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Matthew 20:17-19

Third Prediction of Jesus’ Death and Resurrection

20:17 As Jesus was going up to Jerusalem, 1  he took the twelve 2  aside privately and said to them on the way, 20:18 “Look, we are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be handed over to the chief priests and the experts in the law. 3  They will condemn him to death, 20:19 and will turn him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged severely 4  and crucified. 5  Yet 6  on the third day, he will be raised.”

1 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

2 tc ‡ A number of significant witnesses (e.g., B C W 085 33 lat) have μαθητάς (maqhtas, “disciples”) after δώδεκα (dwdeka, “twelve”), perhaps by way of clarification, while other important witnesses lack the word (e.g., א D L Θ Ë1,13). The longer reading looks to be a scribal clarification, and hence is considered to be secondary. NA27 puts the word in brackets to show doubts about its authenticity.

3 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.

4 tn Traditionally, “scourged” (the term means to beat severely with a whip, L&N 19.9). BDAG 620 s.v. μαστιγόω 1.a states, “The ‘verberatio’ is denoted in the passion predictions and explicitly as action by non-Israelites Mt 20:19; Mk 10:34; Lk 18:33”; the verberatio was the beating given to those condemned to death in the Roman judicial system. Here the term μαστιγόω (mastigow) has been translated “flog…severely” to distinguish it from the term φραγελλόω (fragellow) used in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15.

5 sn Crucifixion was the cruelest form of punishment practiced by the Romans. Roman citizens could not normally undergo it. It was reserved for the worst crimes, like treason and evasion of due process in a capital case. The Roman historian Cicero called it “a cruel and disgusting penalty” (Against Verres 2.5.63-66 §§163-70); Josephus (J. W. 7.6.4 [7.203]) called it the worst of deaths.

6 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

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