23:31 By saying this you testify against yourselves that you are descendants of those who murdered the prophets. 23:32 Fill up then the measure of your ancestors! 23:33 You snakes, you offspring of vipers! How will you escape being condemned to hell? 1
23:34 “For this reason I 2 am sending you prophets and wise men and experts in the law, 3 some of whom you will kill and crucify, 4 and some you will flog 5 in your synagogues 6 and pursue from town to town, 23:35 so that on you will come all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Barachiah, 7 whom you murdered between the temple and the altar.
23:37 “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 8 you who kill the prophets and stone those who are sent to you! 9 How often I have longed 10 to gather your children together as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but 11 you would have none of it! 12
1 tn Grk “the judgment of Gehenna.”
sn See the note on the word hell in 5:22.
5 tn BDAG 620 s.v. μαστιγόω 1.a states, “of flogging as a punishment decreed by the synagogue (Dt 25:2f; s. the Mishna Tractate Sanhedrin-Makkoth, edited w. notes by SKrauss ’33) w. acc. of pers. Mt 10:17; 23:34.”
7 sn Spelling of this name (Βαραχίου, Baraciou) varies among the English versions: “Barachiah” (RSV, NRSV); “Berechiah” (NASB); “Berachiah” (NIV).
8 sn The double use of the city’s name betrays intense emotion.
9 tn Although the opening address (“Jerusalem, Jerusalem”) is direct (second person), the remainder of this sentence in the Greek text is third person (“who kills the prophets and stones those sent to her”). The following sentences then revert to second person (“your… you”), so to keep all this consistent in English, the third person pronouns in the present verse were translated as second person (“you who kill… sent to you”).
10 sn How often I have longed to gather your children. Jesus, like a lamenting prophet, speaks for God here, who longed to care tenderly for Israel and protect her.
11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
12 tn Grk “you were not willing.”