looking for an opportunity to betray him.

The Passover

26:17 Now on the first day of the feast of 20  Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus and said, 21  “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?” 22  26:18 He 23  said, “Go into the city to a certain man and tell him, ‘The Teacher says, “My time is near. I will observe the Passover with my disciples at your house.”’” 26:19 So 24  the disciples did as Jesus had instructed them, and they prepared the Passover. 26:20 When 25  it was evening, he took his place at the table 26  with the twelve. 27  26:21 And while they were eating he said, “I tell you the truth, 28  one of you will betray me.” 29  26:22 They 30  became greatly distressed 31  and each one began to say to him, “Surely not I, Lord?” 26:23 He 32  answered, “The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me 33  will betray me. 26:24 The Son of Man will go as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for him if he had never been born.” 26:25 Then 34  Judas, the one who would betray him, said, “Surely not I, Rabbi?” Jesus 35  replied, “You have said it yourself.”

The Lord’s Supper

26:26 While 36  they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it, gave it to his disciples, and said, “Take, eat, this is my body.” 26:27 And after taking the cup and giving thanks, he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you, 26:28 for this is my blood, the blood 37  of the covenant, 38  that is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 26:29 I 39  tell you, from now on I will not drink of this fruit 40  of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.” 26:30 After 41  singing a hymn, 42  they went out to the Mount of Olives.

The Prediction of Peter’s Denial

26:31 Then Jesus said to them, “This night you will all fall away because of me, for it is written:

I will strike the shepherd,

and the sheep of the flock will be scattered. 43 

26:32 But after I am raised, I will go ahead of you into Galilee.” 26:33 Peter 44  said to him, “If they all fall away because of you, I will never fall away!” 26:34 Jesus said to him, “I tell you the truth, 45  on this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” 26:35 Peter said to him, “Even if I must die with you, I will never deny you.” And all the disciples said the same thing.

Gethsemane

26:36 Then Jesus went with them to a place called Gethsemane, and he said to the disciples, “Sit here while I go over there and pray.” 26:37 He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and became anguished and distressed. 26:38 Then he said to them, “My soul is deeply grieved, even to the point of death. Remain here and stay awake with me.” 26:39 Going a little farther, he threw himself down with his face to the ground and prayed, 46  “My Father, if possible, 47  let this cup 48  pass from me! Yet not what I will, but what you will.” 26:40 Then he came to the disciples and found them sleeping. He 49  said to Peter, “So, couldn’t you stay awake with me for one hour? 26:41 Stay awake and pray that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.” 26:42 He went away a second time and prayed, 50  “My Father, if this cup 51  cannot be taken away unless I drink it, your will must be done.” 26:43 He came again and found them sleeping; they could not keep their eyes open. 52  26:44 So leaving them again, he went away and prayed for the third time, saying the same thing once more. 26:45 Then he came to the disciples and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting? Look, the hour is approaching, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 26:46 Get up, let us go. Look! My betrayer 53  is approaching!”

Betrayal and Arrest

26:47 While he was still speaking, Judas, 54  one of the twelve, arrived. With him was a large crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent by the chief priests and elders of the people. 26:48 (Now the betrayer 55  had given them a sign, saying, “The one I kiss is the man. 56  Arrest him!”) 57  26:49 Immediately 58  he went up to Jesus and said, “Greetings, Rabbi,” and kissed him. 59  26:50 Jesus 60  said to him, “Friend, do what you are here to do.” Then they came and took hold 61  of Jesus and arrested him. 26:51 But 62  one of those with Jesus grabbed 63  his sword, drew it out, and struck the high priest’s slave, 64  cutting off his ear. 26:52 Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back in its place! 65  For all who take hold of the sword will die by the sword. 26:53 Or do you think that I cannot call on my Father, and that he would send me more than twelve legions 66  of angels right now? 26:54 How then would the scriptures that say it must happen this way be fulfilled?” 26:55 At that moment Jesus said to the crowd, “Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrest me like you would an outlaw? 67  Day after day I sat teaching in the temple courts, yet 68  you did not arrest me. 26:56 But this has happened so that 69  the scriptures of the prophets would be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples left him and fled.

Condemned by the Sanhedrin

26:57 Now the ones who had arrested Jesus led him to Caiaphas, the high priest, in whose house 70  the experts in the law 71  and the elders had gathered. 26:58 But Peter was following him from a distance, all the way to the high priest’s courtyard. After 72  going in, he sat with the guards 73  to see the outcome. 26:59 The 74  chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were trying to find false testimony against Jesus so that they could put him to death. 26:60 But they did not find anything, though many false witnesses came forward. Finally 75  two came forward 26:61 and declared, “This man 76  said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and rebuild it in three days.’” 26:62 So 77  the high priest stood up and said to him, “Have you no answer? What is this that they are testifying against you?” 26:63 But Jesus was silent. The 78  high priest said to him, “I charge you under oath by the living God, tell us if you are the Christ, 79  the Son of God.” 26:64 Jesus said to him, “You have said it yourself. But I tell you, from now on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand 80  of the Power 81  and coming on the clouds of heaven.” 82  26:65 Then the high priest tore his clothes and declared, 83  “He has blasphemed! Why do we still need witnesses? Now 84  you have heard the blasphemy! 26:66 What is your verdict?” 85  They 86  answered, “He is guilty and deserves 87  death.” 26:67 Then they spat in his face and struck him with their fists. And some slapped him, 26:68 saying, “Prophesy for us, you Christ! 88  Who hit you?” 89 

Peter’s Denials

26:69 Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard. A 90  slave girl 91  came to him and said, “You also were with Jesus the Galilean.” 26:70 But he denied it in front of them all: 92  “I don’t know what you’re talking about!” 26:71 When 93  he went out to the gateway, another slave girl 94  saw him and said to the people there, “This man was with Jesus the Nazarene.” 26:72 He denied it again with an oath, “I do not know the man!” 26:73 After 95  a little while, those standing there came up to Peter and said, “You really are one of them too – even your accent 96  gives you away!” 26:74 At that he began to curse, and he swore with an oath, “I do not know the man!” At that moment a rooster crowed. 97  26:75 Then Peter remembered what Jesus had said: “Before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” And he went outside and wept bitterly. 98 

Jesus Brought Before Pilate

27:1 When 99  it was early in the morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people plotted against Jesus to execute him. 27:2 They 100  tied him up, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate 101  the governor. 102 

Judas’ Suicide

27:3 Now when 103  Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus 104  had been condemned, he regretted what he had done and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders, 27:4 saying, “I have sinned by betraying innocent blood!” But they said, “What is that to us? You take care of it yourself!” 27:5 So 105  Judas threw the silver coins into the temple and left. Then he went out and hanged himself. 27:6 The 106  chief priests took the silver and said, “It is not lawful to put this into the temple treasury, since it is blood money.” 27:7 After 107  consulting together they bought the Potter’s Field with it, as a burial place for foreigners. 27:8 For this reason that field has been called the “Field of Blood” to this day. 27:9 Then what was spoken by Jeremiah 108  the prophet was fulfilled: “They took the thirty silver coins, the price of the one whose price had been set by the people of Israel, 109  27:10 and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me.” 110 

Jesus and Pilate

27:11 Then 111  Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor asked him, 112  “Are you the king 113  of the Jews?” Jesus 114  said, “You say so.” 115  27:12 But when he was accused by the chief priests and the elders, he did not respond. 27:13 Then Pilate said to him, “Don’t you hear how many charges they are bringing against you?” 27:14 But he did not answer even one accusation, so that the governor was quite amazed.

27:15 During the feast the governor was accustomed to release one prisoner to the crowd, 116  whomever they wanted. 27:16 At that time they had in custody a notorious prisoner named Jesus 117  Barabbas. 27:17 So after they had assembled, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus 118  Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Christ?” 119  27:18 (For he knew that they had handed him over because of envy.) 120  27:19 As 121  he was sitting on the judgment seat, 122  his wife sent a message 123  to him: 124  “Have nothing to do with that innocent man; 125  I have suffered greatly as a result of a dream 126  about him today.” 27:20 But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed. 27:21 The 127  governor asked them, “Which of the two do you want me to release for you?” And they said, “Barabbas!” 27:22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Christ?” 128  They all said, “Crucify him!” 129  27:23 He asked, “Why? What wrong has he done?” But they shouted more insistently, “Crucify him!”

Jesus is Condemned and Mocked

27:24 When 130  Pilate saw that he could do nothing, but that instead a riot was starting, he took some water, washed his hands before the crowd and said, “I am innocent of this man’s blood. You take care of it yourselves!” 131  27:25 In 132  reply all the people said, “Let his blood be on us and on our children!” 27:26 Then he released Barabbas for them. But after he had Jesus flogged, 133  he handed him over 134  to be crucified. 135  27:27 Then the governor’s soldiers took Jesus into the governor’s residence 136  and gathered the whole cohort 137  around him. 27:28 They 138  stripped him and put a scarlet robe 139  around him, 27:29 and after braiding 140  a crown of thorns, 141  they put it on his head. They 142  put a staff 143  in his right hand, and kneeling down before him, they mocked him: 144  “Hail, king of the Jews!” 145  27:30 They 146  spat on him and took the staff 147  and struck him repeatedly 148  on the head. 27:31 When 149  they had mocked him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes back on him. Then 150  they led him away to crucify him.

The Crucifixion

27:32 As 151  they were going out, they found a man from Cyrene named Simon, whom they forced 152  to carry his cross. 153  27:33 They 154  came to a place called Golgotha 155  (which means “Place of the Skull”) 156  27:34 and offered Jesus 157  wine mixed with gall to drink. 158  But after tasting it, he would not drink it. 27:35 When 159  they had crucified 160  him, they divided his clothes by throwing dice. 161  27:36 Then they sat down and kept guard over him there. 27:37 Above 162  his head they put the charge against him, 163  which read: 164  “This is Jesus, the king of the Jews.” 27:38 Then two outlaws were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left. 27:39 Those 165  who passed by defamed him, shaking their heads 27:40 and saying, “You who can destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself! 166  If you are God’s Son, come down 167  from the cross!” 27:41 In 168  the same way even the chief priests – together with the experts in the law 169  and elders 170  – were mocking him: 171  27:42 “He saved others, but he cannot save himself! He is the king of Israel! If he comes down 172  now from the cross, we will believe in him! 27:43 He trusts in God – let God, if he wants to, deliver him now 173  because he said, ‘I am God’s Son’!” 27:44 The 174  robbers who were crucified with him also spoke abusively to him. 175 

Jesus’ Death

27:45 Now from noon until three, 176  darkness came over all the land. 177  27:46 At 178  about three o’clock Jesus shouted with a loud voice, 179 Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” 180  27:47 When 181  some of the bystanders heard it, they said, “This man is calling for Elijah.” 27:48 Immediately 182  one of them ran and got a sponge, filled it with sour wine, 183  put it on a stick, 184  and gave it to him to drink. 27:49 But the rest said, “Leave him alone! Let’s see if Elijah will come to save him.” 185  27:50 Then Jesus cried out again with a loud voice and gave up his spirit. 27:51 Just then 186  the temple curtain 187  was torn in two, from top to bottom. The 188  earth shook and the rocks were split apart. 27:52 And tombs were opened, and the bodies of many saints who had died 189  were raised. 27:53 (They 190  came out of the tombs after his resurrection and went into the holy city and appeared to many people.) 27:54 Now when the centurion 191  and those with him who were guarding Jesus saw the earthquake and what took place, they were extremely terrified and said, “Truly this one was God’s Son!” 27:55 Many 192  women who had followed Jesus from Galilee and given him support 193  were also there, watching from a distance. 27:56 Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.

Jesus’ Burial

27:57 Now 194  when it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who was also a disciple of Jesus. 195  27:58 He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. 196  Then Pilate ordered that it be given to him. 27:59 Joseph 197  took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 198  27:60 and placed it 199  in his own new tomb that he had cut in the rock. 200  Then he rolled a great stone across the entrance 201  of the tomb and went away. 27:61 (Now Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were sitting there, opposite the tomb.)

The Guard at the Tomb

27:62 The 202  next day (which is after the day of preparation) the chief priests and the Pharisees 203  assembled before Pilate 27:63 and said, “Sir, we remember that while that deceiver was still alive he said, ‘After three days I will rise again.’ 27:64 So give orders to secure the tomb until the third day. Otherwise his disciples may come and steal his body 204  and say to the people, ‘He has been raised from the dead,’ and the last deception will be worse than the first.” 27:65 Pilate said to them, “Take 205  a guard of soldiers. Go and make it as secure as you can.” 27:66 So 206  they went with the soldiers 207  of the guard and made the tomb secure by sealing the stone.

1 tn Grk “And it happened when.” The introductory phrase καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto, “it happened that”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

2 tn Or “will be delivered up.”

3 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.

4 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

5 sn The suggestion here is that Jesus was too popular to openly arrest him.

6 sn A jar made of alabaster stone was normally used for very precious substances like perfumes. It normally had a long neck which was sealed and had to be broken off so the contents could be used.

7 tn Μύρον (muron) was usually made of myrrh (from which the English word is derived) but here it is used in the sense of ointment or perfumed oil (L&N 6.205).

sn Nard or spikenard is a fragrant oil from the root and spike of the nard plant of northern India. This perfumed oil, if made of something like nard, would have been extremely expensive, costing up to a year’s pay for an average laborer.

8 tn Grk “as he was reclining at table.”

sn 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

9 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

10 tn Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.

11 tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied (as the proceeds from the sale of the perfumed oil).

12 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

13 tn Grk “For she.” Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.

14 tn In the Greek text of this clause, “me” is in emphatic position (the first word in the clause). To convey some impression of the emphasis, an exclamation point is used in the translation.

15 tn Grk “For when.” Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.

16 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

17 tn Grk “What will you give to me, and I will betray him to you?”

18 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

19 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

20 tn The words “the feast of” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.

21 tn Grk “the disciples came to Jesus, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.

22 sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 26:20). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.

23 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

24 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

25 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

26 tn Grk “he was reclining at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

27 tc Many witnesses, some of them important, have μαθητῶν (maqhtwn, “disciples”; א A L W Δ Θ 33 892 1241 1424 pm lat) or μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ (maqhtwn autou, “his disciples”; 0281 pc it) after δώδεκα (dwdeka, “twelve”). However, such clarifications are typical scribal expansions to the text. Further, the shorter reading (the one that ends with δώδεκα) has strong support in Ì37vid,45vid B D K Γ Ë1,13 565 579 700 pm. Thus both internally and externally the reading that ends the verse with “the twelve” is to be preferred.

28 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

29 tn Or “will hand me over.”

30 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

31 tn The participle λυπούμενοι (lupoumenoi) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.

32 tn Grk “answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

33 sn The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me. The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

34 tn Grk “answering, Judas.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to reflect the sequence of events in the narrative.

35 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

36 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

37 tn Grk “for this is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many.” In order to avoid confusion about which is poured out, the translation supplies “blood” twice so that the following phrase clearly modifies “blood,” not “covenant.”

38 tc Although most witnesses read καινῆς (kainhs, “new”) here, this is evidently motivated by the parallel in Luke 22:20. Apart from the possibility of homoioteleuton, there is no good reason for the shorter reading to have arisen later on. But since it is found in such good and diverse witnesses (e.g., Ì37,45vid א B L Z Θ 0298vid 33 pc mae), the likelihood of homoioteleuton becomes rather remote.

sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.

39 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

40 tn Grk “produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

41 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

42 sn After singing a hymn. The Hallel Psalms (Pss 113-118) were sung during the meal. Psalms 113 and 114 were sung just before the second cup and 115-118 were sung at the end of the meal, after the fourth, or hallel cup.

43 sn A quotation from Zech 13:7.

44 tn Grk “answering, Peter said to him.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

45 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

46 tn Grk “ground, praying and saying.” Here the participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

47 tn Grk “if it is possible.”

48 sn This cup alludes to the wrath of God that Jesus would experience (in the form of suffering and death) for us. See Ps 11:6; 75:8-9; Isa 51:17, 19, 22 for this figure.

49 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

50 tn Grk “saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.

51 tn Grk “this”; the referent (the cup) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

52 tn Grk “because their eyes were weighed down,” an idiom for becoming extremely or excessively sleepy (L&N 23.69).

53 tn Grk “the one who betrays me.”

54 tn Grk “behold, Judas.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

55 tn Grk “the one who betrays him.”

56 tn Grk “The one I kiss is he.”

57 sn This remark is parenthetical within the narrative and has thus been placed in parentheses.

58 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

59 sn Judas’ act of betrayal when he kissed Jesus is especially sinister when it is realized that it was common in the culture of the times for a disciple to kiss his master when greeting him.

60 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

61 tn Grk “and put their hands on Jesus.”

62 tn Grk “And behold one.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

63 tn Grk “extending his hand, drew out his sword, and struck.” Because rapid motion is implied in the circumstances, the translation “grabbed” was used.

64 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.

65 tn The translation “put your sword back in its place” for this phrase is given in L&N 85.52.

66 sn A legion was a Roman army unit of about 6,000 soldiers, so twelve legions would be 72,000.

67 tn Or “a revolutionary.” This term can refer to one who stirs up rebellion: BDAG 594 s.v. λῃστής 2 has “revolutionary, insurrectionist, guerrilla” citing evidence from Josephus (J. W. 2.13.2-3 [2.253-254]). However, this usage generally postdates Jesus’ time. It does refer to a figure of violence. Luke uses the same term for the highwaymen who attack the traveler in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:30).

68 tn Grk “and” (καί, kai), a conjunction that is elastic enough to be used to indicate a contrast, as here.

69 tn Grk “But so that”; the verb “has happened” is implied.

70 tn Grk “where.”

71 tn Or “where the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.

72 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

73 sn The guards would have been the guards of the chief priests who had accompanied Judas to arrest Jesus.

74 tn Grk “Now the.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

75 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

76 tn Grk “This one.”

77 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the false testimony.

78 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

79 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.

80 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1. This is a claim that Jesus shares authority with God in heaven. Those present may have thought they were his judges, but, in fact, the reverse was true.

81 sn The expression the right hand of the Power is a circumlocution for referring to God. Such indirect references to God were common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.

82 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13 (see also Matt 24:30).

83 tn Grk “the high priest tore his clothes, saying.”

84 tn Grk “Behold now.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

85 tn Grk “What do you think?”

86 tn Grk “answering, they said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

87 tn Grk “he is guilty of death.” L&N 88.313 states, “pertaining to being guilty and thus deserving some particular penalty – ‘guilty and deserving, guilty and punishable by.’ οἱ δὲ ἀποκριθέντες εἶπαν, ᾿Ενοχος θανάτου ἐστίν ‘they answered, He is guilty and deserves death’ Mt 26:66.”

88 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.

89 tn Grk “Who is the one who hit you?”

sn Who hit you? This is a variation of one of three ancient games that involved blindfolds.

90 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

91 tn The Greek term here is παιδίσκη (paidiskh), referring to a slave girl or slave woman.

92 tn Grk “he denied it…saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

93 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

94 tn The words “slave girl” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the feminine singular form ἄλλη (allh).

95 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

96 tn Grk “your speech.”

97 tn It seems most likely that this refers to a real rooster crowing, although a number of scholars have suggested that “cockcrow” is a technical term referring to the trumpet call which ended the third watch of the night (from midnight to 3 a.m.). This would then be a reference to the Roman gallicinium (ἀλεκτοροφωνία, alektorofwnia; the term is used in Mark 13:35 and is found in some mss [Ì37vid,45 Ë1] in Matt 26:34) which would have been sounded at 3 a.m.; in this case Jesus would have prophesied a precise time by which the denials would have taken place. For more details see J. H. Bernard, St. John (ICC), 2:604. However, in light of the fact that Mark mentions the rooster crowing twice (Mark 14:72) and in Luke 22:60 the words are reversed (ἐφώνησεν ἀλέκτωρ, efwnhsen alektwr), it is more probable that a real rooster is in view. In any event natural cockcrow would have occurred at approximately 3 a.m. in Palestine at this time of year (March-April) anyway.

98 sn When Peter went out and wept bitterly it shows he really did not want to fail here and was deeply grieved that he had.

99 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

100 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

101 tc Most mss (A C W Θ 0250 Ë1,13 Ï latt) have Ποντίῳ (Pontiw, “Pontius”) before Πιλάτῳ (Pilatw, “Pilate”), but there seems to be no reason for omitting the tribal name, either intentionally or unintentionally. Adding “Pontius,” however, is a natural expansion on the text, and is in keeping with several other NT and patristic references to the Roman governor (cf. Luke 3:1; Acts 4:27; 1 Tim 6:13; Ign. Magn. 11.1; Ign. Trall. 9.1; Ign. Smyrn. 1.2; Justin Martyr, passim). The shorter reading, supported by א B L 0281 33 pc co, is thus strongly preferred.

102 sn The Jews most assuredly wanted to put Jesus to death, but they lacked the authority to do so. For this reason they handed him over to Pilate in hopes of securing a death sentence. The Romans kept close control of the death penalty in conquered territories to prevent it from being used to execute Roman sympathizers.

103 tn Grk “Then when.” Here τότε (tote) has been translated as “now” to indicate a somewhat parenthetical interlude in the sequence of events.

104 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

105 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the leaders’ response to Judas.

106 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

107 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

108 tc The problematic citing of Jeremiah for a text which appears to come from Zechariah has prompted certain scribes to alter it. Codex 22 has Ζαχαρίου (Zacariou, “Zechariah”) while Φ 33 omit the prophet’s name altogether. And codex 21 and the Latin ms l change the prophet’s name to “Isaiah,” in accordance with natural scribal proclivities to alter the text toward the most prominent OT prophet. But unquestionably the name Jeremiah is the wording of the original here, because it is supported by virtually all witnesses and because it is the harder reading. See D. A. Carson, “Matthew,” EBC 8:562-63, for a discussion of the textual and especially hermeneutical problem.

109 tn Grk “the sons of Israel,” an idiom referring to the people of Israel as an ethnic entity (L&N 11.58).

110 sn The source of this citation is debated (see the tc note on Jeremiah in v. 9 above for a related discussion). The quotation is most closely related to Zech 11:12-13, but the reference to Jeremiah in v. 9 as the source leads one to look there as well. There is no exact match for this text in Jeremiah, but there are some conceptual parallels: In Jer 18:2-6 the prophet visits a potter, and in Jer 32:6-15 he buys a field. D. A. Carson argues that Jer 19:1-13 is the source of the quotation augmented with various phrases drawn from Zech 11:12-13 (“Matthew,” EBC 8:563). W. D. Davies and D. C. Allison argue that the reference to Jeremiah is not meant to refer to one specific text from that prophet, but instead to signal that his writings as a whole are a source from which the quotation is drawn (Matthew [ICC], 3:568-69). Although the exact source of the citation is uncertain, it is reasonable to see texts from the books of Jeremiah and Zechariah both coming into play here.

111 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

112 tn Grk “asked him, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

113 snAre you the king of the Jews?” Pilate was interested in this charge because of its political implications of sedition against Rome.

114 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

115 sn The reply “You say so” is somewhat enigmatic, like Jesus’ earlier reply to the Jewish leadership in 26:64.

116 sn The custom of Pilate to release one prisoner is unknown outside the gospels in Jewish writings, but it was a Roman custom at the time and thus probably used in Palestine as well (cf. Matt 27:15; John 18:39).

117 tc Although the external evidence for the inclusion of “Jesus” before “Barabbas” (in vv. 16 and 17) is rather sparse, being restricted virtually to the Caesarean text (Θ Ë1 700* pc sys), the omission of the Lord’s name in apposition to “Barabbas” is such a strongly motivated reading that it can hardly be original. There is no good explanation for a scribe unintentionally adding ᾿Ιησοῦν (Ihsoun) before Βαραββᾶν (Barabban), especially since Barabbas is mentioned first in each verse (thus dittography is ruled out). Further, the addition of τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν (ton legomenon Criston, “who is called Christ”) to ᾿Ιησοῦν in v. 17 makes better sense if Barabbas is also called “Jesus” (otherwise, a mere “Jesus” would have been a sufficient appellation to distinguish the two).

118 tc Again, as in v. 16, the name “Jesus” is supplied before “Barabbas” in Θ Ë1 700* pc sys Ormss (Θ 700* lack the article τόν [ton] before Βαραββᾶν [Barabban]). The same argument for accepting the inclusion of “Jesus” as original in the previous verse applies here as well.

119 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.

120 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

121 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

122 tn Or “the judge’s seat.”

sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bhma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and usually furnished with a seat. It was used by officials in addressing an assembly or making official pronouncements, often of a judicial nature.

123 tn The word “message” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

124 tn Grk “saying.” The participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.

125 tn The Greek particle γάρ (gar, “for”) has not been translated here.

126 tn Or “suffered greatly in a dream.” See the discussion on the construction κατ᾿ ὄναρ (katonar) in BDAG 710 s.v. ὄναρ.

127 tn Grk “answering, the governor said to them.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

128 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.

129 tn Grk “Him – be crucified!” The third person imperative is difficult to translate because English has no corresponding third person form for the imperative. The traditional translation “Let him be crucified” sounds as if the crowd is giving consent or permission. “He must be crucified” is closer, but it is more natural in English to convert the passive to active and simply say “Crucify him.”

sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.

130 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

131 sn You take care of it yourselves! Compare the response of the chief priests and elders to Judas in 27:4. The expression is identical except that in 27:4 it is singular and here it is plural.

132 tn Grk “answering, all the people said.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.

133 tn The Greek term φραγελλόω (fragellow) refers to flogging. BDAG 1064 s.v. states, “flog, scourge, a punishment inflicted on slaves and provincials after a sentence of death had been pronounced on them. So in the case of Jesus before the crucifixion…Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15.”

sn A Roman flogging (traditionally, “scourging”) was an excruciating punishment. The victim was stripped of his clothes and bound to a post with his hands fastened above him (or sometimes he was thrown to the ground). Guards standing on either side of the victim would incessantly beat him with a whip (flagellum) made out of leather with pieces of lead and bone inserted into its ends. While the Jews only allowed 39 lashes, the Romans had no such limit; many people who received such a beating died as a result. See C. Schneider, TDNT, 515-19.

134 tn Or “delivered him up.”

135 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.

136 tn Or “into their headquarters”; Grk “into the praetorium.”

sn The governor’s residence (Grk “praetorium”) was the Roman governor’s official residence. The one in Jerusalem may have been Herod’s palace in the western part of the city, or the fortress Antonia northwest of the temple area.

137 sn A Roman cohort was a tenth of a legion, about 500-600 soldiers.

138 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

139 sn The scarlet robe probably refers to a military garment which had the color of royal purple, and thus resembled a king’s robe. The soldiers did this to Jesus as a form of mockery in view of the charges that he was a king.

140 tn Or “weaving.”

141 sn The crown may have been made from palm spines or some other thorny plant common in Israel. In placing the crown of thorns on his head, the soldiers were unwittingly symbolizing God’s curse on humanity (cf. Gen 3:18) being placed on Jesus. Their purpose would have been to mock Jesus’ claim to be a king; the crown of thorns would have represented the “radiant corona” portrayed on the heads of rulers on coins and other artifacts in the 1st century.

142 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

143 tn Or “a reed.” The Greek term can mean either “staff” or “reed.” See BDAG 502 s.v. κάλαμος 2.

144 tn Grk “they mocked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated.

145 tn Or “Long live the King of the Jews!”

sn The statement Hail, King of the Jews! is a mockery patterned after the Romans’ cry of Ave, Caesar (“Hail, Caesar!”).

146 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

147 tn Or “the reed.”

148 tn The verb here has been translated as an iterative imperfect.

149 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

150 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

151 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

152 tn Or “conscripted”; or “pressed into service.”

153 sn Jesus was beaten severely with a whip before this (the prelude to crucifixion, known to the Romans as verberatio, mentioned in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1), so he would have been weak from trauma and loss of blood. Apparently he was unable to bear the cross himself, so Simon was conscripted to help (in all probability this was only the crossbeam, called in Latin the patibulum, since the upright beam usually remained in the ground at the place of execution). Cyrene was located in North Africa where Tripoli is today. Nothing more is known about this Simon. Mark 15:21 names him as father of two people apparently known to Mark’s audience.

154 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

155 tn This is an Aramaic name; see John 19:17.

156 sn A place called Golgotha (which means “Place of the Skull”). This location is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for the Greek term κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” is derived (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).

157 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

158 sn It is difficult to say for certain who gave Jesus this drink of wine mixed with gall (e.g., the executioner, or perhaps women from Jerusalem). In any case, whoever gave it to him most likely did so in order to relieve his pain, but Jesus was unwilling to take it.

159 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

160 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.

161 tn Grk “by throwing the lot” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent, “throwing dice,” was chosen here because of its association with gambling. According to L&N 6.219 a term for “dice” is particularly appropriate.

sn An allusion to Ps 22:18.

162 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

163 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.

164 tn Grk “was written.”

165 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

166 sn There is rich irony in the statements of those who were passing by, “save yourself!” and “come down from the cross!” In summary, they wanted Jesus to come down from the cross and save his physical life, but it was indeed his staying on the cross and giving his physical life that led to the fact that they could experience a resurrection from death to life.

167 tc ‡ Many important witnesses (א* A D pc it sy[s],p) read καί (kai, here with the force of “then”) before κατάβηθι (katabhqi, “come down”). The shorter reading may well be due to homoioarcton, but judging by the diverse external evidence (א2 B L W Θ 0250 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat) it is equally possible that the shorter reading is original (and is so considered for this translation). NA27 puts the καί in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

168 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

169 tn Or “with the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.

170 tn Only “chief priests” is in the nominative case; this sentence structure attempts to capture this emphasis.

171 tn Grk “Mocking him, the chief priests…said.”

172 tn Here the aorist imperative καταβάτω (katabatw) has been translated as a conditional imperative. This fits the pattern of other conditional imperatives (imperative + καί + future indicative) outlined by ExSyn 489.

173 sn An allusion to Ps 22:8.

174 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

175 sn Matthew’s wording suggests that both of the criminals spoke abusively to him. If so, one of them quickly changed his attitude toward Jesus (see Luke 23:40-43).

176 tn Grk “from the sixth hour to the ninth hour.”

177 sn This imagery has parallels to the Day of the Lord: Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Zeph 1:15.

178 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

179 tn Grk “with a loud voice, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.

180 sn A quotation from Ps 22:1.

181 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

182 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

183 sn Sour wine refers to cheap wine that was called in Latin posca, a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and was probably there for the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion.

184 tn Grk “a reed.”

185 tc Early and important mss (א B C L Γ pc) have another sentence at the end of this verse: “And another [soldier] took a spear and pierced him in the side, and water and blood flowed out.” This comment finds such a strong parallel in John 19:34 that it was undoubtedly lifted from the Fourth Gospel by early, well-meaning scribes and inserted into Matt 27:49. Consequently, even though the support for the shorter reading (A D W Θ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat sy sa bo) is not nearly as impressive, internal considerations on its behalf are compelling.

186 tn Grk “And behold.”

187 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up. It also pictures a judgment that includes the sacrifices.

188 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

189 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaw) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.

190 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

191 sn See the note on the word centurion in Matt 8:5.

192 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

193 tn Grk “and ministered to him.”

sn Cf. Luke 8:3.

194 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

195 sn Though some dispute that Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Jesus, his actions regarding Jesus’ burial suggest otherwise.

196 sn Asking for the body of Jesus was indeed a bold move on the part of Joseph of Arimathea, for it clearly and openly identified him with a man who had just been condemned and executed, namely, Jesus. His faith is exemplary, especially for someone who was a member of the council that handed Jesus over for crucifixion (cf. Mark 15:43, Luke 23:51). He did this because he sought to give Jesus an honorable burial.

197 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

198 tn The term σινδών (sindwn) can refer to a linen cloth used either for clothing or for burial.

199 tcαὐτό (auto, “it”) is found after ἔθηκεν (eqhken, “placed”) in the majority of witnesses, including many important ones, though it seems to be motivated by a need for clarification and cannot therefore easily explain the rise of the shorter reading (which is read by א L Θ Ë13 33 892 pc). Regardless of which reading is original (though with a slight preference for the shorter reading), English style requires the pronoun. NA27 includes αὐτό here, no doubt due to the overwhelming external attestation.

200 tn That is, cut or carved into an outcropping of natural rock, resulting in a cave-like structure (see L&N 19.25).

201 tn Or “to the door,” “against the door.”

202 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

203 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

204 tn Grk “him.”

205 tn Grk “You have a guard.”

206 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Pilate’s order.

207 tn Grk “with the guard.” The words “soldiers of the” have been supplied in the translation to prevent “guard” from being misunderstood as a single individual.



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