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Mark 5:1--6:56

Context
Healing of a Demoniac

5:1 So 1  they came to the other side of the lake, to the region of the Gerasenes. 2  5:2 Just as Jesus 3  was getting out of the boat, a man with an unclean spirit 4  came from the tombs and met him. 5  5:3 He lived among the tombs, and no one could bind him anymore, not even with a chain. 5:4 For his hands and feet had often been bound with chains and shackles, 6  but 7  he had torn the chains apart and broken the shackles in pieces. No one was strong enough to subdue him. 5:5 Each night and every day among the tombs and in the mountains, he would cry out and cut himself with stones. 5:6 When he saw Jesus from a distance, he ran and bowed down before him. 5:7 Then 8  he cried out with a loud voice, “Leave me alone, 9  Jesus, Son of the Most High God! I implore you by God 10  – do not torment me!” 5:8 (For Jesus 11  had said to him, “Come out of that man, you unclean spirit!”) 12  5:9 Jesus 13  asked him, “What is your name?” And he said, “My name is Legion, 14  for we are many.” 5:10 He begged Jesus 15  repeatedly not to send them out of the region. 5:11 There on the hillside, 16  a great herd of pigs was feeding. 5:12 And the demonic spirits 17  begged him, “Send us into the pigs. Let us enter them.” 5:13 Jesus 18  gave them permission. 19  So 20  the unclean spirits came out and went into the pigs. Then the herd rushed down the steep slope into the lake, and about two thousand were drowned in the lake.

5:14 Now 21  the herdsmen ran off and spread the news in the town and countryside, and the people went out to see what had happened. 5:15 They came to Jesus and saw the demon-possessed man sitting there, clothed and in his right mind – the one who had the “Legion” – and they were afraid. 5:16 Those who had seen what had happened to the demon-possessed man reported it, and they also told about the pigs. 5:17 Then 22  they asked Jesus 23  to leave their region. 5:18 As he was getting into the boat the man who had been demon-possessed asked if he could go 24  with him. 5:19 But 25  Jesus 26  did not permit him to do so. Instead, he said to him, “Go to your home and to your people and tell them what the Lord has done for you, 27  that he had mercy on you.” 5:20 So 28  he went away and began to proclaim in the Decapolis 29  what Jesus had done for him, 30  and all were amazed.

Restoration and Healing

5:21 When Jesus had crossed again in a boat to the other side, a large crowd gathered around him, and he was by the sea. 5:22 Then 31  one of the synagogue rulers, 32  named Jairus, 33  came up, and when he saw Jesus, 34  he fell at his feet. 5:23 He asked him urgently, “My little daughter is near death. Come and lay your hands on her so that she may be healed and live.” 5:24 Jesus 35  went with him, and a large crowd followed and pressed around him.

5:25 Now 36  a woman was there who had been suffering from a hemorrhage 37  for twelve years. 38  5:26 She had endured a great deal under the care of many doctors and had spent all that she had. Yet instead of getting better, she grew worse. 5:27 When she heard about Jesus, she came up behind him in the crowd and touched his cloak, 39  5:28 for she kept saying, 40  “If only I touch his clothes, I will be healed.” 41  5:29 At once the bleeding stopped, 42  and she felt in her body that she was healed of her disease. 5:30 Jesus knew at once that power had gone out from him. He turned around in the crowd and said, “Who touched my clothes?” 5:31 His disciples said to him, “You see the crowd pressing against you and you say, ‘Who touched me?’” 5:32 But 43  he looked around to see who had done it. 5:33 Then the woman, with fear and trembling, knowing what had happened to her, came and fell down before him and told him the whole truth. 5:34 He said to her, “Daughter, your faith has made you well. 44  Go in peace, and be healed of your disease.”

5:35 While he was still speaking, people came from the synagogue ruler’s 45  house saying, “Your daughter has died. Why trouble the teacher any longer?” 5:36 But Jesus, paying no attention to what was said, told the synagogue ruler, “Do not be afraid; just believe.” 5:37 He did not let anyone follow him except Peter, James, 46  and John, the brother of James. 5:38 They came to the house of the synagogue ruler where 47  he saw noisy confusion and people weeping and wailing loudly. 48  5:39 When he entered he said to them, “Why are you distressed and weeping? The child is not dead but asleep.” 5:40 And they began making fun of him. 49  But he put them all outside 50  and he took the child’s father and mother and his own companions 51  and went into the room where the child was. 52  5:41 Then, gently taking the child by the hand, he said to her, “Talitha koum,” which means, “Little girl, I say to you, get up.” 5:42 The girl got up at once and began to walk around (she was twelve years old). They were completely astonished at this. 53  5:43 He strictly ordered that no one should know about this, 54  and told them to give her something to eat.

Rejection at Nazareth

6:1 Now 55  Jesus left that place and came to his hometown, 56  and his disciples followed him. 6:2 When the Sabbath came, he began to teach in the synagogue. 57  Many who heard him were astonished, saying, “Where did he get these ideas? 58  And what is this wisdom that has been given to him? What are these miracles that are done through his hands? 6:3 Isn’t this the carpenter, the son 59  of Mary 60  and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? And aren’t his sisters here with us?” And so they took offense at him. 6:4 Then 61  Jesus said to them, “A prophet is not without honor except in his hometown, and among his relatives, and in his own house.” 6:5 He was not able to do a miracle there, except to lay his hands on a few sick people and heal them. 6:6 And he was amazed because of their unbelief. Then 62  he went around among the villages and taught.

Sending Out the Twelve Apostles

6:7 Jesus 63  called the twelve and began to send them out two by two. He gave them authority over the unclean spirits. 64  6:8 He instructed them to take nothing for the journey except a staff 65  – no bread, no bag, 66  no money in their belts – 6:9 and to put on sandals but not to wear two tunics. 67  6:10 He said to them, “Wherever you enter a house, stay there 68  until you leave the area. 6:11 If a place will not welcome you or listen to you, as you go out from there, shake the dust off 69  your feet as a testimony against them.” 6:12 So 70  they went out and preached that all should repent. 6:13 They cast out many demons and anointed many sick people with oil and healed them.

The Death of John the Baptist

6:14 Now 71  King Herod 72  heard this, for Jesus’ 73  name had become known. Some 74  were saying, “John the baptizer 75  has been raised from the dead, and because of this, miraculous powers are at work in him.” 6:15 Others said, “He is Elijah.” Others said, “He is a prophet, like one of the prophets from the past.” 6:16 But when Herod heard this, he said, “John, whom I beheaded, has been raised!” 6:17 For Herod himself had sent men, arrested John, and bound him in prison on account of Herodias, his brother Philip’s wife, because Herod 76  had married her. 6:18 For John had repeatedly told 77  Herod, “It is not lawful for you to have your brother’s wife.” 78  6:19 So Herodias nursed a grudge against him and wanted to kill him. But 79  she could not 6:20 because Herod stood in awe of 80  John and protected him, since he knew that John 81  was a righteous and holy man. When Herod 82  heard him, he was thoroughly baffled, 83  and yet 84  he liked to listen to John. 85 

6:21 But 86  a suitable day 87  came, when Herod gave a banquet on his birthday for his court officials, military commanders, and leaders of Galilee. 6:22 When his daughter Herodias 88  came in and danced, she pleased Herod and his dinner guests. The king said to the girl, “Ask me for whatever you want and I will give it to you.” 6:23 He swore to her, 89  “Whatever you ask I will give you, up to half my kingdom.” 90  6:24 So 91  she went out and said to her mother, “What should I ask for?” Her mother 92  said, “The head of John the baptizer.” 93  6:25 Immediately she hurried back to the king and made her request: 94  “I want the head of John the Baptist on a platter immediately.” 6:26 Although it grieved the king deeply, 95  he did not want to reject her request because of his oath and his guests. 6:27 So 96  the king sent an executioner at once to bring John’s 97  head, and he went and beheaded John in prison. 6:28 He brought his head on a platter and gave it to the girl, and the girl gave it to her mother. 6:29 When John’s 98  disciples heard this, they came and took his body and placed it in a tomb.

The Feeding of the Five Thousand

6:30 Then 99  the apostles gathered around Jesus and told him everything they had done and taught. 6:31 He said to them, “Come with me privately to an isolated place and rest a while” (for many were coming and going, and there was no time to eat). 6:32 So they went away by themselves in a boat to some remote place. 6:33 But many saw them leaving and recognized them, and they hurried on foot 100  from all the towns 101  and arrived there ahead of them. 102  6:34 As Jesus 103  came ashore 104  he saw the large crowd and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd. So 105  he taught them many things.

6:35 When it was already late, his disciples came to him and said, “This is an isolated place 106  and it is already very late. 6:36 Send them away so that they can go into the surrounding countryside and villages and buy something for themselves to eat.” 6:37 But he answered them, 107  “You 108  give them something to eat.” And they said, “Should we go and buy bread for two hundred silver coins 109  and give it to them to eat?” 6:38 He said to them, “How many loaves do you have? Go and see.” When they found out, they said, “Five – and two fish.” 6:39 Then he directed them all to sit down in groups on the green grass. 6:40 So they reclined in groups of hundreds and fifties. 6:41 He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke the loaves. He 110  gave them to his 111  disciples to serve the people, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6:42 They all ate and were satisfied, 6:43 and they picked up the broken pieces and fish that were left over, twelve baskets full. 6:44 Now 112  there were five thousand men 113  who ate the bread. 114 

Walking on Water

6:45 Immediately Jesus 115  made his disciples get into the boat and go on ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he dispersed the crowd. 6:46 After saying good-bye to them, he went to the mountain to pray. 6:47 When evening came, the boat was in the middle of the sea and he was alone on the land. 6:48 He 116  saw them straining at the oars, because the wind was against them. As the night was ending, 117  he came to them walking on the sea, 118  for 119  he wanted to pass by them. 120  6:49 When they saw him walking on the water 121  they thought he was a ghost. They 122  cried out, 6:50 for they all saw him and were terrified. But immediately he spoke to them: 123  “Have courage! It is I. Do not be afraid.” 6:51 Then he went up with them into the boat, and the wind ceased. They were completely astonished, 6:52 because they did not understand about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened.

Healing the Sick

6:53 After they had crossed over, they came to land at Gennesaret 124  and anchored there. 6:54 As they got out of the boat, people immediately recognized Jesus. 125  6:55 They ran through that whole region and began to bring the sick on mats to wherever he was rumored to be. 126  6:56 And wherever he would go – into villages, towns, or countryside – they would place the sick in the marketplaces, and would ask him if 127  they could just touch the edge of his cloak, and all who touched it were healed.

1 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate a summary and transition in the narrative.

2 tc The textual tradition here is quite complicated. Most later mss (A C Ë13 Ï syp,h) read “Gadarenes,” which is the better reading in Matt 8:28. Other mss (א2 L Δ Θ Ë1 28 33 565 579 700 892 1241 1424 al sys bo) have “Gergesenes.” Others (א* B D latt sa) have “Gerasenes,” which is the reading followed in the translation here and in Luke 8:26. The difference between Matthew and Mark (which is parallel to Luke) may well have to do with uses of variant regional terms.

sn The region of the Gerasenes would be in Gentile territory on the (south)eastern side of the Sea of Galilee across from Galilee. Matthew 8:28 records this miracle as occurring “in the region of the Gadarenes.” “Irrespective of how one settles this issue, for the [second and] Third Evangelist the chief concern is that Jesus has crossed over into Gentile territory, ‘opposite Galilee’” (J. B. Green, Luke [NICNT], 337). The region of Gadara extended to the Sea of Galilee and included the town of Sennabris on the southern shore – the town that the herdsmen most likely entered after the drowning of the pigs.

3 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

4 sn Unclean spirit refers to an evil spirit.

5 tn Grk “met him from the tombs a man with an unclean spirit.” When this is converted to normal English word order (“a man met him from the tombs with an unclean spirit”) it sounds as if “with an unclean spirit” modifies “the tombs.” Likewise, “a man with an unclean spirit from the tombs met him” implies that the unclean spirit came from the tombs, while the Greek text is clear that it is the man who had the unclean spirit who came from the tombs. To make this clear a second verb, “came,” is supplied in English: “came from the tombs and met him.”

6 tn Grk “he had often been bound with chains and shackles.” “Shackles” could also be translated “fetters”; they were chains for the feet.

7 tn Grk “and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

8 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

9 tn Grk What to me and to you?” (an idiom). The phrase τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί (ti emoi kai soi) is Semitic in origin, though it made its way into colloquial Greek (BDAG 275 s.v. ἐγώ). The equivalent Hebrew expression in the OT had two basic meanings: (1) When one person was unjustly bothering another, the injured party could say “What to me and to you?” meaning, “What have I done to you that you should do this to me?” (Judg 11:12, 2 Chr 35:21, 1 Kgs 17:18). (2) When someone was asked to get involved in a matter he felt was no business of his own, he could say to the one asking him, “What to me and to you?” meaning, “That is your business, how am I involved?” (2 Kgs 3:13, Hos 14:8). These nuances were apparently expanded in Greek, but the basic notions of defensive hostility (option 1) and indifference or disengagement (option 2) are still present. BDAG suggests the following as glosses for this expression: What have I to do with you? What have we in common? Leave me alone! Never mind! Hostility between Jesus and the demons is certainly to be understood in this context, hence the translation: “Leave me alone….”

10 sn Though it seems unusual for a demon to invoke God’s name (“I implore you by God”) in his demands of Jesus, the parallel in Matt 8:29 suggests the reason: “Why have you come to torment us before the time?” There was an appointed time in which demons would face their judgment, and they seem to have viewed Jesus’ arrival on the scene as an illegitimate change in God’s plan regarding the time when their sentence would be executed.

11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

12 sn This is a parenthetical explanation by the author.

13 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

14 sn The name Legion means “thousands,” a word taken from a Latin term for a large group of soldiers. The term not only suggests a multiple possession, but also adds a military feel to the account. This is a true battle.

15 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

16 tn Grk “mountain,” but this might give the English reader the impression of a far higher summit.

17 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the demonic spirits) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

18 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

19 sn Many have discussed why Jesus gave them permission, since the animals were destroyed. However, this is another example of a miracle that is a visual lesson. The demons are destructive: They were destroying the man. They destroyed the pigs. They destroy whatever they touch. The point was to take demonic influence seriously, as well as Jesus’ power over it as a picture of the larger battle for human souls. There would be no doubt how the man’s transformation had taken place.

20 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate a conclusion and transition in the narrative.

21 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate a transition to the response to the miraculous healing.

22 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

23 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

24 tn Grk “be,” that is, “remain.” In this context that would involve accompanying Jesus as he went on his way.

25 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

26 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

27 sn Jesus instructs the man to declare what the Lord has done for him, in contrast to the usual instructions (e.g., 1:44; 5:43) to remain silent. Here in Gentile territory Jesus allowed more open discussion of his ministry. D. L. Bock (Luke [BECNT], 1:781) suggests that with few Jewish religious representatives present, there would be less danger of misunderstanding Jesus’ ministry as political.

28 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “So” to indicate the conclusion of the episode in the narrative.

29 sn The Decapolis refers to a league of towns (originally consisting of ten; the Greek name literally means “ten towns”) whose region (except for Scythopolis) lay across the Jordan River.

30 sn Note that the man could not separate what God had done from the one through whom God had done it (what Jesus had done for him). This man was called to witness to God’s goodness at home.

31 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

32 tn That is, “an official in charge of the synagogue”; ἀρχισυνάγωγος (arcisunagwgo") refers to the “president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93; cf. Luke 8:41).

sn The synagogue was a place for Jewish prayer and worship, with recognized leadership. See also the note on synagogue in 1:21.

33 tc Codex Bezae (D) and some Itala mss omit the words “named Jairus.” The evidence for the inclusion of the phrase is extremely strong, however. The witnesses in behalf of ὀνόματι ᾿Ιάϊρος (onomati Iairos) include {Ì45 א A B C L Ï lat sy co}. The best explanation is that the phrase was accidentally dropped during the transmission of one strand of the Western text.

34 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

35 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

36 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

37 tn Grk “a flow of blood.”

38 sn This story of the woman who had been suffering from hemorrhages for twelve years is recounted in the middle of the story about Jairus’ daughter. Mark’s account (as is often the case) is longer and more detailed than the parallel accounts in Matt 9:18-26 and Luke 8:40-56. Mark’s fuller account may be intended to show that the healing of the woman was an anticipation of the healing of the little girl.

39 tn Grk “garment,” but here ἱμάτιον (Jimation) denotes the outer garment in particular.

40 tn The imperfect verb is here taken iteratively, for the context suggests that the woman was trying to muster up the courage to touch Jesus’ cloak.

41 tn Grk “saved.”

sn In this pericope the author uses a term for being healed (Grk “saved”) that would have spiritual significance to his readers. It may be a double entendre (cf. parallel in Matt 9:21 which uses the same term), since elsewhere he uses verbs that simply mean “heal”: If only the reader would “touch” Jesus, he too would be “saved.”

42 tn Grk “the flow of her blood dried up.”

sn The woman was most likely suffering from a vaginal hemorrhage, in which case her bleeding would make her ritually unclean.

43 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

44 tn Or “has delivered you”; Grk “has saved you.” This should not be understood as an expression for full salvation in the immediate context; it refers only to the woman’s healing.

45 sn See the note on synagogue rulers in 5:22.

46 tn Grk “and James,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

47 tn Grk “and,” though such paratactic structure is rather awkward in English.

48 sn This group probably includes outside or even professional mourners, not just family, because a large group seems to be present.

49 tn Grk “They were laughing at him.” The imperfect verb has been taken ingressively.

50 tn Or “threw them all outside.” The verb used, ἐκβάλλω (ekballw), almost always has the connotation of force in Mark.

51 tn Grk “those with him.”

52 tn Grk “into where the child was.”

53 tn The Greek word εὐθύς (euqus, often translated “immediately” or “right away”) has not been translated here. It sometimes occurs with a weakened, inferential use (BDAG 406 s.v. 2), not contributing significantly to the flow of the narrative. For further discussion, see R. J. Decker, Temporal Deixis of the Greek Verb in the Gospel of Mark with Reference to Verbal Aspect (SBG 10), 73-77.

54 sn That no one should know about this. See the note on the phrase who he was in 3:12.

55 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

56 sn Jesus’ hometown (where he spent his childhood years) was Nazareth, about 20 miles (30 km) southwest of Capernaum.

57 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21. Jesus undoubtedly took the opportunity on this occasion to speak about his person and mission, and the relation of both to OT fulfillment.

58 tn Or “this teaching”; Grk “these things.” The response of the people centers upon the content of Jesus’ teaching, so the phrase “these ideas” was supplied in the text to make this clear.

59 tc Evidently because of the possible offensiveness of designating Jesus a carpenter, several mss ([Ì45vid] Ë13 33vid [565 579] 700 [2542] pc it vgmss) harmonize the words “carpenter, the son” to the parallel passage in Matt 13:55, “the son of the carpenter.” Almost all the rest of the mss read “the carpenter, the son.” Since the explicit designation of Jesus as a carpenter is the more difficult reading, and is much better attested, it is most likely correct.

60 sn The reference to Jesus as the carpenter is probably derogatory, indicating that they knew Jesus only as a common laborer like themselves. The reference to him as the son of Mary (even though Jesus’ father was probably dead by this point) appears to be somewhat derogatory, for a man was not regarded as his mother’s son in Jewish usage unless an insult was intended (cf. Judg 11:1-2; John 6:42; 8:41; 9:29).

61 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

62 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

63 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

64 sn The phrase unclean spirits refers to evil spirits.

65 sn Neither Matt 10:9-10 nor Luke 9:3 allow for a staff. It might be that Matthew and Luke mean not taking an extra staff, or that the expression is merely rhetorical for “traveling light,” which has been rendered in two slightly different ways.

66 tn Or “no traveler’s bag”; or possibly “no beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145; BDAG 811 s.v. πήρα).

67 tn Or “shirts” (a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin). The name for this garment (χιτών, citwn) presents some difficulty in translation. Most modern readers would not understand what a “tunic” was any more than they would be familiar with a “chiton.” On the other hand, attempts to find a modern equivalent are also a problem: “Shirt” conveys the idea of a much shorter garment that covers only the upper body, and “undergarment” (given the styles of modern underwear) is more misleading still. “Tunic” was therefore employed, but with a note to explain its nature.

68 sn Jesus telling his disciples to stay there in one house contrasts with the practice of religious philosophers in the ancient world who went from house to house begging.

69 sn To shake the dust off represented shaking off the uncleanness from one’s feet; see Luke 10:11; Acts 13:51; 18:6. It was a sign of rejection.

70 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

71 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

72 sn Herod was technically not a king, but a tetrarch, a ruler with rank and authority lower than a king. A tetrarch ruled only with the approval of the Roman authorities. This was roughly equivalent to being governor of a region. In the NT, Herod, who ruled over Galilee, is called a king (Matt 14:9, Mark 6:14-29), reflecting popular usage rather than an official title.

73 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

74 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

75 tn While Matthew and Luke consistently use the noun βαπτίστης (baptisths, “the Baptist”) to refer to John, as a kind of a title, Mark prefers the substantival participle ὁ βαπτίζων (Jo baptizwn, “the one who baptizes, the baptizer”) to describe him (only twice does he use the noun [Mark 6:25; 8:28]).

76 tn Grk “he”; here it is necessary to specify the referent as “Herod,” since the nearest previous antecedent in the translation is Philip.

77 tn The imperfect tense verb is here rendered with an iterative force.

78 sn It is not lawful for you to have your brother’s wife. This was a violation of OT law (Lev 18:16; 20:21). In addition, both Herod Antipas and Herodias had each left marriages to enter into this union.

79 tn Grk “and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

80 tn Grk “was fearing,” “was respecting”; the imperfect tense connotes an ongoing fear or respect for John.

81 tn Grk “he”; the referent (John) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

82 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

83 tc In place of ἠπόρει (hporei, “he was baffled”) the majority of mss (A C D Ë1 33 Ï lat sy) have ἐποίει (epoiei, “he did”; cf. KJV’s “he did many things.”) The best mss (א B L [W] Θ 2427 co) support the reading followed in the translation. The variation may be no more than a simple case of confusion of letters, since the two readings look very much alike. The verb ποιέω (poiew, “I do”) certainly occurs more frequently than ἀπορέω (aporew, “I am at a loss”), so a scribe would be more likely to write a more familiar word. Further, even though the reading ἐποίει is the harder reading in terms of the sense, it is virtually nonsensical here, rendering it most likely an unintentional corruption.

tn Or “terribly disturbed,” “rather perplexed.” The verb ἀπορέω (aporew) means “to be in perplexity, with the implication of serious anxiety” (L&N 32.9).

84 tn Grk “and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “and yet” to indicate the concessive nature of the final clause.

85 tn Grk “him”; the referent (John) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

86 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

87 tn Grk “a day of opportunity”; cf. BDAG 407 s.v. εὔκαιρος, “in our lit. only pert. to time than is considered a favorable occasion for some event or circumstance, well-timed, suitable.”

88 tc Behind “his daughter Herodias” is a most difficult textual problem. The reading adopted in the translation, τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτοῦ ῾Ηρῳδιάδος (th" qugatro" aujtou Jerwdiado"), is supported by א B D L Δ 565 pc; it is also the most difficult reading internally since it describes Herodias as Herod’s daughter. Other readings are less awkward, but they do not have adequate external support. The reading τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτῆς τῆς ῾Ηρῳδιάδος (th" qugatro" auth" th" &erwdiado", “the daughter of Herodias herself”) is supported by A C (W) Θ Ë13 33 Ï, but this is also grammatically awkward. The easiest reading, τῆς θυγατρὸς τῆς ῾Ηρῳδιάδος (“the daughter of Herodias”) is supported by Ë1 pc, but this reading probably arose from an accidental omission of αὐτῆς in the previous reading. The reading τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτοῦ ῾Ηρῳδιάδος, despite its historical difficulties, is most likely original due to external attestation and the fact that it most likely gave rise to the other readings as scribes sought to correct it.

89 tc ‡ The witnesses here support several different readings: αὐτῇ πολλά (auth polla, “to her insistently”) is found in D Θ 565 700 it; πολλά is the reading of Ì45vid 28; both words are lacking in L pc; and א A B C2vid Ë13 33 2427 Ï lat have just αὐτῇ. The best candidates for authenticity, on external grounds, are αὐτῇ πολλά and αὐτῇ. So the issue revolves around whether πολλά is part of the text. On the one hand, πολλά used adverbially is a distinctive Markanism (10 of the 16 NT instances are found in Mark; of the other Gospels, Matthew alone adds a single example [Matt 9:14]). It could be argued that such an unremarkable term would go unnoticed by the scribes, and consequently would not have been inserted in imitation of Mark’s style observed elsewhere. On the other hand, the largest cluster of instances of an adverbial πολλά are in Mark 5-6, with the most recent example coming just three verses earlier (Mark 5:23, 38, 43; 6:20). Scribes may well have imitated the usage so recently and so frequently seen. Further, the best Alexandrian witnesses, as well as good representatives of the Western and Byzantines texts, lack πολλά. On the whole, though a decision is difficult, it is probably best to read the text without πολλά. NA27 places the word in brackets, indicating some doubt as to its authenticity.

90 sn The expression up to half my kingdom is a proverbial comment meaning “great wealth.”

91 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

92 tn Grk “She said”; the referent (the girl’s mother) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

93 tn While Matthew and Luke consistently use the noun βαπτίστης (baptisths, “the Baptist”) to refer to John, as a kind of a title, Mark employs the substantival participle ὁ βαπτίζων (Jo baptizwn, “the one who baptizes, the baptizer”) to describe him (though twice he does use the noun [Mark 6:25; 8:28]).

94 tn Grk “she asked, saying.” The participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant and has not been translated.

95 tn Grk “and being deeply grieved, the king did not want.”

96 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

97 tn Grk “his”; the referent (John the Baptist) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

98 tn Grk “his”; the referent (John the Baptist) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

99 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

100 tn Grk “ran together on foot.” The idea of συντρέχω (suntrecw) is “to come together quickly to form a crowd” (L&N 15.133).

101 tn Or “cities.”

102 tc The translation here follows the reading προῆλθον (prohlqon, “they preceded”), found in א B (0187) 892 2427 pc lat co. Some mss (D 28 33 700 pc) read συνῆλθον (sunhlqon, “arrived there with them”), while the majority of mss, most of them late (Ì84vid [A Ë13] Ï syh), conflate the two readings (προῆλθον αὐτοὺς καὶ συνῆλθον πρὸς αὐτόν, “they preceded them and came together to him”). The reading adopted here thus has better external credentials than the variants. As well, it is the harder reading internally, being changed “by copyists who thought it unlikely that the crowd on the land could have outstripped the boat” (TCGNT 78).

103 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

104 tn Grk “came out [of the boat],” with the reference to the boat understood.

105 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “So” to indicate this action is the result of Jesus’ compassion on the crowd in the narrative.

106 tn Or “a desert” (meaning a deserted or desolate area with sparse vegetation).

107 tn Grk “answering, he said to them.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqeis) is redundant, but the syntax of the sentence has been changed for clarity.

108 tn Here the pronoun ὑμεῖς (Jumeis) is used, making “you” in the translation emphatic.

109 sn The silver coin referred to here is the denarius. A denarius, inscribed with a picture of Tiberius Caesar, was worth approximately one day’s wage for a laborer. Two hundred denarii was thus approximately equal to eight months’ wages. The disciples did not have the resources in their possession to feed the large crowd, so Jesus’ request is his way of causing them to trust him as part of their growth in discipleship.

110 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

111 tc ‡ Most mss (Ì45 A D W Θ Ë1,13 Ï lat sy) have αὐτοῦ (autou, “his”) after τοῖς μαθηταῖς (toi" maqhtai", “the disciples”), but several excellent witnesses (א B L Δ 33 579 892 1241 1424 2427 pc) lack the pronoun. This kind of variant is often a predictable expansion of the text; further, that many important mss lack the pronoun gives support for the shorter reading. For these reasons, the pronoun is considered to be secondary. NA27 puts αὐτοῦ in brackets, indicating some doubts as to its authenticity.

tn Grk “the disciples”; the Greek article has been translated here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

112 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate a somewhat parenthetical remark by the author.

113 tn The Greek word here is ἀνήρ, meaning “adult male” (BDAG 79 s.v. 1). According to Matt 14:21, Jesus fed not only five thousand men, but also an unspecified number of women and children.

114 tc Many good mss (Ì45 א D W Θ Ë1,13 28 565 700 2542 lat sa) lack τοὺς ἄρτους (tous artous, lit. “the loaves” [here translated “the bread”]). On the other hand, just as weighty mss (A B L 33 2427 Ï) have the words. Although a decision is not easy, the most satisfactory explanation seems to be that scribes were more prone to delete than to add the words here. They may have been puzzled as to why “the bread” should be mentioned without a corresponding mention of “fish.” Since neither Matt 14:21 or Luke 9:17 explicitly mention the bread, a desire for harmonization may have motivated the copyists as well. On the other hand, D and W are prone to longer, explanatory readings. Since they both lack the words here, it is likely that their archetypes also lacked the words. But given Mark’s pleonastic style, the good witnesses with “the bread,” and a reasonable explanation for the omission, “the bread” is most likely part of the original text of Mark.

115 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

116 tn This verse is one complete sentence in the Greek text, but it has been broken into two sentences in English for clarity.

117 tn Grk “about the fourth watch of the night,” between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m.

118 tn Or “on the lake.”

119 tn The καί (kai) was translated so as to introduce a subordinate clause, i.e., with the use of “for.” See BDF §442.9.

120 sn The statement he wanted to pass by them is somewhat difficult to understand. There are at least two common interpretations: (1) it refers to the perspective of the disciples, that is, from their point of view it seemed that Jesus wanted to pass by them; or (2) it refers to a theophany and uses the language of the Greek Old Testament (LXX) when God “passed by” Moses at Sinai (cf. Exod 33:19, 22). According to the latter alternative, Jesus is “passing by” the disciples during their struggle, in order to assure them of his presence with them. See W L. Lane, Mark (NICNT), 236.

121 tn Grk “on the sea,” “on the lake.” The translation “water” has been used here for stylistic reasons (cf. the same phrase in v. 48).

122 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

123 tn Grk “he spoke with them, and said to them.”

124 sn Gennesaret was a fertile plain south of Capernaum (see also Matt 14:34). This name was also sometimes used for the Sea of Galilee (Luke 5:1).

125 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

126 tn Grk “wherever they heard he was.”

127 tn Grk “asked that they might touch.”



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