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Matthew 22:1-46

Context
The Parable of the Wedding Banquet

22:1 Jesus spoke 1  to them again in parables, saying: 22:2 “The kingdom of heaven can be compared to a king who gave a wedding banquet for his son. 22:3 He sent his slaves 2  to summon those who had been invited to the banquet, but they would not come. 22:4 Again he sent other slaves, saying, ‘Tell those who have been invited, “Look! The feast I have prepared for you is ready. 3  My oxen and fattened cattle have been slaughtered, and everything is ready. Come to the wedding banquet.”’ 22:5 But they were indifferent and went away, one to his farm, another to his business. 22:6 The 4  rest seized his slaves, insolently mistreated them, and killed them. 22:7 The 5  king was furious! He sent his soldiers, and they put those murderers to death 6  and set their city 7  on fire. 22:8 Then he said to his slaves, ‘The wedding is ready, but the ones who had been invited were not worthy. 22:9 So go into the main streets and invite everyone you find to the wedding banquet.’ 22:10 And those slaves went out into the streets and gathered all they found, both bad and good, and the wedding hall was filled with guests. 22:11 But when the king came in to see the wedding guests, he saw a man there who was not wearing wedding clothes. 22:12 And he said to him, ‘Friend, how did you get in here without wedding clothes?’ But he had nothing to say. 8  22:13 Then the king said to his attendants, ‘Tie him up hand and foot and throw him into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth!’ 22:14 For many are called, but few are chosen.”

Paying Taxes to Caesar

22:15 Then the Pharisees 9  went out and planned together to entrap him with his own words. 10  22:16 They sent to him their disciples along with the Herodians, 11  saying, “Teacher, we know that you are truthful, and teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. 12  You do not court anyone’s favor because you show no partiality. 13  22:17 Tell us then, what do you think? Is it right 14  to pay taxes 15  to Caesar 16  or not?”

22:18 But Jesus realized their evil intentions and said, “Hypocrites! Why are you testing me? 22:19 Show me the coin used for the tax.” So 17  they brought him a denarius. 18  22:20 Jesus 19  said to them, “Whose image 20  is this, and whose inscription?” 22:21 They replied, 21  “Caesar’s.” He said to them, 22  “Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” 23  22:22 Now when they heard this they were stunned, 24  and they left him and went away.

Marriage and the Resurrection

22:23 The same day Sadducees 25  (who say there is no resurrection) 26  came to him and asked him, 27  22:24 “Teacher, Moses said, ‘If a man dies without having children, his brother must marry the widow and father children 28  for his brother.’ 29  22:25 Now there were seven brothers among us. The first one married and died, and since he had no children he left his wife to his brother. 22:26 The second did the same, and the third, down to the seventh. 22:27 Last 30  of all, the woman died. 22:28 In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife of the seven will she be? For they all had married her.” 31  22:29 Jesus 32  answered them, “You are deceived, 33  because you don’t know the scriptures or the power of God. 22:30 For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels 34  in heaven. 22:31 Now as for the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was spoken to you by God, 35  22:32I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? 36  He is not the God of the dead but of the living!” 37  22:33 When the crowds heard this, they were amazed at his teaching.

The Greatest Commandment

22:34 Now when the Pharisees 38  heard that he had silenced the Sadducees, 39  they assembled together. 40  22:35 And one of them, an expert in religious law, 41  asked him a question to test 42  him: 22:36 “Teacher, which commandment in the law is the greatest?” 43  22:37 Jesus 44  said to him, “‘Love 45  the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.’ 46  22:38 This is the first and greatest 47  commandment. 22:39 The second is like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’ 48  22:40 All the law and the prophets depend 49  on these two commandments.”

The Messiah: David’s Son and Lord

22:41 While 50  the Pharisees 51  were assembled, Jesus asked them a question: 52  22:42 “What do you think about the Christ? 53  Whose son is he?” They said, “The son of David.” 54  22:43 He said to them, “How then does David by the Spirit call him ‘Lord,’ saying,

22:44The Lord said to my lord, 55 

Sit at my right hand,

until I put your enemies under your feet”’? 56 

22:45 If David then calls him ‘Lord,’ how can he be his son?” 57  22:46 No one 58  was able to answer him a word, and from that day on no one dared to question him any longer.

Matthew 6:1-34

Context
Pure-hearted Giving

6:1 “Be 59  careful not to display your righteousness merely to be seen by people. 60  Otherwise you have no reward with your Father in heaven. 6:2 Thus whenever you do charitable giving, 61  do not blow a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in synagogues 62  and on streets so that people will praise them. I tell you the truth, 63  they have their reward. 6:3 But when you do your giving, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, 6:4 so that your gift may be in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 64 

Private Prayer

6:5 “Whenever you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, because they love to pray while standing in synagogues 65  and on street corners so that people can see them. Truly I say to you, they have their reward. 6:6 But whenever you pray, go into your room, 66  close the door, and pray to your Father in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 67  6:7 When 68  you pray, do not babble repetitiously like the Gentiles, because they think that by their many words they will be heard. 6:8 Do 69  not be like them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him. 6:9 So pray this way: 70 

Our Father 71  in heaven, may your name be honored, 72 

6:10 may your kingdom come, 73 

may your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.

6:11 Give us today our daily bread, 74 

6:12 and forgive us our debts, as we ourselves 75  have forgiven our debtors.

6:13 And do not lead us into temptation, 76  but deliver us from the evil one. 77 

6:14 “For if you forgive others 78  their sins, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6:15 But if you do not forgive others, your Father will not forgive you your sins.

Proper Fasting

6:16 “When 79  you fast, do not look sullen like the hypocrites, for they make their faces unattractive 80  so that people will see them fasting. I tell you the truth, 81  they have their reward. 6:17 When 82  you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, 6:18 so that it will not be obvious to others when you are fasting, but only to your Father who is in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you.

Lasting Treasure

6:19 “Do not accumulate for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth 83  and rust destroy and where thieves break in and steal. 6:20 But accumulate for yourselves treasures in heaven, where moth and rust do not destroy, and thieves do not break in and steal. 6:21 For where your 84  treasure 85  is, there your heart will be also.

6:22 “The eye is the lamp of the body. If then your eye is healthy, 86  your whole body will be full of light. 6:23 But if your eye is diseased, 87  your whole body will be full of darkness. If then the light in you is darkness, how great is the darkness!

6:24 “No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate 88  the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise 89  the other. You cannot serve God and money. 90 

Do Not Worry

6:25 “Therefore I tell you, do not worry 91  about your life, what you will eat or drink, or about your body, what you will wear. Isn’t there more to life than food and more to the body than clothing? 6:26 Look at the birds in the sky: 92  They do not sow, or reap, or gather into barns, yet your heavenly Father feeds 93  them. Aren’t you more valuable 94  than they are? 6:27 And which of you by worrying can add even one hour to his life? 95  6:28 Why do you worry about clothing? Think about how the flowers 96  of the field grow; they do not work 97  or spin. 6:29 Yet I tell you that not even Solomon in all his glory was clothed like one of these! 6:30 And if this is how God clothes the wild grass, 98  which is here today and tomorrow is tossed into the fire to heat the oven, 99  won’t he clothe you even more, 100  you people of little faith? 6:31 So then, don’t worry saying, ‘What will we eat?’ or ‘What will we drink?’ or ‘What will we wear?’ 6:32 For the unconverted 101  pursue these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them. 6:33 But above all pursue his kingdom 102  and righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well. 6:34 So then, do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Today has enough trouble of its own. 103 

1 tn Grk “And answering again, Jesus spoke.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.

2 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.

3 tn Grk “Behold, I have prepared my dinner.” In some contexts, however, to translate ἄριστον (ariston) as “dinner” somewhat misses the point. L&N 23.22 here suggests, “See now, the feast I have prepared (for you is ready).”

4 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

5 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

6 tn Grk “he sent his soldiers, destroyed those murderers.” The verb ἀπώλεσεν (apwlesen) is causative, indicating that the king was the one behind the execution of the murderers. In English the causative idea is not expressed naturally here; either a purpose clause (“he sent his soldiers to put those murderers to death”) or a relative clause (“he sent his soldier who put those murderers to death”) is preferred.

7 tn The Greek text reads here πόλις (polis), which could be translated “town” or “city.” The prophetic reference is to the city of Jerusalem, so “city” is more appropriate here.

8 tn Grk “he was silent.”

9 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

10 tn Grk “trap him in word.”

11 sn The Herodians are mentioned in the NT only once in Matt (22:16 = Mark 12:13) and twice in Mark (3:6; 12:13; some mss also read “Herodians” instead of “Herod” in Mark 8:15). It is generally assumed that as a group the Herodians were Jewish supporters of the Herodian dynasty (or of Herod Antipas in particular). In every instance they are linked with the Pharisees. This probably reflects agreement regarding political objectives (nationalism as opposed to submission to the yoke of Roman oppression) rather than philosophy or religious beliefs.

12 sn Teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. Very few comments are as deceitful as this one; they did not really believe this at all. The question of the Pharisees and Herodians was specifically designed to trap Jesus.

13 tn Grk “And it is not a concern to you about anyone because you do not see the face of men.”

14 tn Or “lawful,” that is, in accordance with God’s divine law. On the syntax of ἔξεστιν (exestin) with an infinitive and accusative, see BDF §409.3.

15 tn According to L&N 57.180 the term κῆνσος (khnso") was borrowed from Latin and referred to a poll tax, a tax paid by each adult male to the Roman government.

sn This question concerning taxes was specifically designed to trap Jesus. If he answered yes, then his opponents could publicly discredit him as a sympathizer with Rome. If he answered no, then they could go to the Roman governor and accuse Jesus of rebellion.

16 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

17 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate their response to Jesus’ request for a coin.

18 tn Here the specific name of the coin was retained in the translation, because not all coins in circulation in Palestine at the time carried the image of Caesar. In other places δηνάριον (dhnarion) has been translated simply as “silver coin” with an explanatory note.

sn A denarius was a silver coin worth approximately one day’s wage for a laborer. The fact that they had such a coin showed that they already operated in the economic world of Rome. The denarius would have had a picture of Tiberius Caesar stamped on it.

19 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

20 tn Or “whose likeness.”

sn In this passage Jesus points to the image (Grk εἰκών, eikwn) of Caesar on the coin. This same Greek word is used in Gen 1:26 (LXX) to state that humanity is made in the “image” of God. Jesus is making a subtle yet powerful contrast: Caesar’s image is on the denarius, so he can lay claim to money through taxation, but God’s image is on humanity, so he can lay claim to each individual life.

21 tn Grk “they said to him.”

22 tn Grk “then he said to them.” τότε (tote) has not been translated to avoid redundancy.

23 sn Jesus’ answer to give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s was a both/and, not the questioners’ either/or. So he slipped out of their trap.

24 tn Grk “they were amazed; they marveled.”

25 sn See the note on Sadducees in 3:7.

26 sn This remark is best regarded as a parenthetical note by the author.

27 tn Grk “and asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

28 tn Grk “and raise up seed,” an idiom for fathering children (L&N 23.59).

29 sn A quotation from Deut 25:5. This practice is called levirate marriage (see also Ruth 4:1-12; Mishnah, m. Yevamot; Josephus, Ant. 4.8.23 [4.254-256]). The levirate law is described in Deut 25:5-10. The brother of a man who died without a son had an obligation to marry his brother’s widow. This served several purposes: It provided for the widow in a society where a widow with no children to care for her would be reduced to begging, and it preserved the name of the deceased, who would be regarded as the legal father of the first son produced from that marriage.

30 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

31 tn Grk “For all had her.”

32 tn Grk “And answering, Jesus said to them.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

33 tn Or “mistaken” (cf. BDAG 822 s.v. πλανάω 2.c.γ).

34 tc Most witnesses have “of God” after “angels,” although some mss read ἄγγελοι θεοῦ (angeloi qeou; א L Ë13 {28} 33 892 1241 1424 al) while others have ἄγγελοι τοῦ θεοῦ (angeloi tou qeou; W 0102 0161 Ï). Whether with or without the article, the reading “of God” appears to be motivated as a natural expansion. A few important witnesses lack the adjunct (B D Θ {0233} Ë1 700 {sa}); this coupled with strong internal evidence argues for the shorter reading.

sn Angels do not die, nor do they eat according to Jewish tradition (1 En. 15:6; 51:4; Wis 5:5; 2 Bar. 51:10; 1QH 3.21-23).

35 tn Grk “spoken to you by God, saying.” The participle λέγοντος (legontos) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.

36 sn A quotation from Exod 3:6.

37 sn He is not God of the dead but of the living. Jesus’ point was that if God could identify himself as God of the three old patriarchs, then they must still be alive when God spoke to Moses; and so they must be raised.

38 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

39 sn See the note on Sadducees in 3:7.

40 tn Grk “for the same.” That is, for the same purpose that the Sadducees had of testing Jesus.

41 tn Traditionally, “a lawyer.” This was an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law.

42 tn Grk “testing.” The participle, however, is telic in force.

43 tn Or possibly “What sort of commandment in the law is great?”

44 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

45 tn Grk “You will love.” The future indicative is used here with imperatival force (see ExSyn 452 and 569).

46 sn A quotation from Deut 6:5. The threefold reference to different parts of the person says, in effect, that one should love God with all one’s being.

47 tn Grk “the great and first.”

48 sn A quotation from Lev 19:18.

49 tn Grk “hang.” The verb κρεμάννυμι (kremannumi) is used here with a figurative meaning (cf. BDAG 566 s.v. 2.b).

50 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

51 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

52 tn Grk “asked them a question, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is somewhat redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.

53 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.

54 sn It was a common belief in Judaism that Messiah would be the son of David in that he would come from the lineage of David. On this point the Pharisees agreed and were correct. But their understanding was nonetheless incomplete, for Messiah is also David’s Lord. With this statement Jesus was affirming that, as the Messiah, he is both God and man.

55 sn The Lord said to my Lord. With David being the speaker, this indicates his respect for his descendant (referred to as my Lord). Jesus was arguing, as the ancient exposition assumed, that the passage is about the Lord’s anointed. The passage looks at an enthronement of this figure and a declaration of honor for him as he takes his place at the side of God. In Jerusalem, the king’s palace was located to the right of the temple to indicate this kind of relationship. Jesus was pressing the language here to get his opponents to reflect on how great Messiah is.

56 sn A quotation from Ps 110:1.

57 tn Grk “how is he his son?”

58 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

59 tc ‡ Several mss (א L Z Θ Ë1 33 892 1241 1424 al) have δέ (de, “but, now”) at the beginning of this verse; the reading without δέ is supported by B D W 0250 Ë13 Ï lat. A decision is difficult, but apparently the conjunction was added by later scribes to indicate a transition in the thought-flow of the Sermon on the Mount. NA27 has δέ in brackets, indicating reservations about its authenticity.

60 tn Grk “before people in order to be seen by them.”

61 tn Grk “give alms,” but this term is not in common use today. The giving of alms was highly regarded in the ancient world (Deut 15:7-11).

62 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:23.

63 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

64 tc L W Θ 0250 Ï it read ἐν τῷ φανερῷ (en tw fanerw, “openly”) at the end of this verse, giving a counterweight to what is done in secret. But this reading is suspect because of the obvious literary balance, because of detouring the point of the passage (the focus of vv. 1-4 is not on two kinds of public rewards but on human vs. divine approbation), and because of superior external testimony that lacks this reading (א B D Z Ë1,13 33 al).

65 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:23.

66 sn The term translated room refers to the inner room of a house, normally without any windows opening outside, the most private location possible (BDAG 988 s.v. ταμεῖον 2).

67 tc See the tc note on “will reward you” in 6:4: The problem is the same and the ms support differs only slightly.

68 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

69 tn Grk “So do not.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.

70 sn Pray this way. What follows, although traditionally known as the Lord’s prayer, is really the disciples’ prayer. It represents how they are to approach God, by acknowledging his uniqueness and their need for his provision and protection.

71 sn God is addressed in terms of intimacy (Father). The original Semitic term here was probably Abba. The term is a little unusual in a personal prayer, especially as it lacks qualification. It is not the exact equivalent of “daddy” (as is sometimes popularly suggested), but it does suggest a close, familial relationship.

72 tn Grk “hallowed be your name.”

73 sn Your kingdom come represents the hope for the full manifestation of God’s promised rule.

74 tn Or “Give us bread today for the coming day,” or “Give us today the bread we need for today.” The term ἐπιούσιος (epiousio") does not occur outside of early Christian literature (other occurrences are in Luke 11:3 and Didache 8:2), so its meaning is difficult to determine. Various suggestions include “daily,” “the coming day,” and “for existence.” See BDAG 376-77 s.v.; L&N 67:183, 206.

75 tn Or “as even we.” The phrase ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς (Jw" kai Jhmei") makes ἡμεῖς emphatic. The translation above adds an appropriate emphasis to the passage.

76 tn Or “into a time of testing.”

sn The request do not lead us into temptation is not to suggest God causes temptation, but is a rhetorical way to ask for his protection from sin.

77 tc Most mss (L W Θ 0233 Ë13 33 Ï sy sa Didache) read (though some with slight variation) ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν (“for yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever, amen”) here. The reading without this sentence, though, is attested by generally better witnesses (א B D Z 0170 Ë1 pc lat mae Or). The phrase was probably composed for the liturgy of the early church and most likely was based on 1 Chr 29:11-13; a scribe probably added the phrase at this point in the text for use in public scripture reading (see TCGNT 13-14). Both external and internal evidence argue for the shorter reading.

tn The term πονηροῦ (ponhrou) may be understood as specific and personified, referring to the devil, or possibly as a general reference to evil. It is most likely personified since it is articular (τοῦ πονηροῦ, tou ponhrou). Cf. also “the evildoer” in 5:39, which is the same construction.

78 tn Here ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense: “people, others.”

79 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

80 tn Here the term “disfigure” used in a number of translations was not used because it could convey to the modern reader the notion of mutilation. L&N 79.17 states, “‘to make unsightly, to disfigure, to make ugly.’ ἀφανίζουσιν γὰρ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν ‘for they make their faces unsightly’ Mt 6:16.”

81 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

82 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

83 tn The term σής (shs) refers to moths in general. It is specifically the larvae of moths that destroy clothing by eating holes in it (L&N 4.49; BDAG 922 s.v.). See Jas 5:2, which mentions “moth-eaten” clothing.

84 tn The pronouns in this verse are singular while the pronouns in vv. 19-20 are plural. The change to singular emphasizes personal responsibility as opposed to corporate responsibility; even if others do not listen, the one who hears Jesus’ commands should obey.

85 sn Seeking heavenly treasure means serving others and honoring God by doing so.

86 tn Or “sound” (so L&N 23.132 and most scholars). A few scholars take this word to mean something like “generous” here (L&N 57.107). partly due to the immediate context concerning money, in which case the “eye” is a metonymy for the entire person (“if you are generous”).

87 tn Or “if your eye is sick” (L&N 23.149).

sn There may be a slight wordplay here, as this term can also mean “evil,” so the figure uses a term that points to the real meaning of being careful as to what one pays attention to or looks at.

88 sn The contrast between hate and love here is rhetorical. The point is that one will choose the favorite if a choice has to be made.

89 tn Or “and treat [the other] with contempt.”

90 tn Grk “God and mammon.”

sn The term money is used to translate mammon, the Aramaic term for wealth or possessions. The point is not that money is inherently evil, but that it is often misused so that it is a means of evil; see 1 Tim 6:6-10, 17-19. God must be first, not money or possessions.

91 tn Or “do not be anxious,” and so throughout the rest of this paragraph.

92 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

93 tn Or “God gives them food to eat.” L&N 23.6 has both “to provide food for” and “to give food to someone to eat.”

94 tn Grk “of more value.”

95 tn Or “a cubit to his height.” A cubit (πῆχυς, phcu") can measure length (normally about 45 cm or 18 inches) or time (a small unit, “hour” is usually used [BDAG 812 s.v.] although “day” has been suggested [L&N 67.151]). The term ἡλικία (Jhlikia) is ambiguous in the same way as πῆχυς (phcus). Most scholars take the term to describe age or length of life here, although a few refer it to bodily stature (see BDAG 436 s.v. 3 for discussion). Worry about length of life seems a more natural figure than worry about height. However, the point either way is clear: Worrying adds nothing to life span or height.

96 tn Traditionally, “lilies.” According to L&N 3.32, “Though traditionally κρίνον has been regarded as a type of lily, scholars have suggested several other possible types of flowers, including an anemone, a poppy, a gladiolus, and a rather inconspicuous type of daisy.” In view of the uncertainty, the more generic “flowers” has been used in the translation.

97 tn Or, traditionally, “toil.” Although it might be argued that “work hard” would be a more precise translation of κοπιάω (kopiaw) here, the line in English reads better in terms of cadence with a single syllable.

98 tn Grk “grass of the field.”

99 tn Grk “into the oven.” The expanded translation “into the fire to heat the oven” has been used to avoid misunderstanding; most items put into modern ovens are put there to be baked, not burned.

sn The oven was most likely a rounded clay oven used for baking bread, which was heated by burning wood and dried grass.

100 sn The phrase even more is a typical form of rabbinic argumentation, from the lesser to the greater. If God cares for the little things, surely he will care for the more important things.

101 tn Or “unbelievers”; Grk “Gentiles.”

102 tc ‡ Most mss (L W Θ 0233 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat sy mae) read τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην αὐτοῦ (thn basileian tou qeou kai thn dikaiosunhn aujtou, “the kingdom of God and his righteousness”) here, but the words “of God” are lacking in א B pc sa bo Eus. On the one hand, there is the possibility of accidental omission on the part of these Alexandrian witnesses, but it seems unlikely that the scribe’s eye would skip over both words (especially since τοῦ θεοῦ is bracketed by first declension nouns). Intrinsically, the author generally has a genitive modifier with βασιλεία – especially θεοῦ or οὐρανῶν (ouranwn) – but this argument cuts both ways: Although he might be expected to use such an adjunct here, scribes might also be familiar with his practice and would thus naturally insert it if it were missing in their copy of Matthew. Although a decision is difficult, the omission of τοῦ θεοῦ is considered most likely to be original. NA27 includes the words in brackets, indicating doubt as to their authenticity.

sn God’s kingdom is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong.

103 tn Grk “Sufficient for the day is its evil.”



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