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  Discovery Box

Luke 9:51--19:48

Context
Rejection in Samaria

9:51 Now when 1  the days drew near 2  for him to be taken up, 3  Jesus 4  set out resolutely 5  to go to Jerusalem. 6  9:52 He 7  sent messengers on ahead of him. 8  As they went along, 9  they entered a Samaritan village to make things ready in advance 10  for him, 9:53 but the villagers 11  refused to welcome 12  him, because he was determined to go to Jerusalem. 13  9:54 Now when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, “Lord, do you want us to call fire to come down from heaven and consume 14  them?” 15  9:55 But Jesus 16  turned and rebuked them, 17  9:56 and they went on to another village.

Challenging Professed Followers

9:57 As 18  they were walking 19  along the road, someone said to him, “I will follow you wherever you go.” 20  9:58 Jesus said to him, “Foxes have dens and the birds in the sky 21  have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head.” 22  9:59 Jesus 23  said to another, “Follow me.” But he replied, 24  “Lord, first let me go and bury my father.” 9:60 But Jesus 25  said to him, “Let the dead bury their own dead, 26  but as for you, go and proclaim the kingdom of God.” 27  9:61 Yet 28  another said, “I will follow you, Lord, but first let me say goodbye to my family.” 29  9:62 Jesus 30  said to him, “No one who puts his 31  hand to the plow and looks back 32  is fit for the kingdom of God.” 33 

The Mission of the Seventy-Two

10:1 After this 34  the Lord appointed seventy-two 35  others and sent them on ahead of him two by two into every town 36  and place where he himself was about to go. 10:2 He 37  said to them, “The harvest is plentiful, but the workers are few. Therefore ask the Lord of the harvest 38  to send out 39  workers into his harvest. 10:3 Go! I 40  am sending you out like lambs 41  surrounded by wolves. 42  10:4 Do not carry 43  a money bag, 44  a traveler’s bag, 45  or sandals, and greet no one on the road. 46  10:5 Whenever 47  you enter a house, 48  first say, ‘May peace 49  be on this house!’ 10:6 And if a peace-loving person 50  is there, your peace will remain on him, but if not, it will return to you. 51  10:7 Stay 52  in that same house, eating and drinking what they give you, 53  for the worker deserves his pay. 54  Do not move around from house to house. 10:8 Whenever 55  you enter a town 56  and the people 57  welcome you, eat what is set before you. 10:9 Heal 58  the sick in that town 59  and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God 60  has come upon 61  you!’ 10:10 But whenever 62  you enter a town 63  and the people 64  do not welcome 65  you, go into its streets 66  and say, 10:11 ‘Even the dust of your town 67  that clings to our feet we wipe off 68  against you. 69  Nevertheless know this: The kingdom of God has come.’ 70  10:12 I tell you, it will be more bearable on that day for Sodom 71  than for that town! 72 

10:13 “Woe to you, Chorazin! 73  Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if 74  the miracles 75  done in you had been done in Tyre 76  and Sidon, 77  they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 10:14 But it will be more bearable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment than for you! 10:15 And you, Capernaum, 78  will you be exalted to heaven? 79  No, you will be thrown down to Hades! 80 

10:16 “The one who listens 81  to you listens to me, 82  and the one who rejects you rejects me, and the one who rejects me rejects 83  the one who sent me.” 84 

10:17 Then 85  the seventy-two 86  returned with joy, saying, “Lord, even the demons submit to 87  us in your name!” 88  10:18 So 89  he said to them, “I saw 90  Satan fall 91  like lightning 92  from heaven. 10:19 Look, I have given you authority to tread 93  on snakes and scorpions 94  and on the full force of the enemy, 95  and nothing will 96  hurt you. 10:20 Nevertheless, do not rejoice that 97  the spirits submit to you, but rejoice 98  that your names stand written 99  in heaven.”

10:21 On that same occasion 100  Jesus 101  rejoiced 102  in the Holy Spirit and said, “I praise 103  you, Father, Lord 104  of heaven and earth, because 105  you have hidden these things from the wise 106  and intelligent, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for this was your gracious will. 107  10:22 All things have been given to me by my Father. 108  No one knows who the Son is except the Father, or who the Father is except the Son and anyone to whom the Son decides 109  to reveal him.”

10:23 Then 110  Jesus 111  turned 112  to his 113  disciples and said privately, “Blessed 114  are the eyes that see what you see! 10:24 For I tell you that many prophets and kings longed to see 115  what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear but did not hear it.”

The Parable of the Good Samaritan

10:25 Now 116  an expert in religious law 117  stood up to test Jesus, 118  saying, “Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” 119  10:26 He said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you understand it?” 120  10:27 The expert 121  answered, “Love 122  the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind, 123  and love your neighbor as yourself.” 124  10:28 Jesus 125  said to him, “You have answered correctly; 126  do this, and you will live.”

10:29 But the expert, 127  wanting to justify 128  himself, said to Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?” 10:30 Jesus replied, 129  “A man was going down 130  from Jerusalem 131  to Jericho, 132  and fell into the hands of robbers, who stripped him, beat 133  him up, and went off, leaving him half dead. 134  10:31 Now by chance 135  a priest was going down that road, but 136  when he saw the injured man 137  he passed by 138  on the other side. 139  10:32 So too a Levite, when he came up to 140  the place and saw him, 141  passed by on the other side. 10:33 But 142  a Samaritan 143  who was traveling 144  came to where the injured man 145  was, and when he saw him, he felt compassion for him. 146  10:34 He 147  went up to him 148  and bandaged his wounds, pouring oil 149  and wine on them. Then 150  he put him on 151  his own animal, 152  brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 10:35 The 153  next day he took out two silver coins 154  and gave them to the innkeeper, saying, ‘Take care of him, and whatever else you spend, I will repay you when I come back this way.’ 155  10:36 Which of these three do you think became a neighbor 156  to the man who fell into the hands of the robbers?” 10:37 The expert in religious law 157  said, “The one who showed mercy 158  to him.” So 159  Jesus said to him, “Go and do 160  the same.”

Jesus and Martha

10:38 Now as they went on their way, Jesus 161  entered a certain village where a woman named Martha welcomed him as a guest. 162  10:39 She 163  had a sister named Mary, who sat 164  at the Lord’s feet 165  and listened to what he said. 10:40 But Martha was distracted 166  with all the preparations she had to make, 167  so 168  she came up to him and said, “Lord, don’t you care 169  that my sister has left me to do all the work 170  alone? Tell 171  her to help me.” 10:41 But the Lord 172  answered her, 173  “Martha, Martha, 174  you are worried and troubled 175  about many things, 10:42 but one thing 176  is needed. Mary has chosen the best 177  part; it will not be taken away from her.”

Instructions on Prayer

11:1 Now 178  Jesus 179  was praying in a certain place. When 180  he stopped, one of his disciples said to him, “Lord, teach us to pray, just as John 181  taught 182  his disciples.” 11:2 So he said to them, “When you pray, 183  say:

Father, 184  may your name be honored; 185 

may your kingdom come. 186 

11:3 Give us each day our daily bread, 187 

11:4 and forgive us our sins,

for we also forgive everyone who sins 188  against us.

And do not lead us into temptation.” 189 

11:5 Then 190  he said to them, “Suppose one of you 191  has a friend, and you go to him 192  at midnight and say to him, ‘Friend, lend me three loaves of bread, 193  11:6 because a friend of mine has stopped here while on a journey, 194  and I have nothing to set before 195  him.’ 11:7 Then 196  he will reply 197  from inside, ‘Do not bother me. The door is already shut, and my children and I are in bed. 198  I cannot get up and give you anything.’ 199  11:8 I tell you, even though the man inside 200  will not get up and give him anything because he is his friend, yet because of the first man’s 201  sheer persistence 202  he will get up and give him whatever he needs.

11:9 “So 203  I tell you: Ask, 204  and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and the door 205  will be opened for you. 11:10 For everyone who asks 206  receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks, the door 207  will be opened. 11:11 What father among you, if your 208  son asks for 209  a fish, will give him a snake 210  instead of a fish? 11:12 Or if he asks for an egg, will give him a scorpion? 211  11:13 If you then, although you are 212  evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit 213  to those who ask him!”

Jesus and Beelzebul

11:14 Now 214  he was casting out a demon that was mute. 215  When 216  the demon had gone out, the man who had been mute began to speak, 217  and the crowds were amazed. 11:15 But some of them said, “By the power of Beelzebul, 218  the ruler 219  of demons, he casts out demons.” 11:16 Others, to test 220  him, 221  began asking for 222  a sign 223  from heaven. 11:17 But Jesus, 224  realizing their thoughts, said to them, 225  “Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, 226  and a divided household falls. 227  11:18 So 228  if 229  Satan too is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? I ask you this because 230  you claim that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 11:19 Now if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons 231  cast them 232  out? Therefore they will be your judges. 11:20 But if I cast out demons by the finger 233  of God, then the kingdom of God 234  has already overtaken 235  you. 11:21 When a strong man, 236  fully armed, guards his own palace, 237  his possessions are safe. 238  11:22 But 239  when a stronger man 240  attacks 241  and conquers him, he takes away the first man’s 242  armor on which the man relied 243  and divides up 244  his plunder. 245  11:23 Whoever is not with me is against me, 246  and whoever does not gather with me scatters. 247 

Response to Jesus’ Work

11:24 “When an unclean spirit 248  goes out of a person, 249  it passes through waterless places 250  looking for rest but 251  not finding any. Then 252  it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ 253  11:25 When it returns, 254  it finds the house 255  swept clean and put in order. 256  11:26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there, so 257  the last state of that person 258  is worse than the first.” 259 

11:27 As 260  he said these things, a woman in the crowd spoke out 261  to him, “Blessed is the womb 262  that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!” 263  11:28 But he replied, 264  “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey 265  it!”

The Sign of Jonah

11:29 As 266  the crowds were increasing, Jesus 267  began to say, “This generation is a wicked generation; it looks for a sign, 268  but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah. 269  11:30 For just as Jonah became a sign to the people of Nineveh, 270  so the Son of Man will be a sign 271  to this generation. 272  11:31 The queen of the South 273  will rise up at the judgment 274  with the people 275  of this generation and condemn them, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon – and now, 276  something greater 277  than Solomon is here! 11:32 The people 278  of Nineveh will stand up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repented when Jonah preached to them 279  – and now, 280  something greater than Jonah is here!

Internal Light

11:33 “No one after lighting a lamp puts it in a hidden place 281  or under a basket, 282  but on a lampstand, so that those who come in can see the light. 11:34 Your eye is the lamp of your body. When your eye is healthy, 283  your whole body is full of light, but when it is diseased, 284  your body is full of darkness. 11:35 Therefore see to it 285  that the light in you 286  is not darkness. 11:36 If 287  then 288  your whole body is full of light, with no part in the dark, 289  it will be as full of light as when the light of a lamp shines on you.” 290 

Rebuking the Pharisees and Experts in the Law

11:37 As he spoke, 291  a Pharisee 292  invited Jesus 293  to have a meal with him, so he went in and took his place at the table. 294  11:38 The 295  Pharisee was astonished when he saw that Jesus 296  did not first wash his hands 297  before the meal. 11:39 But the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees clean 298  the outside of the cup and the plate, but inside you are full of greed and wickedness. 299  11:40 You fools! 300  Didn’t the one who made the outside make the inside as well? 301  11:41 But give from your heart to those in need, 302  and 303  then everything will be clean for you. 304 

11:42 “But woe to you Pharisees! 305  You give a tenth 306  of your mint, 307  rue, 308  and every herb, yet you neglect justice 309  and love for God! But you should have done these things without neglecting the others. 310  11:43 Woe to you Pharisees! You love the best seats 311  in the synagogues 312  and elaborate greetings 313  in the marketplaces! 11:44 Woe to you! 314  You are like unmarked graves, and people 315  walk over them without realizing it!” 316 

11:45 One of the experts in religious law 317  answered him, “Teacher, when you say these things you insult 318  us too.” 11:46 But Jesus 319  replied, 320  “Woe to you experts in religious law as well! 321  You load people 322  down with burdens difficult to bear, yet you yourselves refuse to touch 323  the burdens with even one of your fingers! 11:47 Woe to you! You build 324  the tombs of the prophets whom your ancestors 325  killed. 11:48 So you testify that you approve of 326  the deeds of your ancestors, 327  because they killed the prophets 328  and you build their 329  tombs! 330  11:49 For this reason also the wisdom 331  of God said, ‘I will send them prophets and apostles, some of whom they will kill and persecute,’ 11:50 so that this generation may be held accountable 332  for the blood of all the prophets that has been shed since the beginning 333  of the world, 334  11:51 from the blood of Abel 335  to the blood of Zechariah, 336  who was killed 337  between the altar and the sanctuary. 338  Yes, I tell you, it will be charged against 339  this generation. 11:52 Woe to you experts in religious law! You have taken away 340  the key to knowledge! You did not go in yourselves, and you hindered 341  those who were going in.”

11:53 When he went out from there, the experts in the law 342  and the Pharisees began to oppose him bitterly, 343  and to ask him hostile questions 344  about many things, 11:54 plotting against 345  him, to catch 346  him in something he might say.

Fear God, Not People

12:1 Meanwhile, 347  when many thousands of the crowd had gathered so that they were trampling on one another, Jesus 348  began to speak first to his disciples, “Be on your guard against 349  the yeast of the Pharisees, 350  which is hypocrisy. 351  12:2 Nothing is hidden 352  that will not be revealed, 353  and nothing is secret that will not be made known. 12:3 So then 354  whatever you have said in the dark will be heard in the light, and what you have whispered 355  in private rooms 356  will be proclaimed from the housetops. 357 

12:4 “I 358  tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body, 359  and after that have nothing more they can do. 12:5 But I will warn 360  you whom you should fear: Fear the one who, after the killing, 361  has authority to throw you 362  into hell. 363  Yes, I tell you, fear him! 12:6 Aren’t five sparrows sold for two pennies? 364  Yet not one of them is forgotten before God. 12:7 In fact, even the hairs on your head are all numbered. Do not be afraid; 365  you are more valuable than many sparrows.

12:8 “I 366  tell you, whoever acknowledges 367  me before men, 368  the Son of Man will also acknowledge 369  before God’s angels. 12:9 But the one who denies me before men will be denied before God’s angels. 12:10 And everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but the person who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit 370  will not be forgiven. 371  12:11 But when they bring you before the synagogues, 372  the 373  rulers, and the authorities, do not worry about how you should make your defense 374  or what you should say, 12:12 for the Holy Spirit will teach you at that moment 375  what you must say.” 376 

The Parable of the Rich Landowner

12:13 Then 377  someone from the crowd said to him, “Teacher, tell 378  my brother to divide the inheritance with me.” 12:14 But Jesus 379  said to him, “Man, 380  who made me a judge or arbitrator between you two?” 381  12:15 Then 382  he said to them, “Watch out and guard yourself from 383  all types of greed, 384  because one’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions.” 12:16 He then 385  told them a parable: 386  “The land of a certain rich man produced 387  an abundant crop, 12:17 so 388  he thought to himself, 389  ‘What should I do, for I have nowhere to store my crops?’ 390  12:18 Then 391  he said, ‘I 392  will do this: I will tear down my barns and build bigger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. 12:19 And I will say to myself, 393  “You have plenty of goods stored up for many years; relax, eat, drink, celebrate!”’ 12:20 But God said to him, ‘You fool! This very night your life 394  will be demanded back from 395  you, but who will get what you have prepared for yourself?’ 396  12:21 So it is with the one who stores up riches for himself, 397  but is not rich toward God.”

Exhortation Not to Worry

12:22 Then 398  Jesus 399  said to his 400  disciples, “Therefore I tell you, do not worry 401  about your 402  life, what you will eat, or about your 403  body, what you will wear. 12:23 For there is more to life than food, and more to the body than clothing. 12:24 Consider the ravens: 404  They do not sow or reap, they have no storeroom or barn, yet God feeds 405  them. How much more valuable are you than the birds! 12:25 And which of you by worrying 406  can add an hour to his life? 407  12:26 So if 408  you cannot do such a very little thing as this, why do you worry about 409  the rest? 12:27 Consider how the flowers 410  grow; they do not work 411  or spin. Yet I tell you, not even Solomon in all his glory was clothed like one of these! 12:28 And if 412  this is how God clothes the wild grass, 413  which is here 414  today and tomorrow is tossed into the fire to heat the oven, 415  how much more 416  will he clothe you, you people of little faith! 12:29 So 417  do not be overly concerned about 418  what you will eat and what you will drink, and do not worry about such things. 419  12:30 For all the nations of the world pursue 420  these things, and your Father knows that you need them. 12:31 Instead, pursue 421  his 422  kingdom, 423  and these things will be given to you as well.

12:32 “Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father is well pleased 424  to give you the kingdom. 12:33 Sell your possessions 425  and give to the poor. 426  Provide yourselves purses that do not wear out – a treasure in heaven 427  that never decreases, 428  where no thief approaches and no moth 429  destroys. 12:34 For where your treasure 430  is, there your heart will be also.

Call to Faithful Stewardship

12:35 “Get dressed for service 431  and keep your lamps burning; 432  12:36 be like people 433  waiting for their master to come back from the wedding celebration, 434  so that when he comes and knocks they can immediately open the door for him. 12:37 Blessed are those slaves 435  whom their master finds alert 436  when he returns! I tell you the truth, 437  he will dress himself to serve, 438  have them take their place at the table, 439  and will come 440  and wait on them! 441  12:38 Even if he comes in the second or third watch of the night 442  and finds them alert, 443  blessed are those slaves! 444  12:39 But understand this: If the owner of the house had known at what hour the thief 445  was coming, he would not have let 446  his house be broken into. 12:40 You also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him.” 447 

12:41 Then 448  Peter said, “Lord, are you telling this parable for us or for everyone?” 449  12:42 The Lord replied, 450  “Who then is the faithful and wise manager, 451  whom the master puts in charge of his household servants, 452  to give them their allowance of food at the proper time? 12:43 Blessed is that slave 453  whom his master finds at work 454  when he returns. 12:44 I tell you the truth, 455  the master 456  will put him in charge of all his possessions. 12:45 But if 457  that 458  slave should say to himself, 459  ‘My master is delayed 460  in returning,’ and he begins to beat 461  the other 462  slaves, both men and women, 463  and to eat, drink, and get drunk, 12:46 then the master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not foresee, and will cut him in two, 464  and assign him a place with the unfaithful. 465  12:47 That 466  servant who knew his master’s will but did not get ready or do what his master asked 467  will receive a severe beating. 12:48 But the one who did not know his master’s will 468  and did things worthy of punishment 469  will receive a light beating. 470  From everyone who has been given much, much will be required, 471  and from the one who has been entrusted with much, 472  even more will be asked. 473 

Not Peace, but Division

12:49 “I have come 474  to bring 475  fire on the earth – and how I wish it were already kindled! 12:50 I have a baptism 476  to undergo, 477  and how distressed I am until it is finished! 12:51 Do you think I have come to bring peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division! 478  12:52 For from now on 479  there will be five in one household divided, three against two and two against three. 12:53 They will be divided, 480  father against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother, mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law against mother-in-law.”

Reading the Signs

12:54 Jesus 481  also said to the crowds, “When you see a cloud rising in the west, 482  you say at once, ‘A rainstorm 483  is coming,’ and it does. 12:55 And when you see the south wind 484  blowing, you say, ‘There will be scorching heat,’ and there is. 12:56 You hypocrites! 485  You know how to interpret the appearance of the earth and the sky, but how can you not know how 486  to interpret the present time?

Clear the Debts

12:57 “And 487  why don’t you judge for yourselves what is right? 12:58 As you are going with your accuser before the magistrate, 488  make an effort to settle with him on the way, so that he will not drag you before the judge, and the judge hand you over to the officer, 489  and the officer throw you into prison. 12:59 I tell you, you will never get out of there until you have paid the very last cent!” 490 

A Call to Repent

13:1 Now 491  there were some present on that occasion who told him about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. 492  13:2 He 493  answered them, “Do you think these Galileans were worse sinners 494  than all the other Galileans, because they suffered these things? 13:3 No, I tell you! But unless you repent, 495  you will all perish as well! 496  13:4 Or those eighteen who were killed 497  when the tower in Siloam fell on them, 498  do you think they were worse offenders than all the others who live in Jerusalem? 499  13:5 No, I tell you! But unless you repent 500  you will all perish as well!” 501 

Warning to Israel to Bear Fruit

13:6 Then 502  Jesus 503  told this parable: “A man had a fig tree 504  planted in his vineyard, and he came looking for fruit on it and found none. 13:7 So 505  he said to the worker who tended the vineyard, ‘For 506  three years 507  now, I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree, and each time I inspect it 508  I find none. Cut 509  it down! Why 510  should it continue to deplete 511  the soil?’ 13:8 But the worker 512  answered him, ‘Sir, leave it alone this year too, until I dig around it and put fertilizer 513  on it. 13:9 Then if 514  it bears fruit next year, 515  very well, 516  but if 517  not, you can cut it down.’”

Healing on the Sabbath

13:10 Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues 518  on the Sabbath, 13:11 and a woman was there 519  who had been disabled by a spirit 520  for eighteen years. She 521  was bent over and could not straighten herself up completely. 522  13:12 When 523  Jesus saw her, he called her to him 524  and said, “Woman, 525  you are freed 526  from your infirmity.” 527  13:13 Then 528  he placed his hands on her, and immediately 529  she straightened up and praised God. 13:14 But the president of the synagogue, indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the crowd, “There are six days on which work 530  should be done! 531  So come 532  and be healed on those days, and not on the Sabbath day.” 13:15 Then the Lord answered him, 533  “You hypocrites! Does not each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or his donkey from its stall, 534  and lead it to water? 535  13:16 Then 536  shouldn’t 537  this woman, a daughter of Abraham whom Satan 538  bound for eighteen long 539  years, be released from this imprisonment 540  on the Sabbath day?” 13:17 When 541  he said this all his adversaries were humiliated, 542  but 543  the entire crowd was rejoicing at all the wonderful things 544  he was doing. 545 

On the Kingdom of God

13:18 Thus Jesus 546  asked, 547  “What is the kingdom of God 548  like? 549  To 550  what should I compare it? 13:19 It is like a mustard seed 551  that a man took and sowed 552  in his garden. It 553  grew and became a tree, 554  and the wild birds 555  nested in its branches.” 556 

13:20 Again 557  he said, “To what should I compare the kingdom of God? 558  13:21 It is like yeast that a woman took and mixed with 559  three measures 560  of flour until all the dough had risen.” 561 

The Narrow Door

13:22 Then 562  Jesus 563  traveled throughout 564  towns 565  and villages, teaching and making his way toward 566  Jerusalem. 567  13:23 Someone 568  asked 569  him, “Lord, will only a few 570  be saved?” So 571  he said to them, 13:24 “Exert every effort 572  to enter through the narrow door, because many, I tell you, will try to enter and will not be able to. 13:25 Once 573  the head of the house 574  gets up 575  and shuts the door, then you will stand outside and start to knock on the door and beg him, ‘Lord, 576  let us in!’ 577  But he will answer you, 578  ‘I don’t know where you come from.’ 579  13:26 Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets.’ 580  13:27 But 581  he will reply, 582  ‘I don’t know where you come from! 583  Go away from me, all you evildoers!’ 584  13:28 There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth 585  when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, 586  and all the prophets in the kingdom of God 587  but you yourselves thrown out. 588  13:29 Then 589  people 590  will come from east and west, and from north and south, and take their places at the banquet table 591  in the kingdom of God. 592  13:30 But 593  indeed, 594  some are last 595  who will be first, and some are first who will be last.”

Going to Jerusalem

13:31 At that time, 596  some Pharisees 597  came up and said to Jesus, 598  “Get away from here, 599  because Herod 600  wants to kill you.” 13:32 But 601  he said to them, “Go 602  and tell that fox, 603  ‘Look, I am casting out demons and performing healings today and tomorrow, and on the third day 604  I will complete my work. 605  13:33 Nevertheless I must 606  go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, because it is impossible 607  that a prophet should be killed 608  outside Jerusalem.’ 609  13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 610  you who kill the prophets and stone those who are sent to you! 611  How often I have longed 612  to gather your children together as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but 613  you would have none of it! 614  13:35 Look, your house is forsaken! 615  And I tell you, you will not see me until you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’” 616 

Healing Again on the Sabbath

14:1 Now 617  one Sabbath when Jesus went to dine 618  at the house of a leader 619  of the Pharisees, 620  they were watching 621  him closely. 14:2 There 622  right 623  in front of him was a man suffering from dropsy. 624  14:3 So 625  Jesus asked 626  the experts in religious law 627  and the Pharisees, “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath 628  or not?” 14:4 But they remained silent. So 629  Jesus 630  took hold of the man, 631  healed him, and sent him away. 632  14:5 Then 633  he said to them, “Which of you, if you have a son 634  or an ox that has fallen into a well on a Sabbath day, will not immediately pull him out?” 14:6 But 635  they could not reply 636  to this.

On Seeking Seats of Honor

14:7 Then 637  when Jesus 638  noticed how the guests 639  chose the places of honor, 640  he told them a parable. He said to them, 14:8 “When you are invited by someone to a wedding feast, 641  do not take 642  the place of honor, because a person more distinguished than you may have been invited by your host. 643  14:9 So 644  the host who invited both of you will come and say to you, ‘Give this man your place.’ Then, ashamed, 645  you will begin to move to the least important 646  place. 14:10 But when you are invited, go and take the least important place, so that when your host 647  approaches he will say to you, ‘Friend, move up here to a better place.’ 648  Then you will be honored in the presence of all who share the meal with you. 14:11 For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but 649  the one who humbles 650  himself will be exalted.”

14:12 He 651  said also to the man 652  who had invited him, “When you host a dinner or a banquet, 653  don’t invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors so you can be invited by them in return and get repaid. 14:13 But when you host an elaborate meal, 654  invite the poor, the crippled, 655  the lame, and 656  the blind. 657  14:14 Then 658  you will be blessed, 659  because they cannot repay you, for you will be repaid 660  at the resurrection of the righteous.”

The Parable of the Great Banquet

14:15 When 661  one of those at the meal with Jesus 662  heard this, he said to him, “Blessed is everyone 663  who will feast 664  in the kingdom of God!” 665  14:16 But Jesus 666  said to him, “A man once gave a great banquet 667  and invited 668  many guests. 669  14:17 At 670  the time for the banquet 671  he sent his slave 672  to tell those who had been invited, ‘Come, because everything is now ready.’ 14:18 But one after another they all 673  began to make excuses. 674  The first said to him, ‘I have bought a field, 675  and I must go out and see it. Please excuse me.’ 676  14:19 Another 677  said, ‘I have bought five yoke of oxen, 678  and I am going out 679  to examine them. Please excuse me.’ 14:20 Another 680  said, ‘I just got married, and I cannot come.’ 681  14:21 So 682  the slave came back and reported this to his master. Then the master of the household was furious 683  and said to his slave, ‘Go out quickly 684  to the streets and alleys of the city, 685  and bring in the poor, 686  the crippled, 687  the blind, and the lame.’ 14:22 Then 688  the slave said, ‘Sir, what you instructed has been done, and there is still room.’ 689  14:23 So 690  the master said to his 691  slave, ‘Go out to the highways 692  and country roads 693  and urge 694  people 695  to come in, so that my house will be filled. 696  14:24 For I tell you, not one of those individuals 697  who were invited 698  will taste my banquet!’” 699 

Counting the Cost

14:25 Now large crowds 700  were accompanying Jesus, 701  and turning to them he said, 14:26 “If anyone comes to me and does not hate 702  his own father and mother, and wife and children, and brothers and sisters, and even his own life, 703  he cannot be my disciple. 14:27 Whoever does not carry his own cross 704  and follow 705  me cannot be my disciple. 14:28 For which of you, wanting to build a tower, doesn’t sit down 706  first and compute the cost 707  to see if he has enough money to complete it? 14:29 Otherwise, 708  when he has laid 709  a foundation and is not able to finish the tower, 710  all who see it 711  will begin to make fun of 712  him. 14:30 They will say, 713  ‘This man 714  began to build and was not able to finish!’ 715  14:31 Or what king, going out to confront another king in battle, will not sit down 716  first and determine whether he is able with ten thousand to oppose 717  the one coming against him with twenty thousand? 14:32 If he cannot succeed, 718  he will send a representative 719  while the other is still a long way off and ask for terms of peace. 720  14:33 In the same way therefore not one of you can be my disciple if he does not renounce all his own possessions. 721 

14:34 “Salt 722  is good, but if salt loses its flavor, 723  how can its flavor be restored? 14:35 It is of no value 724  for the soil or for the manure pile; it is to be thrown out. 725  The one who has ears to hear had better listen!” 726 

The Parable of the Lost Sheep and Coin

15:1 Now all the tax collectors 727  and sinners were coming 728  to hear him. 15:2 But 729  the Pharisees 730  and the experts in the law 731  were complaining, 732  “This man welcomes 733  sinners and eats with them.”

15:3 So 734  Jesus 735  told them 736  this parable: 737  15:4 “Which one 738  of you, if he has a hundred 739  sheep and loses one of them, would not leave the ninety-nine in the open pasture 740  and go look for 741  the one that is lost until he finds it? 742  15:5 Then 743  when he has found it, he places it on his shoulders, rejoicing. 15:6 Returning 744  home, he calls together 745  his 746  friends and neighbors, telling them, ‘Rejoice with me, because I have found my sheep that was lost.’ 15:7 I tell you, in the same way there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner 747  who repents than over ninety-nine righteous people 748  who have no need to repent. 749 

15:8 “Or what woman, if she has ten silver coins 750  and loses 751  one of them, 752  does not light a lamp, sweep 753  the house, and search thoroughly until she finds it? 15:9 Then 754  when she has found it, she calls together her 755  friends and neighbors, saying, ‘Rejoice 756  with me, for I have found the coin 757  that I had lost.’ 15:10 In the same way, I tell you, there is joy in the presence of God’s angels 758  over one sinner who repents.”

The Parable of the Compassionate Father

15:11 Then 759  Jesus 760  said, “A man had two sons. 15:12 The 761  younger of them said to his 762  father, ‘Father, give me the share of the estate 763  that will belong 764  to me.’ So 765  he divided his 766  assets between them. 767  15:13 After 768  a few days, 769  the younger son gathered together all he had and left on a journey to a distant country, and there he squandered 770  his wealth 771  with a wild lifestyle. 15:14 Then 772  after he had spent everything, a severe famine took place in that country, and he began to be in need. 15:15 So he went and worked for 773  one of the citizens of that country, who 774  sent him to his fields to feed pigs. 775  15:16 He 776  was longing to eat 777  the carob pods 778  the pigs were eating, but 779  no one gave him anything. 15:17 But when he came to his senses 780  he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired workers have food 781  enough to spare, but here I am dying from hunger! 15:18 I will get up and go to my father and say to him, “Father, I have sinned 782  against heaven 783  and against 784  you. 15:19 I am no longer worthy to be called your son; treat me 785  like one of your hired workers.”’ 15:20 So 786  he got up and went to his father. But while he was still a long way from home 787  his father saw him, and his heart went out to him; 788  he ran and hugged 789  his son 790  and kissed him. 15:21 Then 791  his son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven 792  and against you; I am no longer worthy to be called your son.’ 793  15:22 But the father said to his slaves, 794  ‘Hurry! Bring the best robe, 795  and put it on him! Put a ring on his finger 796  and sandals 797  on his feet! 15:23 Bring 798  the fattened calf 799  and kill it! Let us eat 800  and celebrate, 15:24 because this son of mine was dead, and is alive again – he was lost and is found!’ 801  So 802  they began to celebrate.

15:25 “Now his older son was in the field. As 803  he came and approached the house, he heard music 804  and dancing. 15:26 So 805  he called one of the slaves 806  and asked what was happening. 15:27 The slave replied, 807  ‘Your brother has returned, and your father has killed the fattened calf 808  because he got his son 809  back safe and sound.’ 15:28 But the older son 810  became angry 811  and refused 812  to go in. His father came out and appealed to him, 15:29 but he answered 813  his father, ‘Look! These many years I have worked like a slave 814  for you, and I never disobeyed your commands. Yet 815  you never gave me even a goat 816  so that I could celebrate with my friends! 15:30 But when this son of yours 817  came back, who has devoured 818  your assets with prostitutes, 819  you killed the fattened calf 820  for him!’ 15:31 Then 821  the father 822  said to him, ‘Son, you are always with me, and everything that belongs to me is yours. 15:32 It was appropriate 823  to celebrate and be glad, for your brother 824  was dead, and is alive; he was lost and is found.’” 825 

The Parable of the Clever Steward

16:1 Jesus 826  also said to the disciples, “There was a rich man who was informed of accusations 827  that his manager 828  was wasting 829  his assets. 16:2 So 830  he called the manager 831  in and said to him, ‘What is this I hear about you? 832  Turn in the account of your administration, 833  because you can no longer be my manager.’ 16:3 Then 834  the manager said to himself, ‘What should I do, since my master is taking my position 835  away from me? I’m not strong enough to dig, 836  and I’m too ashamed 837  to beg. 16:4 I know 838  what to do so that when I am put out of management, people will welcome me into their homes.’ 839  16:5 So 840  he contacted 841  his master’s debtors one by one. He asked the first, ‘How much do you owe my master?’ 16:6 The man 842  replied, ‘A hundred measures 843  of olive oil.’ The manager 844  said to him, ‘Take your bill, sit down quickly, and write fifty.’ 845  16:7 Then he said to another, ‘And how much do you owe?’ The second man 846  replied, ‘A hundred measures 847  of wheat.’ The manager 848  said to him, ‘Take your bill, and write eighty.’ 849  16:8 The 850  master commended the dishonest 851  manager because he acted shrewdly. 852  For the people 853  of this world are more shrewd in dealing with their contemporaries 854  than the people 855  of light. 16:9 And I tell you, make friends for yourselves by how you use worldly wealth, 856  so that when it runs out you will be welcomed 857  into the eternal homes. 858 

16:10 “The one who is faithful in a very little 859  is also faithful in much, and the one who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. 16:11 If then you haven’t been trustworthy 860  in handling worldly wealth, 861  who will entrust you with the true riches? 862  16:12 And if you haven’t been trustworthy 863  with someone else’s property, 864  who will give you your own 865 ? 16:13 No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate 866  the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise 867  the other. You cannot serve God and money.” 868 

More Warnings about the Pharisees

16:14 The Pharisees 869  (who loved money) heard all this and ridiculed 870  him. 16:15 But 871  Jesus 872  said to them, “You are the ones who justify yourselves in men’s eyes, 873  but God knows your hearts. For what is highly prized 874  among men is utterly detestable 875  in God’s sight.

16:16 “The law and the prophets were in force 876  until John; 877  since then, 878  the good news of the kingdom of God 879  has been proclaimed, and everyone is urged to enter it. 880  16:17 But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one tiny stroke of a letter 881  in the law to become void. 882 

16:18 “Everyone who divorces his wife and marries 883  someone else commits adultery, and the one who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adultery.

The Rich Man and Lazarus

16:19 “There was a rich man who dressed in purple 884  and fine linen and who feasted sumptuously 885  every day. 16:20 But at his gate lay 886  a poor man named Lazarus 887  whose body was covered with sores, 888  16:21 who longed to eat 889  what fell from the rich man’s table. In addition, the dogs 890  came and licked 891  his sores.

16:22 “Now 892  the poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abraham’s side. 893  The 894  rich man also died and was buried. 895  16:23 And in hell, 896  as he was in torment, 897  he looked up 898  and saw Abraham far off with Lazarus at his side. 899  16:24 So 900  he called out, 901  ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus 902  to dip the tip of his finger 903  in water and cool my tongue, because I am in anguish 904  in this fire.’ 905  16:25 But Abraham said, ‘Child, 906  remember that in your lifetime you received your good things and Lazarus likewise bad things, but now he is comforted here and you are in anguish. 907  16:26 Besides all this, 908  a great chasm 909  has been fixed between us, 910  so that those who want to cross over from here to you cannot do so, and no one can cross from there to us.’ 16:27 So 911  the rich man 912  said, ‘Then I beg you, father – send Lazarus 913  to my father’s house 16:28 (for I have five brothers) to warn 914  them so that they don’t come 915  into this place of torment.’ 16:29 But Abraham said, 916  ‘They have Moses and the prophets; they must respond to 917  them.’ 16:30 Then 918  the rich man 919  said, ‘No, father Abraham, but if someone from the dead 920  goes to them, they will repent.’ 16:31 He 921  replied to him, ‘If they do not respond to 922  Moses and the prophets, they will not be convinced even if someone rises from the dead.’” 923 

Sin, Forgiveness, Faith, and Service

17:1 Jesus 924  said to his disciples, “Stumbling blocks are sure to come, but woe 925  to the one through whom they come! 17:2 It would be better for him to have a millstone 926  tied around his neck and be thrown into the sea 927  than for him to cause one of these little ones to sin. 928  17:3 Watch 929  yourselves! If 930  your brother 931  sins, rebuke him. If 932  he repents, forgive him. 17:4 Even if he sins against you seven times in a day, and seven times returns to you saying, ‘I repent,’ you must forgive 933  him.”

17:5 The 934  apostles said to the Lord, “Increase our faith!” 935  17:6 So 936  the Lord replied, 937  “If 938  you had faith the size of 939  a mustard seed, you could say to this black mulberry 940  tree, ‘Be pulled out by the roots and planted in the sea,’ 941  and it would obey 942  you.

17:7 “Would any one of you say 943  to your slave 944  who comes in from the field after plowing or shepherding sheep, ‘Come at once and sit down for a meal’? 945  17:8 Won’t 946  the master 947  instead say to him, ‘Get my dinner ready, and make yourself ready 948  to serve me while 949  I eat and drink. Then 950  you may eat and drink’? 17:9 He won’t thank the slave because he did what he was told, 951  will he? 952  17:10 So you too, when you have done everything you were commanded to do, should say, ‘We are slaves undeserving of special praise; 953  we have only done what was our duty.’” 954 

The Grateful Leper

17:11 Now on 955  the way to Jerusalem, 956  Jesus 957  was passing along 958  between Samaria and Galilee. 17:12 As 959  he was entering 960  a village, ten men with leprosy 961  met him. They 962  stood at a distance, 17:13 raised their voices and said, “Jesus, Master, have mercy 963  on us.” 17:14 When 964  he saw them he said, “Go 965  and show yourselves to the priests.” 966  And 967  as they went along, they were cleansed. 17:15 Then one of them, when he saw he was healed, turned back, praising 968  God with a loud voice. 17:16 He 969  fell with his face to the ground 970  at Jesus’ feet and thanked him. 971  (Now 972  he was a Samaritan.) 973  17:17 Then 974  Jesus said, 975  “Were 976  not ten cleansed? Where are the other 977  nine? 17:18 Was no one found to turn back and give praise to God except this foreigner?” 978  17:19 Then 979  he said to the man, 980  “Get up and go your way. Your faith has made you well.” 981 

The Coming of the Kingdom

17:20 Now at one point 982  the Pharisees 983  asked Jesus 984  when the kingdom of God 985  was coming, so he answered, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs 986  to be observed, 17:21 nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is!’ or ‘There!’ For indeed, the kingdom of God is 987  in your midst.” 988 

The Coming of the Son of Man

17:22 Then 989  he said to the disciples, “The days are coming when you will desire to see one of the days 990  of the Son of Man, and you will not see it. 17:23 Then people 991  will say to you, ‘Look, there he is!’ 992  or ‘Look, here he is!’ Do not go out or chase after them. 993  17:24 For just like the lightning flashes 994  and lights up the sky from one side to the other, so will the Son of Man be in his day. 995  17:25 But first he must 996  suffer many things and be rejected by this generation. 17:26 Just 997  as it was 998  in the days of Noah, 999  so too it will be in the days of the Son of Man. 17:27 People 1000  were eating, 1001  they were drinking, they were marrying, they were being given in marriage – right up to the day Noah entered the ark. Then 1002  the flood came and destroyed them all. 1003  17:28 Likewise, just as it was 1004  in the days of Lot, people 1005  were eating, drinking, buying, selling, planting, building; 17:29 but on the day Lot went out from Sodom, fire and sulfur rained down from heaven and destroyed them all. 1006  17:30 It will be the same on the day the Son of Man is revealed. 17:31 On that day, anyone who is on the roof, 1007  with his goods in the house, must not come down 1008  to take them away, and likewise the person in the field must not turn back. 17:32 Remember Lot’s wife! 1009  17:33 Whoever tries to keep 1010  his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life 1011  will preserve it. 17:34 I tell you, in that night there will be two people in one bed; one will be taken and the other left. 1012  17:35 There will be two women grinding grain together; 1013  one will be taken and the other left.”

17:36 [[EMPTY]] 1014 

17:37 Then 1015  the disciples 1016  said 1017  to him, “Where, 1018  Lord?” He replied to them, “Where the dead body 1019  is, there the vultures 1020  will gather.” 1021 

Prayer and the Parable of the Persistent Widow

18:1 Then 1022  Jesus 1023  told them a parable to show them they should always 1024  pray and not lose heart. 1025  18:2 He said, 1026  “In a certain city 1027  there was a judge 1028  who neither feared God nor respected people. 1029  18:3 There was also a widow 1030  in that city 1031  who kept coming 1032  to him and saying, ‘Give me justice against my adversary.’ 18:4 For 1033  a while he refused, but later on 1034  he said to himself, ‘Though I neither fear God nor have regard for people, 1035  18:5 yet because this widow keeps on bothering me, I will give her justice, or in the end she will wear me out 1036  by her unending pleas.’” 1037  18:6 And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unrighteous judge says! 1038  18:7 Won’t 1039  God give justice to his chosen ones, who cry out 1040  to him day and night? 1041  Will he delay 1042  long to help them? 18:8 I tell you, he will give them justice speedily. 1043  Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith 1044  on earth?”

The Parable of the Pharisee and Tax Collector

18:9 Jesus 1045  also told this parable to some who were confident that they were righteous and looked down 1046  on everyone else. 18:10 “Two men went up 1047  to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee 1048  and the other a tax collector. 1049  18:11 The Pharisee stood and prayed about himself like this: 1050  ‘God, I thank 1051  you that I am not like other people: 1052  extortionists, 1053  unrighteous people, 1054  adulterers – or even like this tax collector. 1055  18:12 I fast twice 1056  a week; I give a tenth 1057  of everything I get.’ 18:13 The tax collector, however, stood 1058  far off and would not even look up 1059  to heaven, but beat his breast and said, ‘God, be merciful 1060  to me, sinner that I am!’ 1061  18:14 I tell you that this man went down to his home justified 1062  rather than the Pharisee. 1063  For everyone who exalts 1064  himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted.”

Jesus and Little Children

18:15 Now people 1065  were even bringing their babies 1066  to him for him to touch. 1067  But when the disciples saw it, they began to scold those who brought them. 1068  18:16 But Jesus called for the children, 1069  saying, “Let the little children come to me and do not try to stop them, for the kingdom of God 1070  belongs to such as these. 1071  18:17 I tell you the truth, 1072  whoever does not receive 1073  the kingdom of God like a child 1074  will never 1075  enter it.”

The Wealthy Ruler

18:18 Now 1076  a certain ruler 1077  asked him, “Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” 1078  18:19 Jesus 1079  said to him, “Why do you call me good? 1080  No one is good except God alone. 18:20 You know the commandments: ‘Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not give false testimony, honor your father and mother.’” 1081  18:21 The man 1082  replied, “I have wholeheartedly obeyed 1083  all these laws 1084  since my youth.” 1085  18:22 When Jesus heard this, he said to him, “One thing you still lack. Sell all that you have 1086  and give the money 1087  to the poor, 1088  and you will have treasure 1089  in heaven. Then 1090  come, follow me.” 18:23 But when the man 1091  heard this he became very sad, 1092  for he was extremely wealthy. 18:24 When Jesus noticed this, 1093  he said, “How hard 1094  it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God! 1095  18:25 In fact, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle 1096  than for a rich person to enter the kingdom of God.” 18:26 Those who heard this said, “Then 1097  who can be saved?” 1098  18:27 He replied, “What is impossible 1099  for mere humans 1100  is possible for God.” 18:28 And Peter said, “Look, we have left everything we own 1101  to follow you!” 1102  18:29 Then 1103  Jesus 1104  said to them, “I tell you the truth, 1105  there is no one who has left home or wife or brothers 1106  or parents or children for the sake of God’s kingdom 18:30 who will not receive many times more 1107  in this age 1108  – and in the age to come, eternal life.” 1109 

Another Prediction of Jesus’ Passion

18:31 Then 1110  Jesus 1111  took the twelve aside and said to them, “Look, we are going up to Jerusalem, 1112  and everything that is written about the Son of Man by the prophets will be accomplished. 1113  18:32 For he will be handed over 1114  to the Gentiles; he will be mocked, 1115  mistreated, 1116  and spat on. 1117  18:33 They will flog him severely 1118  and kill him. Yet 1119  on the third day he will rise again.” 18:34 But 1120  the twelve 1121  understood none of these things. This 1122  saying was hidden from them, and they did not grasp 1123  what Jesus meant. 1124 

Healing a Blind Man

18:35 As 1125  Jesus 1126  approached 1127  Jericho, 1128  a blind man was sitting by the road begging. 18:36 When he heard a crowd going by, he asked what was going on. 18:37 They 1129  told him, “Jesus the Nazarene is passing by.” 18:38 So 1130  he called out, 1131  “Jesus, Son of David, 1132  have mercy 1133  on me!” 18:39 And those who were in front 1134  scolded 1135  him to get him to be quiet, but he shouted 1136  even more, “Son of David, have mercy on me!” 18:40 So 1137  Jesus stopped and ordered the beggar 1138  to be brought to him. When the man 1139  came near, Jesus 1140  asked him, 18:41 “What do you want me to do for you?” He replied, 1141  “Lord, let me see again.” 1142  18:42 Jesus 1143  said to him, “Receive 1144  your sight; your faith has healed you.” 1145  18:43 And immediately he regained 1146  his sight and followed Jesus, 1147  praising 1148  God. When 1149  all the people saw it, they too 1150  gave praise to God.

Jesus and Zacchaeus

19:1 Jesus 1151  entered Jericho 1152  and was passing through it. 19:2 Now 1153  a man named Zacchaeus was there; he was a chief tax collector 1154  and was rich. 19:3 He 1155  was trying to get a look at Jesus, 1156  but being a short man he could not see over the crowd. 1157  19:4 So 1158  he ran on ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree 1159  to see him, because Jesus 1160  was going to pass that way. 19:5 And when Jesus came to that place, he looked up 1161  and said to him, “Zacchaeus, come down quickly, 1162  because I must 1163  stay at your house today.” 1164  19:6 So he came down quickly 1165  and welcomed Jesus 1166  joyfully. 1167  19:7 And when the people 1168  saw it, they all complained, 1169  “He has gone in to be the guest of a man who is a sinner.” 1170  19:8 But Zacchaeus stopped and said to the Lord, “Look, Lord, half of my possessions I now give 1171  to the poor, and if 1172  I have cheated anyone of anything, I am paying back four times as much!” 19:9 Then 1173  Jesus said to him, “Today salvation 1174  has come to this household, 1175  because he too is a son of Abraham! 1176  19:10 For the Son of Man came 1177  to seek and to save the lost.”

The Parable of the Ten Minas

19:11 While the people were listening to these things, Jesus 1178  proceeded to tell a parable, because he was near to Jerusalem, 1179  and because they thought 1180  that the kingdom of God 1181  was going to 1182  appear immediately. 19:12 Therefore he said, “A nobleman 1183  went to a distant country to receive 1184  for himself a kingdom and then return. 1185  19:13 And he summoned ten of his slaves, 1186  gave them ten minas, 1187  and said to them, ‘Do business with these until I come back.’ 19:14 But his citizens 1188  hated 1189  him and sent a delegation after him, saying, ‘We do not want this man 1190  to be king 1191  over us!’ 19:15 When 1192  he returned after receiving the kingdom, he summoned 1193  these slaves to whom he had given the money. He wanted 1194  to know how much they had earned 1195  by trading. 19:16 So 1196  the first one came before him and said, ‘Sir, 1197  your mina 1198  has made ten minas more.’ 19:17 And the king 1199  said to him, ‘Well done, good slave! Because you have been faithful 1200  in a very small matter, you will have authority 1201  over ten cities.’ 19:18 Then 1202  the second one came and said, ‘Sir, your mina has made five minas.’ 19:19 So 1203  the king 1204  said to him, ‘And you are to be over five cities.’ 19:20 Then another 1205  slave 1206  came and said, ‘Sir, here is 1207  your mina that I put away for safekeeping 1208  in a piece of cloth. 1209  19:21 For I was afraid of you, because you are a severe 1210  man. You withdraw 1211  what you did not deposit 1212  and reap what you did not sow.’ 19:22 The king 1213  said to him, ‘I will judge you by your own words, 1214  you wicked slave! 1215  So you knew, did you, that I was a severe 1216  man, withdrawing what I didn’t deposit and reaping what I didn’t sow? 19:23 Why then didn’t you put 1217  my money in the bank, 1218  so that when I returned I could have collected it with interest?’ 19:24 And he said to his attendants, 1219  ‘Take the mina from him, and give it to the one who has ten.’ 1220  19:25 But 1221  they said to him, ‘Sir, he has ten minas already!’ 1222  19:26 ‘I tell you that everyone who has will be given more, 1223  but from the one who does not have, even what he has will be taken away. 1224  19:27 But as for these enemies of mine who did not want me to be their king, 1225  bring them here and slaughter 1226  them 1227  in front of me!’”

The Triumphal Entry

19:28 After Jesus 1228  had said this, he continued on ahead, 1229  going up to Jerusalem. 1230  19:29 Now 1231  when he approached Bethphage 1232  and Bethany, at the place called the Mount of Olives, 1233  he sent two of the disciples, 19:30 telling them, 1234  “Go to the village ahead of you. 1235  When 1236  you enter it, you will find a colt tied there that has never been ridden. 1237  Untie it and bring it here. 19:31 If anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ just say, ‘The Lord needs 1238  it.’” 19:32 So those who were sent ahead found 1239  it exactly 1240  as he had told them. 19:33 As 1241  they were untying the colt, its owners asked them, 1242  “Why are you untying that colt?” 19:34 They replied, “The Lord needs it.” 19:35 Then 1243  they brought it to Jesus, threw their cloaks 1244  on the colt, 1245  and had Jesus get on 1246  it. 19:36 As 1247  he rode along, they 1248  spread their cloaks on the road. 19:37 As he approached the road leading down from 1249  the Mount of Olives, 1250  the whole crowd of his 1251  disciples began to rejoice 1252  and praise 1253  God with a loud voice for all the mighty works 1254  they had seen: 1255  19:38Blessed is the king 1256  who comes in the name of the Lord! 1257  Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!” 19:39 But 1258  some of the Pharisees 1259  in the crowd said to him, “Teacher, rebuke your disciples.” 1260  19:40 He answered, 1261  “I tell you, if they 1262  keep silent, the very stones 1263  will cry out!”

Jesus Weeps for Jerusalem under Judgment

19:41 Now 1264  when Jesus 1265  approached 1266  and saw the city, he wept over it, 19:42 saying, “If you had only known on this day, 1267  even you, the things that make for peace! 1268  But now they are hidden 1269  from your eyes. 19:43 For the days will come upon you when your enemies will build 1270  an embankment 1271  against you and surround you and close in on you from every side. 19:44 They will demolish you 1272  – you and your children within your walls 1273  – and they will not leave within you one stone 1274  on top of another, 1275  because you did not recognize the time of your visitation from God.” 1276 

Cleansing the Temple

19:45 Then 1277  Jesus 1278  entered the temple courts 1279  and began to drive out those who were selling things there, 1280  19:46 saying to them, “It is written, ‘My house will be a house of prayer,’ 1281  but you have turned it into a den 1282  of robbers!” 1283 

19:47 Jesus 1284  was teaching daily in the temple courts. The chief priests and the experts in the law 1285  and the prominent leaders among the people were seeking to assassinate 1286  him, 19:48 but 1287  they could not find a way to do it, 1288  for all the people hung on his words. 1289 

1 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

2 tn Grk “the days were being fulfilled.” There is literary design here. This starts what has been called in the Gospel of Luke the “Jerusalem Journey.” It is not a straight-line trip, but a journey to meet his fate (Luke 13:31-35).

3 sn Taken up is a reference to Jesus’ upcoming return to heaven by crucifixion and resurrection (compare Luke 9:31). This term was used in the LXX of Elijah’s departure in 2 Kgs 2:9.

4 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

5 tn Grk “he set his face,” a Semitic idiom that speaks of a firm, unshakable resolve to do something (Gen 31:21; Isa 50:7).

6 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

7 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

8 tn Grk “sent messengers before his face,” an idiom.

9 tn Grk “And going along, they entered.” The aorist passive participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken temporally. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

10 tn Or “to prepare (things) for him.”

11 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the villagers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

12 tn Or “did not receive”; this verb, δέχομαι (decomai), is a term of hospitality or welcome (L&N 34.53).

13 tn Grk “because his face was set toward Jerusalem.”

sn Jerusalem is to be the place of rejection, as Luke 9:44 suggested. Jesus had resolved to meet his fate in Jerusalem, so the rejection was no surprise.

14 tn Or “destroy.”

15 tc Most mss, especially the later ones (A C D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï it), read here “as also Elijah did,” making the allusion to 2 Kgs 1:10, 12, 14 more explicit. The shorter reading has better and earlier support (Ì45,75 א B L Ξ 579 700* 1241 pc lat sa). It is difficult to explain how the shorter reading could have arisen from the longer, especially since it is well represented early on. However, the longer reading looks to have been a marginal note originally, incorporated into the text of Luke by early scribes.

sn An allusion to 2 Kgs 1:10, 12, 14.

16 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

17 tc Many mss ([D] K Γ Θ Ë1,13 [579] 700 2542 pm it) have at the end of the verse (with slight variations) “and he said, ‘You do not know what sort of spirit you are of, for the Son of Man did not come to destroy people’s lives, but to save [them].’” This variant is clearly secondary, as it gives some content to the rebuke. Further, it is difficult to explain how such rich material would have been omitted by the rest of the witnesses, including the earliest and best mss.

sn The point of the rebuke is that now was not the time for judgment but patience; see 2 Pet 3:9.

18 tn Grk “And as.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

19 tn Grk “going,” but “walking” is an accurate description of how they traveled about.

20 tc Most mss (A C W Θ Ψ Ë13 33 Ï) add κύριε (kurie, “Lord”) here, but scribes were prone to add to the text, especially appellations for the Lord. The shorter reading also enjoys significant ms support (Ì45,75 א B D L Ξ Ë1 lat co).

sn The statement “I will follow you wherever you go” is an offer to follow Jesus as a disciple, no matter what the cost.

21 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

22 sn Jesus’ reply is simply this: Does the man understand the rejection he will be facing? Jesus has no home in the world (the Son of Man has no place to lay his head).

23 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

24 tn Grk “said.”

25 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

26 sn There are several options for the meaning of Jesus’ reply Leave the dead to bury their own dead: (1) Recent research suggests that burial customs in the vicinity of Jerusalem from about 20 b.c. to a.d. 70 involved a reinterment of the bones a year after the initial burial, once the flesh had rotted away. At that point the son would have placed his father’s bones in a special box known as an ossuary to be set into the wall of the tomb. Thus Jesus could well be rebuking the man for wanting to wait around for as much as a year before making a commitment to follow him. In 1st century Jewish culture, to have followed Jesus rather than burying one’s father would have seriously dishonored one’s father (cf. Tobit 4:3-4). (2) The remark is an idiom (possibly a proverbial saying) that means, “The matter in question is not the real issue,” in which case Jesus was making a wordplay on the wording of the man’s (literal) request (see L&N 33.137). (3) This remark could be a figurative reference to various kinds of people, meaning, “Let the spiritually dead bury the dead.” (4) It could also be literal and designed to shock the hearer by the surprise of the contrast. Whichever option is preferred, it is clear that the most important priority is to preach the gospel (proclaim the kingdom of God).

27 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

28 tn Grk “And another also said.”

29 tn Grk “to those in my house.”

30 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

31 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

32 sn Jesus warns that excessive concern for family ties (looks back) will make the kingdom a lesser priority, which is not appropriate for discipleship. The image is graphic, for who can plow straight ahead toward a goal while looking back? Discipleship cannot be double-minded.

33 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

34 tn Grk “And after these things.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

35 tc There is a difficult textual problem here and in v. 17, where the number is either “seventy” (א A C L W Θ Ξ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï and several church fathers and early versions) or “seventy-two” (Ì75 B D 0181 pc lat as well as other versions and fathers). The more difficult reading is “seventy-two,” since scribes would be prone to assimilate this passage to several OT passages that refer to groups of seventy people (Num 11:13-17; Deut 10:22; Judg 8:30; 2 Kgs 10:1 et al.); this reading also has slightly better ms support. “Seventy” could be the preferred reading if scribes drew from the tradition of the number of translators of the LXX, which the Letter of Aristeas puts at seventy-two (TCGNT 127), although this is far less likely. All things considered, “seventy-two” is a much more difficult reading and accounts for the rise of the other. Only Luke notes a second larger mission like the one in 9:1-6.

36 tn Or “city.”

37 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

38 sn The phrase Lord of the harvest recognizes God’s sovereignty over the harvest process.

39 tn Grk “to thrust out.”

40 tn Grk “Behold I.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

41 sn On the imagery of lambs see Isa 40:11, Ezek 34:11-31, and John 10:1-18.

42 sn This imagery of wolves is found in intertestamental Judaism as well; see Pss. Sol. 8:23.

43 sn On the command Do not carry see Luke 9:3. The travel instructions communicate a note of urgency and stand in contrast to philosophical teachers, who often took a bag. There is no ostentation in this ministry.

44 tn Traditionally, “a purse.”

45 tn Or possibly “a beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145; BDAG 811 s.v. πήρα).

46 tn Or “no one along the way.”

47 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

48 tn Grk “Into whatever house you enter.” This acts as a distributive, meaning every house they enter; this is expressed more naturally in English as “whenever you enter a house.”

49 sn The statement ‘May peace be on this house!’ is really a benediction, asking for God’s blessing. The requested shalom (peace) is understood as coming from God.

50 tn Grk “a son of peace,” a Hebrew idiom for a person of a certain class or kind, as specified by the following genitive construction (in this case, “of peace”). Such constructions are discussed further in L&N 9.4. Here the expression refers to someone who responds positively to the disciples’ message, like “wisdom’s child” in Luke 7:30.

51 sn The response to these messengers determines how God’s blessing is bestowed – if they are not welcomed with peace, their blessing will return to them. Jesus shows just how important their mission is by this remark.

52 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

53 tn Grk “eating and drinking the things from them” (an idiom for what the people in the house provide the guests).

54 sn On the phrase the worker deserves his pay see 1 Tim 5:18 and 1 Cor 9:14.

55 tn Grk “And whatever town you enter,” but this is more often expressed in English as “whenever you enter a town.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

56 tn Or “city.” Jesus now speaks of the town as a whole, as he will in vv. 10-12.

57 tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people who live in the town) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

58 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

sn Ministry (heal the sick) is to take place where it is well received (note welcome in the preceding verse).

59 tn Grk “in it”; the referent (that town) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

60 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

61 tn Or “come near to you,” suggesting the approach (but not arrival) of the kingdom. But the combination of the perfect tense of ἐγγίζω (engizw) with the preposition ἐπί (epi) most likely suggests that the sense is “has come upon” (see BDAG 270 s.v. ἐγγίζω 2; W. R. Hutton, “The Kingdom of God Has Come,” ExpTim 64 [Dec 1952]: 89-91; and D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1000; cf. also NAB “is at hand for you”). These passages argue that a key element of the kingdom is its ability to overcome the power of Satan and those elements in the creation that oppose humanity. Confirmation of this understanding comes in v. 18 and in Luke 11:14-23, especially the parable of vv. 21-23.

62 tn Grk “whatever town you enter,” but this is more often expressed in English as “whenever you enter a town.”

63 tn Or “city.”

64 tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people who live in the town) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

65 sn More discussion takes place concerning rejection (the people do not welcome you), as these verses lead into the condemnation of certain towns for their rejection of God’s kingdom.

66 tn The term πλατεῖα (plateia) refers to the “broad street,” so this refers to the main roads of the town.

67 tn Or “city.”

68 sn See Luke 9:5, where the verb is different but the meaning is the same. This was a sign of rejection.

69 tn Here ὑμῖν (Jumin) has been translated as a dative of disadvantage.

70 tn Or “has come near.” As in v. 9 (see above), the combination of ἐγγίζω (engizw) with the preposition ἐπί (epi) is decisive in showing that the sense is “has come” (see BDAG 270 s.v. ἐγγίζω 2, and W. R. Hutton, “The Kingdom of God Has Come,” ExpTim 64 [Dec 1952]: 89-91).

71 sn The allusion to Sodom, the most wicked of OT cities from Gen 19:1-29, shows that to reject the current message is even more serious than the worst sins of the old era and will result in more severe punishment. The noun Sodom is in emphatic position in the Greek text.

72 tn Or “city.”

73 sn Chorazin was a town of Galilee that was probably fairly small in contrast to Bethsaida and is otherwise unattested. Bethsaida was declared a polis by the tetrarch Herod Philip, sometime after a.d. 30.

74 tn This introduces a second class (contrary to fact) condition in the Greek text.

75 tn Or “powerful deeds.”

76 map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

77 sn Tyre and Sidon are two other notorious OT cities (Isa 23; Jer 25:22; 47:4). The remark is a severe rebuke, in effect: “Even the sinners of the old era would have responded to the proclamation of the kingdom, unlike you!”

map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

78 sn Capernaum was a town on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region.

map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 C3; Map3 B2.

79 tn The interrogative particle introducing this question expects a negative reply.

80 sn In the OT, Hades was known as Sheol. It is the place where the unrighteous will reside (Matt 11:23; Luke 16:23; Rev 20:13-14).

81 tn Grk “hears you”; but as the context of vv. 8-9 makes clear, it is response that is the point. In contemporary English, “listen to” is one way to express this function (L&N 31.56).

82 sn Jesus linked himself to the disciples’ message: Responding to the disciples (listens to you) counts as responding to him.

83 tn The double mention of rejection in this clause – ἀθετῶν ἀθετεῖ (aqetwn aqetei) in the Greek text – keeps up the emphasis of the section.

84 sn The one who sent me refers to God.

85 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

86 tc See the tc note on the number “seventy-two” in Luke 10:1.

87 tn Or “the demons obey”; see L&N 36.18.

88 tn The prepositional phrase “in your name” indicates the sphere of authority for the messengers’ work of exorcism.

89 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ reply in vv. 18-20 follows from the positive report of the messengers in v. 17.

90 tn This is an imperfect tense verb.

91 tn In Greek, this is a participle and comes at the end of the verse, making it somewhat emphatic.

92 tn This is probably best taken as allusion to Isa 14:12; the phrase in common is ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (ek tou ouranou). These exorcisms in Jesus’ name are a picture of Satan’s greater defeat at Jesus’ hands (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1006-7).

93 tn Or perhaps, “trample on” (which emphasizes the impact of the feet on the snakes). See L&N 15.226.

94 sn Snakes and scorpions are examples of the hostility in the creation that is defeated by Jesus. The use of battle imagery shows who the kingdom fights against. See Acts 28:3-6.

95 tn Or “I have given you authority to tread on snakes and scorpions, and [authority] over the full force of the enemy.” The second prepositional phrase can be taken either as modifying the infinitive πατεῖν (patein, “to tread”) or the noun ἐξουσίαν (exousian, “power”). The former is to be preferred and has been represented in the translation.

sn The enemy is a reference to Satan (mentioned in v. 18).

96 tn This is an emphatic double negative in the Greek text.

97 tn Grk “do not rejoice in this, that.” This is awkward in contemporary English and has been simplified to “do not rejoice that.”

98 tn The verb here is a present imperative, so the call is to an attitude of rejoicing.

99 tn The verb here, a perfect tense, stresses a present reality of that which was a completed action, that is, their names were etched in the heavenly stone, as it were.

100 tn Grk “In that same hour” (L&N 67.1).

101 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

102 sn Jesus rejoiced. The account of the mission in 10:1-24 ends with several remarks about joy.

103 tn Or “thank.”

104 sn The title Lord is an important name for God, showing his sovereignty, but it is interesting that it comes next to a reference to the Father, a term indicative of God’s care. The two concepts are often related in the NT; see Eph 1:3-6.

105 tn Or “that.”

106 sn See 1 Cor 1:26-31.

107 tn Grk “for (to do) thus was well pleasing before you,” BDAG 325 s.v. ἔμπροσθεν 1.δ; speaking of something taking place “before” God is a reverential way of avoiding direct connection of the action to him.

108 sn This verse has been noted for its conceptual similarity to teaching in John’s Gospel (10:15; 17:2). The authority of the Son and the Father are totally intertwined.

109 tn Or “wishes”; or “intends”; or “plans” (cf. BDAG 182 s.v. βούλομαι 2.b). Here it is the Son who has sovereignty.

110 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

111 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

112 tn Grk “turning to the disciples, he said.” The participle στραφείς (strafei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

113 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

114 sn This beatitude highlights the great honor bestowed on the disciples to share in this salvation, as v. 20 also noted. See also Luke 2:30.

115 sn This is what past prophets and kings had wanted very much to see, yet the fulfillment had come to the disciples. This remark is like 1 Pet 1:10-12 or Heb 1:1-2.

116 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

117 tn Traditionally, “a lawyer.” This was an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law (see also Luke 7:30, where the same term occurs).

118 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

119 sn The combination of inherit with eternal life asks, in effect, “What must I do to be saved?”

120 tn Grk “How do you read?” The pronoun “it” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

121 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law, shortened here to “the expert”) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

122 tn Grk “You will love.” The future indicative is used here with imperatival force (see ExSyn 452 and 569).

123 sn A quotation from Deut 6:5. The fourfold reference to different parts of the person says, in effect, that one should love God with all one’s being.

124 tn This portion of the reply is a quotation from Lev 19:18. The verb is repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons.

125 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

126 sn Jesus commends the reply (you have answered correctly). What is assumed here, given the previous context, is that he will respond to Jesus’ message, as to love God is to respond to his Son; see v. 22.

127 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law, shortened here to “the expert”) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

128 tn Or “vindicate.”

sn The expert in religious law picked up on the remark about the neighbor and sought to limit his responsibility for loving. Some believed this obligation would only be required toward the righteous (Sir 12:1-4). The lawyer was trying to see if that was right and thus confidently establish his righteousness (wanting to justify himself).

129 tn Grk “answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “replied.”

130 sn The journey from Jerusalem to Jericho was 17 mi (27 km), descending some 1800 ft (540 m) in altitude. It was known for its danger because the road ran through areas of desert and caves where the robbers hid.

131 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

132 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

133 tn Grk “and beat,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

134 sn That is, in a state between life and death; severely wounded.

135 sn The phrase by chance adds an initial note of hope and fortune to the expectation in the story.

136 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context between the priest’s expected action (helping the victim) and what he really did.

137 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the injured man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

138 sn It is not said why the priest passed by and refused to help. It is not relevant to the point of the parable that no help was given in the emergency situation.

139 sn The text suggests that the priest went out of his way (on the other side) not to get too close to the scene.

140 tn Here κατά (kata) has been translated “up to”; it could also be translated “upon.”

141 tn The clause containing the aorist active participle ἐλθών (elqwn) suggests that the Levite came up to the place, took a look, and then moved on.

142 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context between the previous characters (considered by society to be examples of piety and religious duty) and a hated Samaritan.

143 tn This is at the beginning of the clause, in emphatic position in the Greek text.

144 tn The participle ὁδεύων (Jodeuwn) has been translated as an adjectival participle (cf. NAB, NASB, TEV); it could also be taken temporally (“while he was traveling,” cf. NRSV, NIV).

145 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the injured man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

146 tn “Him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. The verb means “to feel compassion for,” and the object of the compassion is understood.

sn Here is what made the Samaritan different: He felt compassion for him. In the story, compassion becomes the concrete expression of love. The next verse details explicitly six acts of compassion.

147 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Instead, because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

148 tn The words “to him” are not in the Greek text but are implied. The participle προσελθών (proselqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

149 sn The ancient practice of pouring oil was designed to comfort and clean the wounds (Isa 1:6).

150 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Because of the length and complexity of this Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

151 tn It is not clear whether the causative nuance of the verb included actual assistance or not (“helped him on” versus “had him get on”; see L&N 15.98), but in light of the severity of the man’s condition as described in the preceding verses, some degree of assistance was almost certainly needed.

152 sn His own animal refers to a riding animal, presumably a donkey, but not specified.

153 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

154 tn Grk “two denarii.”

sn The two silver coins were denarii. A denarius was a silver coin worth about a day’s pay for a laborer; this would be an amount worth about two days’ pay.

155 tn Grk “when I come back”; the words “this way” are part of an English idiom used to translate the phrase.

156 sn Jesus reversed the question the expert in religious law asked in v. 29 to one of becoming a neighbor by loving. “Do not think about who they are, but who you are,” was his reply.

157 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

158 sn The neighbor did not do what was required (that is why his response is called mercy) but had compassion and out of kindness went the extra step that shows love. See Mic 6:8. Note how the expert in religious law could not bring himself to admit that the example was a Samaritan, someone who would have been seen as a racial half-breed and one not worthy of respect. So Jesus makes a second point that neighbors may appear in surprising places.

159 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding summary.

160 tn This recalls the verb of the earlier reply in v. 28.

161 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

162 tc Most mss have “into the house” (Ì3vid א C L Ξ 33 579 pc) or “into her house” (א1 A C2 D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 Ï lat) at the end of the sentence. But the English translation masks the multitude of variants: Different forms of “house” (οἰκίαν [oikian], οἶκον [oikon]) and “her” occur (see TCGNT 129). These variations argue against authenticity; they no doubt arose because of the abrupt ending of the sentence (the Greek is more literally translated simply as “Martha received him”), prompting copyists to add the location. The shorter reading is found in Ì45,75 B sa.

tn For the meaning “to welcome, to have as a guest” see L&N 34.53.

163 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

164 tn This reflexive makes it clear that Mary took the initiative in sitting by Jesus.

165 sn The description of Mary sitting at the Lord’s feet and listening to him makes her sound like a disciple (compare Luke 8:35).

166 sn The term distracted means “to be pulled away” by something (L&N 25.238). It is a narrative comment that makes clear who is right in the account.

167 tn Grk “with much serving.”

168 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the following was a result of Martha’s distraction.

169 tn The negative οὐ (ou) used with the verb expects a positive reply. Martha expected Jesus to respond and rebuke Mary.

170 tn Grk “has left me to serve alone.”

171 tn The conjunction οὖν (oun, “then, therefore”) has not been translated here.

172 tc Most mss (A B* C D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï it) read “Jesus” instead of “the Lord” here, but κύριος (kurios, “Lord”) has the support of some weighty papyri, uncials, and other witnesses (Ì3,[45],75 א B2 L 579 892 pc lat sa).

173 tn Grk “answering, said to her.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “answered her.”

174 sn The double vocative Martha, Martha communicates emotion.

175 tn Or “upset.” Here the meanings of μεριμνάω (merimnaw) and θορυβάζομαι (qorubazomai) reinforce each other (L&N 25.234).

176 tc Or, with some mss (Ì3 [א] B C2 L 070vid Ë1 33 [579] pc), “few things are needed – or only one” (as well as other variants). The textual problem here is a difficult one to decide. The shorter reading is normally preferred, but it is not altogether clear how the variants would arise from it. However, the reading followed in the translation has good support (with some internal variations) from a number of witnesses (Ì45,75 A C* W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï lat sa).

177 tn Or “better”; Grk “good.” This is an instance of the positive adjective used in place of the superlative adjective. According to ExSyn 298, this could also be treated as a positive for comparative (“better”).

178 tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

179 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

180 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

181 sn John refers to John the Baptist.

182 sn It was not unusual for Jewish groups to have their own prayer as a way of expressing corporate identity. Judaism had the Eighteen Benedictions and apparently John the Baptist had a prayer for his disciples as well.

183 sn When you pray. What follows, although traditionally known as the Lord’s prayer, is really the disciples’ prayer. It represents how they are to approach God, by acknowledging his uniqueness and their need for his provision and protection.

184 tc Most mss, including later majority (A C D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33vid Ï it), add ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς (Jhmwn Jo en toi" oujranoi", “our [Father] in heaven”) here. This makes the prayer begin like the version in Matt 6:9. The shorter version is read by Ì75 א B (L: + ἡμῶν) 1 700 pc as well as some versions and fathers. Given this more weighty external evidence, combined with the scribal tendency to harmonize Gospel parallels, the shorter reading is preferred.

sn God is addressed in terms of intimacy (Father). The original Semitic term here was probably Abba. The term is a little unusual in a personal prayer, especially as it lacks qualification. It is not the exact equivalent of “Daddy” (as is sometimes popularly suggested), but it does suggest a close, familial relationship.

185 tn Grk “hallowed be your name.”

186 tc Most mss (א A C D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33vid Ï it) read at the end of the verse “may your will be done on earth as [it is] in heaven,” making this version parallel to Matt 6:10. The shorter reading is found, however, in weighty mss (Ì75 B L pc), and cannot be easily explained as arising from the longer reading.

sn Your kingdom come represents the hope for the full manifestation of God’s promised rule.

187 tn Or “Give us bread each day for the coming day,” or “Give us each day the bread we need for today.” The term ἐπιούσιος (epiousio") does not occur outside of early Christian literature (other occurrences are in Matt 6:11 and Didache 8:2), so its meaning is difficult to determine. Various suggestions include “daily,” “the coming day,” and “for existence.” See BDAG 376 s.v.; L&N 67:183, 206.

188 tn Grk “who is indebted to us” (an idiom). The picture of sin as debt is not unusual. As for forgiveness offered and forgiveness given, see 1 Pet 3:7.

189 tc Most mss (א1 A C D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33 Ï it syc,p,h) add “but deliver us from the evil one,” an assimilation to Matt 6:13. The shorter reading has better attestation (Ì75 א*,2 B L 1 700 pc vg sa Or). Internally, since the mss that have the longer reading here display the same tendency throughout the Lord’s Prayer to assimilate the Lukan version to the Matthean version, the shorter reading should be regarded as authentic in Luke.

tn Or “into a time of testing.”

sn The request Do not lead us into temptation is not to suggest that God causes temptation, but is a rhetorical way to ask for his protection from sin.

190 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

191 tn Grk “Who among you will have a friend and go to him.”

192 tn Grk “he will go to him.”

193 tn The words “of bread” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by ἄρτους (artou", “loaves”).

194 tn Grk “has come to me from the road.”

195 sn The background to the statement I have nothing to set before him is that in ancient Middle Eastern culture it was a matter of cultural honor to be a good host to visitors.

196 tn Κἀκεῖνος (kakeino") has been translated “Then he.”

197 tn Grk “answering, he will say.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “he will reply.”

198 tn Grk “my children are with me in the bed.” In Jewish homes in the time of Jesus, the beds were often all together in one room; thus the householder may be speaking of individual beds (using a collective singular) rather than a common bed.

199 tn The syntax of vv. 6-7 is complex. In the Greek text Jesus’ words in v. 6 begin as a question. Some see Jesus’ question ending at v. 6, but the reply starting in v. 8 favors extending the question through the entire illustration. The translation breaks up the long sentence at the beginning of v. 7 and translates Jesus’ words as a statement for reasons of English style.

200 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man in bed in the house) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

201 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the first man mentioned) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

202 tn The term ἀναίδεια (anaideia) is hard to translate. It refers to a combination of ideas, a boldness that persists over time, or “audacity,” which comes close. It most likely describes the one making the request, since the unit’s teaching is an exhortation about persistence in prayer. Some translate the term “shamelessness” which is the term’s normal meaning, and apply it to the neighbor as an illustration of God responding for the sake of his honor. But the original question was posed in terms of the first man who makes the request, not of the neighbor, so the teaching underscores the action of the one making the request.

203 tn Here καί (kai, from καγώ [kagw]) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion drawn from the preceding parable.

204 sn The three present imperatives in this verse (Ask…seek…knock) are probably intended to call for a repeated or continual approach before God.

205 tn Grk “it”; the referent (a door) is implied by the context and has been specified in the translation for clarity.

206 sn The actions of asking, seeking, and knocking are repeated here from v. 9 with the encouragement that God does respond.

207 tn Grk “it”; the referent (a door) is implied by the context and has been specified in the translation for clarity.

208 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

209 tc Most mss (א A C D L W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat syc,p,h bo) have “bread, does not give him a stone instead, or” before “a fish”; the longer reading, however, looks like a harmonization to Matt 7:9. The shorter reading is thus preferred, attested by Ì45,75 B 1241 pc sys sa.

210 sn The snake probably refers to a water snake.

211 sn The two questions of vv. 11-12 expect the answer, “No father would do this!”

212 tn The participle ὑπάρχοντες (Juparconte") has been translated as a concessive participle.

213 sn The provision of the Holy Spirit is probably a reference to the wisdom and guidance supplied in response to repeated requests. Some apply it to the general provision of the Spirit, but this would seem to look only at one request in a context that speaks of repeated asking. The teaching as a whole stresses not that God gives everything his children want, but that God gives the good that they need. The parallel account in Matthew (7:11) refers to good things where Luke mentions the Holy Spirit.

214 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

215 tn The phrase “a demon that was mute” should probably be understood to mean that the demon caused muteness or speechlessness in its victim, although it is sometimes taken to refer to the demon’s own inability to speak (cf. TEV, “a demon that could not talk”).

216 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here δέ (de) has not been translated either.

217 sn This miracle is different from others in Luke. The miracle is told entirely in one verse and with minimum detail, while the response covers several verses. The emphasis is on explaining what Jesus’ work means.

218 tn Grk “By Beelzebul.”

sn Beelzebul is another name for Satan. So some people recognized Jesus’ work as supernatural, but called it diabolical.

219 tn Or “prince.”

220 tn Grk “testing”; the participle is taken as indicating the purpose of the demand.

221 tn The pronoun “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

222 tn Grk “seeking from him.” The imperfect ἐζήτουν (ezhtoun) is taken ingressively. It is also possible to regard it as iterative (“kept on asking”).

223 sn What exactly this sign would have been, given what Jesus was already doing, is not clear. But here is where the fence-sitters reside, refusing to commit to him.

224 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

225 sn Jesus here demonstrated the absurdity of the thinking of those who maintained that he was in league with Satan and that he actually derived his power from the devil. He first teaches (vv. 17-20) that if he casts out demons by the ruler of the demons, then in reality Satan is fighting against himself, with the result that his kingdom has come to an end. He then teaches (v. 21-22) about defeating the strong man to prove that he does not need to align himself with the devil because he is more powerful. Jesus defeated Satan at his temptation (4:1-13) and by his exorcisms he clearly demonstrated himself to be stronger than the devil. The passage reveals the desperate condition of the religious leaders, who in their hatred for Jesus end up attributing the work of the Holy Spirit to Satan.

226 tn Or “is left in ruins.”

227 tn Grk “and house falls on house.” This phrase pictures one house collapsing on another, what is called today a “house of cards.”

228 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the clause that follows is a logical conclusion based on the preceding examples.

229 tn This first class condition, the first of three “if” clauses in the following verses, presents the example vividly as if it were so. In fact, all three conditions in these verses are first class. The examples are made totally parallel. The expected answer is that Satan’s kingdom will not stand, so the suggestion makes no sense. Satan would not seek to heal.

230 tn Grk “because.” “I ask you this” is supplied for the sake of English.

231 sn Most read your sons as a reference to Jewish exorcists (cf. “your followers,” L&N 9.4; for various views see D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1077-78), but more likely this is a reference to the disciples of Jesus themselves, who are also Jewish and have been healing as well (R. J. Shirock, “Whose Exorcists are they? The Referents of οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν at Matthew 12:27/Luke 11:19,” JSNT 46 [1992]: 41-51). If this is a reference to the disciples, then Jesus’ point is that it is not only him, but those associated with him whose power the hearers must assess. The following reference to judging also favors this reading.

232 tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

233 sn The finger of God is a figurative reference to God’s power (L&N 76.3). This phrase was used of God’s activity during the Exodus (Exod 8:19).

234 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

235 tn The phrase ἔφθασεν ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (efqasen efJuma") is important. Does it mean merely “approach” (which would be reflected in a translation like “has come near to you”) or actually “come upon” (as in the translation given above, “has already overtaken you,” which has the added connotation of suddenness)? The issue here is like the one in 10:9 (see note there on the phrase “come on”). Is the arrival of the kingdom merely anticipated or already in process? Two factors favor arrival over anticipation here. First, the prepositional phrase “upon you” suggests arrival (Dan 4:24, 28 Theodotion). Second, the following illustration in vv. 21-23 looks at the healing as portraying Satan being overrun. So the presence of God’s authority has arrived. See also L&N 13.123 for the translation of φθάνω (fqanw) as “to happen to already, to come upon, to come upon already.”

236 tn The referent of the expression “a strong man” is Satan.

237 tn The word αὐλή (aulh) describes any building large and elaborate enough to have an interior courtyard, thus “dwelling, palace, mansion” (L&N 7.6).

238 tn Grk “his goods are in peace.”

239 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

240 tn The referent of the expression “a stronger man” is Jesus.

241 tn Grk “stronger man than he attacks.”

242 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the first man mentioned) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

243 tn Grk “on which he relied.”

244 tn Or “and distributes.”

245 sn Some see the imagery here as similar to Eph 4:7-10, although no opponents are explicitly named in that passage. Jesus has the victory over Satan. Jesus’ acts of healing mean that the war is being won and the kingdom is coming.

246 sn Whoever is not with me is against me. The call here is to join the victor. Failure to do so means that one is being destructive. Responding to Jesus is the issue.

247 sn For the image of scattering, see Pss. Sol. 17:18.

248 sn This is a reference to an evil spirit. See Luke 4:33.

249 tn Grk “man.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

250 sn The background for the reference to waterless places is not entirely clear, though some Jewish texts suggest spirits must have a place to dwell, but not with water (Luke 8:29-31; Tob 8:3). Some suggest that the image of the desert or deserted cities as the places demons dwell is where this idea started (Isa 13:21; 34:14).

251 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

252 tc ‡ Most mss, including a few early and important ones (Ì45 א* A C D W Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat), lack τότε (tote, “then”). Other mss, including some early and important ones (Ì75 א2 B L Θ Ξ 070 33 579 892 1241 pc co), have the adverb. Although the external evidence better supports the longer reading, the internal evidence is on the side of the shorter, for conjunctions and adverbs were frequently added by copyists to remove asyndeton and to add clarification. The shorter reading is thus preferred. The translation, however, adds “Then” because of English stylistic requirements. NA27 has τότε in brackets indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

253 tn Grk “I will return to my house from which I came.”

254 tn Grk “comes.”

255 tn The words “the house” are not in Greek but are implied.

256 sn The image of the house swept clean and put in order refers to the life of the person from whom the demon departed. The key to the example appears to be that no one else has been invited in to dwell. If an exorcism occurs and there is no response to God, then the way is free for the demon to return. Some see the reference to exorcism as more symbolic; thus the story’s only point is about responding to Jesus. This is possible and certainly is an application of the passage.

257 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding point of the story.

258 tn Grk “man.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

259 sn The point of the story is that to fail to respond is to risk a worse fate than when one started.

260 tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

261 tn Grk “lifted up her voice and said.” This idiom is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “spoke out.”

262 tn For this term see L&N 8.69.

263 sn Both the reference to the womb and the breasts form a figure of speech called metonymy. In this case the parts are mentioned instead of the whole; the meaning is “Blessed is your mother!” The warnings seem to have sparked a little nervousness that brought forth this response. In the culture a mother was valued for the accomplishments of her son. So this amounts to a compliment to Jesus.

264 tn Grk “said.”

265 sn This is another reference to hearing and doing the word of God, which here describes Jesus’ teaching; see Luke 8:21.

266 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

267 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

268 sn The mention of a sign alludes back to Luke 11:16. Given what Jesus had done, nothing would be good enough. This leads to the rebuke that follows.

269 sn As the following comparisons to Solomon and Jonah show, in the present context the sign of Jonah is not an allusion to Jonah being three days in the belly of the fish, but to Jesus’ teaching about wisdom and repentance.

270 tn Grk “to the Ninevites.” What the Ninevites experienced was Jonah’s message (Jonah 3:4, 10; 4:1).

271 tn The repetition of the words “a sign” are not in the Greek text, but are implied and are supplied here for clarity.

272 tc Only the Western ms D and a few Itala mss add here a long reference to Jonah being in the belly of the fish for three days and nights and the Son of Man being three days in the earth, apparently harmonizing the text to the parallel in Matt 12:40.

273 sn On the queen of the South see 1 Kgs 10:1-3 and 2 Chr 9:1-12, as well as Josephus, Ant. 8.6.5-6 (8.165-175). The South most likely refers to modern southwest Arabia, possibly the eastern part of modern Yemen, although there is an ancient tradition reflected in Josephus which identifies this geo-political entity as Ethiopia.

274 sn For the imagery of judgment, see Luke 10:13-15 and 11:19. The warnings are coming consistently now.

275 tn Grk “men”; the word here (ἀνήρ, anhr) usually indicates males or husbands, but occasionally is used in a generic sense of people in general, as is the case here (cf. BDAG 79 s.v. 1, 2). The same term, translated the same way, occurs in v. 32.

276 tn Grk “behold.”

277 sn The message of Jesus was something greater than what Solomon offered. On Jesus and wisdom, see Luke 7:35; 10:21-22; 1 Cor 1:24, 30.

278 tn See the note on the word “people” in v. 31.

279 tn Grk “at the preaching of Jonah.”

sn The phrase repented when Jonah preached to them confirms that in this context the sign of Jonah (v. 30) is his message.

280 tn Grk “behold.”

281 tn Or perhaps “in a cellar” (L&N 28.78). The point is that the light of Jesus’ teaching has been put in public view.

282 tc The phrase “or under a basket” is lacking in some important and early mss (Ì45,75 L Γ Ξ 070 Ë1 700* 1241 2542 pc sys sa). It is hard to decide in this case, since the inclusion of “or under a basket” is widely attested by some early and decent witnesses, as well as the overwhelming majority of mss (א A B C D W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï latt). The parallel passage in Luke 8:16 does not include “under a basket.” If the phrase “under a basket” were added as a harmonization with Mark 4:21 and Matt 5:15, it is perhaps surprising that scribes did not add the phrase at Luke 8:16 as well. It seems somewhat more likely that a scribe copying Luke would be inclined to harmonize 11:33 with 8:16 by omitting the phrase here. Thus, the words “or under a basket” seem to have the marks of authenticity.

tn Or “a bowl”; this refers to any container for dry material of about eight liters (two gallons) capacity. It could be translated “basket, box, bowl” (L&N 6.151).

283 tn Or “sound” (so L&N 23.132 and most scholars). A few scholars take this word to mean something like “generous” here (L&N 57.107), partly due to the immediate context of this saying in Matt 6:22 which concerns money, in which case the “eye” is a metonymy for the entire person (“if you are generous”).

284 tn Or “when it is sick” (L&N 23.149).

sn There may be a slight wordplay here, as this term can also mean “evil,” so the figure uses a term that points to the real meaning of being careful as to what one pays attention to or looks at.

285 tn This is a present imperative, calling for a constant watch (L&N 24.32; ExSyn 721).

286 sn Here you is a singular pronoun, individualizing the application.

287 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text, so the example ends on a hopeful, positive note.

288 tn Grk “Therefore”; the same conjunction as at the beginning of v. 35, but since it indicates a further inference or conclusion, it has been translated “then” here.

289 tn Grk “not having any part dark.”

290 tn Grk “it will be completely illumined as when a lamp illumines you with its rays.”

291 tn The use of the aorist infinitive here should probably be translated “as he spoke” rather than “while he was speaking” (see ExSyn 595). The Pharisee did not necessarily interrupt Jesus to issue the invitation.

292 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

293 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

294 tn Grk “and reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

295 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

296 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

297 tn The words “his hands” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.

sn Washing before meals was a cultural practice that was described in the OT, but not prescribed there (Gen 18:4; Judg 19:21). It was apparently related to concern about contracting ceremonial uncleanness (Lev 11:31-38; t. Demai 2.11-12).

298 sn The allusion to washing (clean the outside of the cup) shows Jesus knew what they were thinking and deliberately set up a contrast that charged them with hypocrisy and majoring on minors.

299 tn Or “and evil.”

300 sn You fools is a rebuke which in the OT refers to someone who is blind to God (Ps 14:1, 53:1; 92:6; Prov 6:12).

301 tn The question includes a Greek particle, οὐ (ou), that expects a positive reply. God, the maker of both, is concerned for what is both inside and outside.

302 tn Grk “Give the things inside as alms.” Three different approaches have been taken to the syntax and meaning of this phrase: (1) τὰ ἐνόντα (ta enonta, “the things inside”) is an accusative of respect (“give alms with respect to the things inside”); (2) τὰ ἐνόντα is an adverbial accusative (“give alms inwardly,” i.e., from the heart); (3) the word translated “alms” represents a mistranslation of the original Aramaic term “cleanse,” so the statement urges the hearers to “cleanse the things inside.” According to D. L. Bock (Luke [BECNT], 2:1115) the latter meaning is unlikely because the present verse is independent of Matt 23:26, not parallel to it, and makes good sense as it stands.

sn In Jewish culture giving alms to the poor was a very important religious observance; it was meant to be an act of mercy, kindness, and love (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1114). The implication from the text is that the Pharisees gave alms, but without any of the spiritual concern which should have motivated those generous actions. Here Jesus commands the Pharisees to give from within themselves to those in need instead of just giving of their possessions. In so doing they would show true inner purity acceptable to God. This is in keeping with the author’s social concerns elsewhere in the Gospel (cf., e.g., 1:52-53, 4:18-19, 6:20-21, 14:13).

303 tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this clause has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

304 sn The expression everything will be clean for you refers to the agreement that should exist between the overt practice of one’s religious duties, such as almsgiving, and the inner condition of one’s heart, including true love for God and the poor; one is not only to wash the outside of the cup and plate, but the inside as well, since as Jesus said, God created the inside too. Religious duties are not to be performed hypocritically, i.e., for the applause and esteem of people, but rather they are to be done out of a deep love for God and a sensitivity to and concern for the needs of others. Then, everything will be clean, both hearts and lives.

305 tn Grk “Woe to you…because you…” The causal particle ὅτι (Joti) has not been translated here for rhetorical effect (and so to the end of this chapter).

306 tn Or “you tithe mint.”

307 sn These small herbs were tithed with great care (Mishnah, m. Demai 2:1).

308 tn Grk “and rue.” Καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

sn Rue was an evergreen herb used for seasoning.

309 sn Justice was a major theme of OT ethics (Mic 6:8; Zech 7:8-10).

310 tn Grk “those”; but this has been translated as “the others” to clarify which are meant.

311 tn Or “seats of honor.” The term here is plural and is not a reference only to the lead “seat of Moses” in the synagogue, but includes the front seats near the ark.

312 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

313 tn Grk “and the greetings.”

sn The later Jewish summary of oral tradition, the Talmud, notes elaborate greetings for rabbis. The rebuke here is for pride.

314 tc Most mss (A [D] W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï it) have “experts in the law and Pharisees, hypocrites” after “you,” but this looks like an assimilation to the parallel in Matt 23:25, 27, 29. The shorter reading has earlier attestation from a variety of reliable mss (Ì45,75 א B C L Ë1 33 1241 2542 lat sa).

315 tn Grk “men.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

316 sn In Judaism to come into contact with the dead or what is associated with them, even without knowing it, makes one unclean (Num 19:11-22; Lev 21:1-3; Mishnah, m. Demai 2:3). To Pharisees, who would have been so sensitive about contracting ceremonial uncleanness, it would have been quite a stinging rebuke to be told they caused it.

317 sn That is, an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law. They worked closely with the Pharisees.

318 tn For this term, see Matt 22;6; Luke 18:32; Acts 14:5; 1 Thess 2:2.

319 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

320 tn Grk “said.”

321 tn Here “as well” is used to translate καί (kai) at the beginning of the statement.

322 tn Grk “men.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

323 tn Grk “you yourselves do not touch.” This could mean one of two things: (1) Either they make others do what they themselves do not (through various technical exceptions) or (2) they make no effort to help the others fulfill what they are required to do. Considering the care these religious figures are said to have given to the law, the second option is more likely (see L&N 18.11).

324 sn The effect of what the experts in the law were doing was to deny the message of the prophets and thus honor their death by supporting those who had sought their removal. The charge that this is what previous generations did shows the problem is chronic. As T. W. Manson said, the charge here is “The only prophet you honor is a dead prophet!” (The Sayings of Jesus, 101).

325 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

326 tn Grk “you are witnesses and approve of.”

327 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

328 tn Grk “them”; the referent (the prophets) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

329 tn “Their,” i.e., the prophets.

330 tc The majority of mss list a specific object (“their tombs”), filling out the sentence (although there are two different words for “tombs” among the mss, as well as different word orders: αὐτῶν τὰ μνημεῖα (autwn ta mnhmeia; found in A C W Θ Ψ 33 Ï) and τοὺς τάφους αὐτῶν (tou" tafou" autwn; found in Ë1,[13] 2542 pc). This suggests that early copyists had no term in front of them but felt the verb needed an object. But since a wide distribution of early Alexandrian and Western mss lack these words (Ì75 א B D L 579 1241 it sa), it is likely that they were not part of the original text of Luke. Nevertheless, the words “their tombs” are inserted in the translation because of requirements of English style.

331 sn The expression the wisdom of God is a personification of an attribute of God that refers to his wise will.

332 tn Or “that this generation may be charged with”; or “the blood of all the prophets… may be required from this generation.” This is a warning of judgment. These people are responsible for the shedding of prophetic blood.

333 tn Or “foundation.” However, this does not suggest a time to the modern reader.

334 tn The order of the clauses in this complicated sentence has been rearranged to simplify it for the modern reader.

335 sn Gen 4:10 indicates that Abel’s blood cried out for justice.

336 sn It is not clear which Zechariah is meant here. It is probably the person mentioned in 2 Chr 24:20-25.

337 tn Or “who perished.”

338 tn Or “and the temple”; Grk “and the house,” but in this context a reference to the house of God as a place of sanctuary.

339 tn Or “required from.”

340 sn You have taken away the key to knowledge is another stinging rebuke. They had done the opposite of what they were trying to do.

341 tn Or “you tried to prevent.”

342 tn Or “the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

343 tn Or “terribly.”

344 tn For this term see L&N 33.183.

345 tn Grk “lying in ambush against,” but this is a figurative extension of that meaning.

346 tn This term was often used in a hunting context (BDAG 455 s.v. θηρεύω; L&N 27.30). Later examples of this appear in Luke 20.

347 tn The phrase ἐν οἷς (en Jois) can be translated “meanwhile.”

348 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

349 tn According to L&N 27.59, “to pay attention to, to keep on the lookout for, to be alert for, to be on your guard against.” This is another Lukan present imperative calling for constant vigilance.

350 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

351 sn The pursuit of popularity can lead to hypocrisy, if one is not careful.

352 tn Or “concealed.”

353 sn I.e., be revealed by God. The passive voice verbs here (“be revealed,” be made known”) see the revelation as coming from God. The text is both a warning about bad things being revealed and an encouragement that good things will be made known, though the stress with the images of darkness and what is hidden in vv. 2-3 is on the attempt to conceal.

354 tn Or “because.” Understanding this verse as a result of v. 2 is a slightly better reading of the context. Knowing what is coming should impact our behavior now.

355 tn Grk “spoken in the ear,” an idiom. The contemporary expression is “whispered.”

356 sn The term translated private rooms refers to the inner room of a house, normally without any windows opening outside, the most private location possible (BDAG 988 s.v. ταμεῖον 2).

357 tn The expression “proclaimed from the housetops” is an idiom for proclaiming something publicly (L&N 7.51). Roofs of many first century Jewish houses in Judea and Galilee were flat and had access either from outside or from within the house. Something shouted from atop a house would be heard by everyone in the street below.

358 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

359 sn Judaism had a similar exhortation in 4 Macc 13:14-15.

360 tn Grk “will show,” but in this reflective context such a demonstration is a warning or exhortation.

361 sn The actual performer of the killing is not here specified. It could be understood to be God (so NASB, NRSV) but it could simply emphasize that, after a killing has taken place, it is God who casts the person into hell.

362 tn The direct object (“you”) is understood.

363 sn The word translated hell is “Gehenna” (γέεννα, geenna), a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew words ge hinnom (“Valley of Hinnom”). This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. In OT times it was used for human sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (cf. Jer 7:31; 19:5-6; 32:35), and it came to be used as a place where human excrement and rubbish were disposed of and burned. In the intertestamental period, it came to be used symbolically as the place of divine punishment (cf. 1 En. 27:2, 90:26; 4 Ezra 7:36).

364 sn The pennies refer to the assarion, a small Roman copper coin. One of them was worth one sixteenth of a denarius or less than a half hour’s average wage. Sparrows were the cheapest thing sold in the market. God knows about even the most financially insignificant things; see Isa 49:15.

365 sn Do not be afraid. One should respect and show reverence to God (v. 5), but need not fear his tender care.

366 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

367 tn Or “confesses.”

368 tn Although this is a generic reference and includes both males and females, in this context “men” has been retained because of the wordplay with the Son of Man and the contrast with the angels. The same is true of the occurrence of “men” in v. 9.

369 sn This acknowledgment will take place at the judgment. Of course, the Son of Man is a reference to Jesus as it has been throughout the Gospel. On Jesus and judgment, see 22:69; Acts 10:42-43; 17:31.

370 sn Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit probably refers to a total rejection of the testimony that the Spirit gives to Jesus and the plan of God. This is not so much a sin of the moment as of one’s entire life, an obstinate rejection of God’s message and testimony. Cf. Matt 12:31-32 and Mark 3:28-30.

371 tn Grk “it will not be forgiven the person who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit.”

372 sn The saying looks at persecution both from a Jewish context as the mention of synagogues suggests, and from a Gentile one as the reference to the rulers and the authorities suggests.

sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

373 tn Grk “and the,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

374 tn Grk “about how or what you should say in your defense,” but this is redundant with the following clause, “or what you should say.”

375 tn Grk “in that very hour” (an idiom).

376 tn Grk “what it is necessary to say.”

377 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

378 sn Tell my brother. In 1st century Jewish culture, a figure like a rabbi was often asked to mediate disputes, except that here mediation was not requested, but representation.

379 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

380 tn This term of address can be harsh or gentle depending on the context (BDAG 82 s.v. ἄνθρωπος 8). Here it is a rebuke.

381 tn The pronoun ὑμᾶς (Jumas) is plural, referring to both the man and his brother; thus the translation “you two.”

382 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

383 tn See L&N 13.154 for this use of the middle voice of φυλάσσω (fulassw) in this verse.

384 tn Or “avarice,” “covetousness.” Note the warning covers more than money and gets at the root attitude – the strong desire to acquire more and more possessions and experiences.

385 tn Grk “And he.” Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the connection to the preceding statement.

386 tn Grk “a parable, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated here.

387 tn Or “yielded a plentiful harvest.”

388 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that this is a result of the preceding statement.

389 tn Grk “to himself, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated here.

390 sn I have nowhere to store my crops. The thinking here is prudent in terms of recognizing the problem. The issue in the parable will be the rich man’s solution, particularly the arrogance reflected in v. 19.

391 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

392 sn Note how often the first person pronoun is present in these verses. The farmer is totally self absorbed.

393 tn Grk “to my soul,” which is repeated as a vocative in the following statement, but is left untranslated as redundant.

394 tn Grk “your soul,” but ψυχή (yuch) is frequently used of one’s physical life. It clearly has that meaning in this context.

395 tn Or “required back.” This term, ἀπαιτέω (apaitew), has an economic feel to it and is often used of a debt being called in for repayment (BDAG 96 s.v. 1).

396 tn Grk “the things you have prepared, whose will they be?” The words “for yourself” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

397 sn It is selfishness that is rebuked here, in the accumulation of riches for himself. Recall the emphasis on the first person pronouns throughout the parable.

398 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Jesus’ remarks to the disciples are an application of the point made in the previous parable.

399 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

400 tc αὐτοῦ (autou, “his”) is lacking in Ì45vid,75 B 1241 c e. Although the addition of clarifying pronouns is a known scribal alteration, in this case it is probably better to view the dropping of the pronoun as the alteration in light of its minimal attestation.

401 tn Or “do not be anxious.”

402 tc Most mss (Ì45 Ψ 070 Ë13 33 Ï) supply the pronoun ὑμῶν (Jumwn, “your”) here, although several important and early witnesses omit it (Ì75 א A B D L Q W Θ Ë1 700 2542 al lat). Externally, the shorter reading is superior. Internally, the pronoun looks to be a scribal clarification. In context the article can be translated as a possessive pronoun anyway (ExSyn 215), as it has been done for this translation.

403 tc Some mss (B 070 Ë13 33 1424 al) supply the pronoun ὑμῶν (Jumwn, “your”) here, although the witnesses for the omission are early, important, and varied (Ì45vid,75 א A D L Q W Θ Ψ Ë1 Ï lat). See previous tc note for more discussion.

404 tn Or “crows.” Crows and ravens belong to the same family of birds. English uses “crow” as a general word for the family. Palestine has several indigenous members of the crow family.

405 tn Or “God gives them food to eat.” L&N 23.6 has both “to provide food for” and “to give food to someone to eat.”

406 tn Or “by being anxious.”

407 tn Or “a cubit to his height.” A cubit (πῆχυς, phcu") can measure length (normally about 45 cm or 18 inches) or time (a small unit, “hour” is usually used [BDAG 812 s.v.] although “day” has been suggested [L&N 67.151]). The term ἡλικία (Jhlikia) is ambiguous in the same way as πῆχυς. Most scholars take the term to describe age or length of life here, although a few refer it to bodily stature (see BDAG 435-36 s.v. 1.a for discussion). Worry about length of life seems a more natural figure than worry about height. However, the point either way is clear: Worrying adds nothing to life span or height.

408 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.

409 tn Or “why are you anxious for.”

410 tn Traditionally, “lilies.” According to L&N 3.32, “Though traditionally κρίνον has been regarded as a type of lily, scholars have suggested several other possible types of flowers, including an anemone, a poppy, a gladiolus, and a rather inconspicuous type of daisy.” In view of the uncertainty, the more generic “flowers” has been used in the translation.

411 tn Traditionally, “toil.” Although it might be argued that “work hard” would be a more precise translation of κοπιάω (kopiaw) here, the line in English scans better in terms of cadence with a single syllable.

412 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.

413 tn Grk “grass in the field.”

414 tn Grk “which is in the field today.”

415 tn Grk “into the oven.” The expanded translation “into the fire to heat the oven” has been used to avoid misunderstanding; most items put into modern ovens are put there to be baked, not burned.

sn The oven was most likely a rounded clay oven used for baking bread, which was heated by burning wood and dried grass.

416 sn The phrase how much more is a typical form of rabbinic argumentation, from the lesser to the greater. If God cares for the little things, surely he will care for the more important things.

417 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate a conclusion drawn from the previous illustrations.

418 tn Grk “do not seek,” but this could be misunderstood to mean that people should make no attempt to obtain their food. The translation “do not be overly concerned” attempts to reflect the force of the original.

419 tn The words “about such things” have been supplied to qualify the meaning; the phrase relates to obtaining food and drink mentioned in the previous clause.

420 tn Grk “seek.”

421 tn Grk “seek,” but in the sense of the previous verses.

422 tc Most mss (Ì45 A D1 Q W Θ 070 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat sy) read τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou, “of God”) instead of αὐτοῦ (autou, “his”; found in א B D* L Ψ 579 892 pc co). But such a clarifying reading is suspect. αὐτοῦ is superior on both internal and external grounds. Ì75 includes neither and as such would support the translation above since the article alone can often be translated as a possessive pronoun.

423 sn His (that is, God’s) kingdom is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

424 tn Or perhaps, “your Father chooses.”

425 sn The call to sell your possessions is a call to a lack of attachment to the earth and a generosity as a result.

426 tn Grk “give alms,” but this term is not in common use today.

427 tn Grk “in the heavens.”

428 tn Or “an unfailing treasure in heaven,” or “an inexhaustible treasure in heaven.”

429 tn The term σής (shs) refers to moths in general. It is specifically the larvae of moths that destroy clothing by eating holes in it (L&N 4.49; BDAG 922 s.v.). See Jas 5:2, which mentions “moth-eaten” clothing.

430 sn Seeking heavenly treasure means serving others and honoring God by doing so; see Luke 6:35-36.

431 tn Grk “Let your loins be girded,” an idiom referring to the practice of tucking the ends of the long cloak (outer garment) into the belt to shorten it in preparation for activities like running, etc.

432 sn Keep your lamps burning means to be ready at all times.

433 tn That is, like slaves (who are mentioned later, vv. 37-38), although the term ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") is used here. Since in this context it appears generic rather than gender-specific, the translation “people” is employed.

434 sn An ancient wedding celebration could last for days (Tob 11:18).

435 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

436 tn Or “watching”; Grk “awake,” but in context this is not just being awake but alert and looking out.

437 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

438 tn See v. 35 (same verb).

439 tn Grk “have them recline at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

440 tn The participle παρελθών (parelqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

441 sn He…will come and wait on them is a reversal of expectation, but shows that what Jesus asks for he is willing to do as well; see John 13:5 and 15:18-27, although those instances merely foreshadow what is in view here.

442 sn The second or third watch of the night would be between 9 p.m. and 3 a.m. on a Roman schedule and 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. on a Jewish schedule. Luke uses the four-watch schedule of the Romans in Acts 12:4, so that is more probable here. Regardless of the precise times of the watches, however, it is clear that the late-night watches when a person is least alert are in view here.

443 tn Grk “finds (them) thus”; but this has been clarified in the translation by referring to the status (“alert”) mentioned in v. 37.

444 tn Grk “blessed are they”; the referent (the watchful slaves, v. 37) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

445 sn On Jesus pictured as a returning thief, see 1 Thess 5:2, 4; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 3:3; 16:15.

446 tc Most mss (א1 A B L Q W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat syp,h sams bo) read “he would have watched and not let” here, but this looks like an assimilation to Matt 24:43. The alliance of two important and early mss along with a few others (Ì75 א* [D] e i sys,c samss), coupled with much stronger internal evidence, suggests that the shorter reading is authentic.

447 sn Jesus made clear that his coming could not be timed, and suggested it might take some time – so long, in fact, that some would not be looking for him any longer (at an hour when you do not expect him).

448 tn Grk “And Peter.” Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the connection to the preceding statement.

449 sn Is the parable only for disciples (us) or for all humanity (everyone)? Or does Peter mean for disciples (us) or for the crowd (everyone)? The fact that unfaithful slaves are mentioned in v. 46 looks to a warning that includes a broad audience, though it is quality of service that is addressed. This means the parable focuses on those who are associated with Jesus.

450 tn Grk “And the Lord said.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

451 tn Or “administrator,” “steward” (L&N 37.39).

452 tn This term, θεραπεία (qerapeia), describes the group of servants working in a particular household (L&N 46.6).

453 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

454 tn That is, doing his job, doing what he is supposed to be doing.

455 tn Grk “Truly (ἀληθῶς, alhqw"), I say to you.”

456 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the master) has been specified in the translation for clarity. See also Luke 19:11-27.

457 tn In the Greek text this is a third class condition that for all practical purposes is a hypothetical condition (note the translation of the following verb “should say”).

458 tn The term “that” (ἐκεῖνος, ekeino") is used as a catchword to list out, in the form of a number of hypothetical circumstances, what the possible responses of “that” servant could be. He could be faithful (vv. 43-44) or totally unfaithful (vv. 45-46). He does not complete his master’s will with knowledge (v. 47) or from ignorance (v 48). These differences are indicated by the different levels of punishment in vv. 46-48.

459 tn Grk “should say in his heart.”

460 tn Or “is taking a long time.”

461 sn The slave’s action in beginning to beat the other slaves was not only a failure to carry out what was commanded but involved doing the exact reverse.

462 tn The word “other” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

463 tn Grk “the menservants and the maidservants.” The term here, used in both masculine and feminine grammatical forms, is παῖς (pais), which can refer to a slave, but also to a slave who is a personal servant, and thus regarded kindly (L&N 87.77).

464 tn The verb διχοτομέω (dicotomew) means to cut an object into two parts (L&N 19.19). This is an extremely severe punishment compared to the other two later punishments. To translate it simply as “punish” is too mild. If taken literally this servant is dismembered, although it is possible to view the stated punishment as hyperbole (L&N 38.12).

465 tn Or “unbelieving.” Here the translation employs the slightly more ambiguous “unfaithful,” which creates a link with the point of the parable – faithfulness versus unfaithfulness in servants. The example of this verse must be taken together with the examples of vv. 47-48 as part of a scale of reactions with the most disobedient response coming here. The fact that this servant is placed in a distinct group, unlike the one in vv. 47-48, also suggests ultimate exclusion. This is the hypocrite of Matt 24:51.

466 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

467 tn Grk “or do according to his will”; the referent (the master) has been specified in the translation for clarity. This example deals with the slave who knew what the command was and yet failed to complete it.

468 tn Grk “did not know”; the phrase “his master’s will” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the contemporary English reader.

469 tn Grk “blows.”

470 tn Grk “will receive few (blows).”

471 tn Grk “required from him”; but the words “from him” are redundant in English and have not been translated.

472 sn Entrusted with much. To be gifted with precious responsibility is something that requires faithfulness.

473 tn Grk “they will ask even more.”

474 sn This mission statement, “I have come to bring fire on the earth,” looks to the purging and division Jesus causes: See Luke 3:9, 17; 9:54; 17:29 for fire, 5:32; 7:34; 9:58; 12:51 for the topic of mission.

475 tn Grk “cast.” For βάλλω (ballw) in the sense of causing a state or condition, see L&N 13.14.

476 sn The figure of the baptism is variously interpreted, as some see a reference (1) to martyrdom or (2) to inundation with God’s judgment. The OT background, however, suggests the latter sense: Jesus is about to be uniquely inundated with God’s judgment as he is rejected, persecuted, and killed (Ps 18:4, 16; 42:7; 69:1-2; Isa 8:7-8; 30:27-28; Jonah 2:3-6).

477 tn Grk “to be baptized with.”

478 tn Or “hostility.” This term pictures dissension and hostility (BDAG 234 s.v. διαμερισμός).

479 sn From now on is a popular phrase in Luke: 1:48; 5:10; 22:18, 69; see Mic 7:6.

480 tn There is dispute whether this phrase belongs to the end of v. 52 or begins v. 53. Given the shift of object, a connection to v. 53 is slightly preferred.

481 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “also” and δέ (de) has not been translated.

482 sn A cloud rising in the west refers to moisture coming from the Mediterranean Sea.

483 tn The term ὄμβρος (ombro") refers to heavy rain, such as in a thunderstorm (L&N 14.12).

484 sn The south wind comes from the desert, and thus brings scorching heat.

485 sn In Luke, the term hypocrites occurs here, in 6:42, and in 13:15.

486 tc Most mss (Ì45 A W Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat) have a syntax here that reflects a slightly different rhetorical question: “but how do you not interpret the present time?” The reading behind the translation, however, has overall superior support: Ì75 א B L Θ 33 892 1241 pc.

487 tn Jesus calls for some personal reflection. However, this unit probably does connect to the previous one – thus the translation of δέ (de) here as “And” – to make a good spiritual assessment, thus calling for application to the spiritual, rather than personal, realm.

488 sn The term magistrate (ἄρχων, arcwn) refers to an official who, under the authority of the government, serves as judge in legal cases (see L&N 56.29).

489 sn The officer (πράκτωρ, praktwr) was a civil official who functioned like a bailiff and was in charge of debtor’s prison. The use of the term, however, does not automatically demand a Hellenistic setting (BDAG 859 s.v.; K. H. Rengstorf, TDNT 8:539; C. Maurer, TDNT 6:642).

490 tn Here the English word “cent” is used as opposed to the parallel in Matt 5:26 where “penny” appears, since the Greek word there is different and refers to a different but similar coin.

sn This cent was a lepton, the smallest coin available. It was copper or bronze, worth one-half of a quadrans or 1/128 of a denarius. The parallel in Matt 5:26 mentions the quadrans instead of the lepton. The illustration refers to the debt one owes God and being sure to settle with him in the right time, before it is too late. Some interpreters, however, consider it to be like Matt 5:26, which has similar imagery but a completely different context.

491 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

492 sn This is an event that otherwise is unattested, though several events similar to it are noted in Josephus (J. W. 2.9.2-4 [2.169-177]; Ant. 13.13.5 [13.372-73], 18.3.1-2 [18.55-62]; 18.4.1 [18.85-87]). It would have caused a major furor.

493 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

494 sn Jesus did not want his hearers to think that tragedy was necessarily a judgment on these people because they were worse sinners.

495 sn Jesus was stressing that all stand at risk of death, if they do not repent and receive life.

496 tn Or “you will all likewise perish,” but this could be misunderstood to mean that they would perish by the same means as the Galileans. Jesus’ point is that apart from repentance all will perish.

497 tn Grk “on whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them.” This relative clause embedded in a prepositional phrase is complex in English and has been simplified to an adjectival and a temporal clause in the translation.

498 sn Unlike the previous event, when the tower in Siloam fell on them, it was an accident of fate. It raised the question, however, “Was this a judgment?”

499 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

500 sn Jesus’ point repeats v. 3. The circumstances make no difference. All must deal with the reality of what death means.

501 tn Grk “similarly.”

502 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

503 tn Grk “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

504 sn The fig tree is a variation on the picture of a vine as representing the nation; see Isa 5:1-7.

505 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the man’s response as a result of the lack of figs in the preceding clause.

506 tn Grk “Behold, for.”

507 sn The elapsed time could be six years total since planting, since often a fig was given three years before one even started to look for fruit. The point in any case is that enough time had been given to expect fruit.

508 tn The phrase “each time I inspect it” is not in the Greek text but has been supplied to indicate the customary nature of the man’s search for fruit.

509 tc ‡ Several witnesses (Ì75 A L Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33 579 892 al lat co) have “therefore” (οὖν, oun) here. This conjunction has the effect of strengthening the logical connection with the preceding statement but also of reducing the rhetorical power and urgency of the imperative. In light of the slightly greater internal probability of adding a conjunction to an otherwise asyndetic sentence, as well as significant external support for the omission (א B D W Ë1 Ï), the shorter reading appears to be more likely as the original wording here. NA27 puts the conjunction in brackets, indicating some doubts as to its authenticity.

510 tn Grk “Why indeed.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

511 sn Such fig trees would deplete the soil, robbing it of nutrients needed by other trees and plants.

512 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the worker who tended the vineyard) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

513 tn Grk “toss manure [on it].” This is a reference to manure used as fertilizer.

514 tn This is a third class condition in the Greek text. The conjunction καί (kai, a component of κάν [kan]) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

515 tn Grk “the coming [season].”

516 tn The phrase “very well” is supplied in the translation to complete the elided idea, but its absence is telling.

517 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text, showing which of the options is assumed.

518 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

519 tn Grk “and behold, a woman.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

520 tn Grk “a woman having a spirit of weakness” (or “a spirit of infirmity”).

521 tn Grk “years, and.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

522 tn Or “and could not straighten herself up at all.” If εἰς τὸ παντελές (ei" to pantele") is understood to modify δυναμένη (dunamenh), the meaning is “she was not able at all to straighten herself up”; but the phrase may be taken with ἀνακύψαι (anakuyai) and understood to mean the same as the adverb παντελῶς (pantelws), with the meaning “she was not able to straighten herself up completely.” See BDAG 754 s.v. παντελής 1 for further discussion. The second option is preferred in the translation because of proximity: The phrase in question follows ἀνακύψαι in the Greek text.

523 tn The participle ἰδών (idwn) has been taken temporally. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

524 tn The verb προσεφώνησεν (prosefwnhsen) has been translated as “called (her) to (him),” with the direct object (“her”) and the indirect object (“him”) both understood.

525 sn Woman was a polite form of address (see BDAG 208-9 s.v. γυνή), similar to “Madam” or “Ma’am” used in English in different regions.

526 tn Or “released.”

527 tn Or “sickness.”

528 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

529 sn The healing took place immediately.

530 sn The irony is that Jesus’ “work” consisted of merely touching the woman. There is no sense of joy that eighteen years of suffering was reversed with his touch.

531 tn Grk “on which it is necessary to work.” This has been simplified in the translation.

532 tn The participle ἐρχόμενοι (ercomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

533 tn Grk “answered him and said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been shortened to “answered him.”

534 tn Grk “from the manger [feeding trough],” but by metonymy of part for whole this can be rendered “stall.”

535 sn The charge here is hypocrisy, but it is only part one of the response. Various ancient laws detail what was allowed with cattle; see Mishnah, m. Shabbat 5; CD 11:5-6.

536 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to show the connection with Jesus’ previous statement.

537 tn Grk “is it not necessary that.” Jesus argues that no other day is more appropriate to heal a descendant of Abraham than the Sabbath, the exact opposite view of the synagogue leader.

538 sn Note that this is again a battle between Satan and God; see 11:18-23.

539 tn The word “long” reflects the emphasis added in the Greek text by ἰδού (idou). See BDAG 468 s.v. 1.

540 tn Or “bondage”; Grk “bond.”

541 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

542 tn Or “were put to shame.”

543 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

544 sn Concerning all the wonderful things see Luke 7:16; 19:37.

545 tn Grk “that were being done by him.” The passive has been converted to an active construction in the translation.

546 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

547 tn Grk “said,” but what follows is a question.

548 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

549 sn What is the kingdom of God like? Unlike Mark 4 or Matt 13, where the kingdom parables tend to be all in one location in the narrative, Luke scatters his examples throughout the Gospel.

550 tn Grk “And to.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

551 sn The mustard seed was noted for its tiny size.

552 tn Grk “threw.”

553 tn Grk “garden, and it.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

554 sn Calling the mustard plant a tree is rhetorical hyperbole, since technically it is not one. This plant could be one of two types of mustard popular in Palestine and would be either 10 or 25 ft (3 or 7.5 m) tall.

555 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

556 sn The point of the parable seems to be that while the kingdom of God may appear to have insignificant and unnoticeable beginnings (i.e., in the ministry of Jesus), it will someday (i.e., at the second advent) be great and quite expansive. The kingdom, however, is not to be equated with the church, but rather the church is an expression of the kingdom. Also, there is important OT background in the image of the mustard seed that grew and became a tree: Ezek 17:22-24 pictures the reemergence of the Davidic house where people can find calm and shelter. Like the mustard seed, it would start out small but grow to significant size.

557 tn Grk “And again.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

558 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

559 tn Grk “hid in.”

560 sn This measure was a saton, the Greek name for the Hebrew term “seah.” Three of these was a very large quantity of flour, since a saton is a little over 16 lbs (7 kg) of dry measure (or 13.13 liters). So this was over 47 lbs (21 kg) of flour total, enough to feed over a hundred people.

561 tn Grk “it was all leavened.”

sn The parable of the yeast and the dough teaches that the kingdom of God will start small but eventually grow to permeate everything. Jesus’ point was not to be deceived by its seemingly small start, the same point made in the parable of the mustard seed, which preceded this one.

562 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

563 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

564 tn This is a distributive use of κατά (kata); see L&N 83:12.

565 tn Or “cities.”

566 tn Grk “making his journey toward.” This is the first of several travel notes in Luke’s Jerusalem journey section of Luke 9-19; other notes appear at 17:11; 18:31; 19:28, 41.

567 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

568 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

569 tn Grk “said to.”

570 sn The warnings earlier in Jesus’ teaching have led to the question whether only a few will be saved.

571 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ reply was triggered by the preceding question.

572 tn Or “Make every effort” (L&N 68.74; cf. NIV); “Do your best” (TEV); “Work hard” (NLT); Grk “Struggle.” The idea is to exert one’s maximum effort (cf. BDAG 17 s.v. ἀγωνίζομαι 2.b, “strain every nerve to enter”) because of the supreme importance of attaining entry into the kingdom of God.

573 tn The syntactical relationship between vv. 24-25 is disputed. The question turns on whether v. 25 is connected to v. 24 or not. A lack of a clear connective makes an independent idea more likely. However, one must then determine what the beginning of the sentence connects to. Though it makes for slightly awkward English, the translation has opted to connect it to “he will answer” so that this functions, in effect, as an apodosis. One could end the sentence after “us” and begin a new sentence with “He will answer” to make simpler sentences, although the connection between the two sentences is thereby less clear. The point of the passage, however, is clear. Once the door is shut, because one failed to come in through the narrow way, it is closed permanently. The moral: Do not be too late in deciding to respond.

574 tn Or “the master of the household.”

575 tn Or “rises,” or “stands up.”

576 tn Or “Sir.”

577 tn Grk “Open to us.”

578 tn Grk “and answering, he will say to you.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “he will answer you.”

579 sn For the imagery behind the statement “I do not know where you come from,” see Ps 138:6; Isa 63:16; Jer 1:5; Hos 5:3.

580 sn This term refers to wide streets, and thus suggests the major streets of a city.

581 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

582 tc Most mss (Ì75* A D L W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 Ï) have ἐρεῖ λέγω ὑμῖν (erei legw Jumin; “he will say, ‘I say to you’”) here, while some have only ἐρεῖ ὑμῖν (“he will say to you” in א 579 pc lat sa) or simply ἐρεῖ (“he will say” in 1195 pc). The variety of readings seems to have arisen from the somewhat unusual wording of the original, ἐρεῖ λέγων ὑμῖν (erei legwn Jumin; “he will say, saying to you” found in Ì75c B 892 pc). Given the indicative λέγω, it is difficult to explain how the other readings would have arisen. But if the participle λέγων were original, the other readings can more easily be explained as arising from it. Although the external evidence is significantly stronger in support of the indicative reading, the internal evidence is on the side of the participle.

tn Grk “he will say, saying to you.” The participle λέγων (legwn) and its indirect object ὑμῖν (Jumin) are redundant in contemporary English and have not been translated.

583 sn The issue is not familiarity (with Jesus’ teaching) or even shared activity (eating and drinking with him), but knowing Jesus. Those who do not know him, he will not know where they come from (i.e., will not acknowledge) at the judgment.

584 tn Grk “all you workers of iniquity.” The phrase resembles Ps 6:8.

585 sn Weeping and gnashing of teeth is a figure for remorse and trauma, which occurs here because of exclusion from God’s promise.

586 tn Grk “and Isaac and Jacob,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

587 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

588 tn Or “being thrown out.” The present accusative participle, ἐκβαλλομένους (ekballomenous), related to the object ὑμᾶς (Jumas), seems to suggest that these evildoers will witness their own expulsion from the kingdom.

589 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the discourse.

590 tn Grk “they”; the referent (people who will come to participate in the kingdom) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

591 tn Grk “and recline at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away. The word “banquet” has been supplied to clarify for the modern reader the festive nature of the imagery The banquet imagery is a way to describe the fellowship and celebration of accompanying those who are included as the people of God at the end.

592 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

593 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

594 tn Grk “behold.”

595 sn Some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last. Jesus’ answer is that some who are expected to be there (many from Israel) will not be there, while others not expected to be present (from other nations) will be present. The question is not, “Will the saved be few?” (see v. 23), but “Will it be you?”

596 tn Grk “At that very hour.”

597 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

598 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

599 tn Grk “Go away and leave from here,” which is redundant in English and has been shortened to “Get away from here.”

600 sn Herod refers here to Herod Antipas. See the note on Herod Antipas in 3:1.

601 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

602 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.

603 sn That fox. This is not fundamentally a figure for cleverness as in modern western culture, but could indicate (1) an insignificant person (Neh 4:3; 2 Esd 13:35 LXX); (2) a deceiver (Song Rabbah 2.15.1 on 2:15); or someone destructive, a destroyer (Ezek 13:4; Lam 5:18; 1 En. 89:10, 42-49, 55). Luke’s emphasis seems to be on destructiveness, since Herod killed John the Baptist, whom Luke calls “the greatest born of women” (Luke 7:28) and later stands opposed to Jesus (Acts 4:26-28). In addition, “a person who is designated a fox is an insignificant or base person. He lacks real power and dignity, using cunning deceit to achieve his aims” (H. W. Hoehner, Herod Antipas [SNTSMS], 347).

604 sn The third day is a figurative reference to being further on in time, not a reference to three days from now. Jesus is not even in Jerusalem yet, and the events of the last days in Jerusalem take a good week.

605 tn Or “I reach my goal.” The verb τελειόω (teleiow) is a key NT term for the completion of God’s plan: See Luke 12:50; 22:37; John 19:30; and (where it has the additional component of meaning “to perfect”) Heb 2:10; 5:8-9; 7:28.

606 tn This is the frequent expression δεῖ (dei, “it is necessary”) that notes something that is a part of God’s plan.

607 tn Or “unthinkable.” See L&N 71.4 for both possible meanings.

608 tn Or “should perish away from.”

609 sn Death in Jerusalem is another key theme in Luke’s material: 7:16, 34; 24:19; Acts 3:22-23. Notice that Jesus sees himself in the role of a prophet here. Jesus’ statement, it is impossible that a prophet should be killed outside Jerusalem, is filled with irony; Jesus, traveling about in Galilee (most likely), has nothing to fear from Herod; it is his own people living in the very center of Jewish religion and worship who present the greatest danger to his life. The underlying idea is that Jerusalem, though she stands at the very heart of the worship of God, often kills the prophets God sends to her (v. 34). In the end, Herod will be much less a threat than Jerusalem.

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

610 sn The double use of the city’s name betrays intense emotion.

611 tn Although the opening address (“Jerusalem, Jerusalem”) is direct (second person), the remainder of this sentence in the Greek text is third person (“who kills the prophets and stones those sent to her”). The following sentences then revert to second person (“your… you”), so to keep all this consistent in English, the third person pronouns in the present verse were translated as second person (“you who kill… sent to you”).

612 sn How often I have longed to gather your children. Jesus, like a lamenting prophet, speaks for God here, who longed to care tenderly for Israel and protect her.

613 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

614 tn Grk “you were not willing.”

615 sn Your house is forsaken. The language here is from Jer 12:7 and 22:5. It recalls exilic judgment.

616 sn A quotation from Ps 118:26. The judgment to come will not be lifted until the Lord returns. See Luke 19:41-44.

617 tn Grk “Now it happened that one.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

618 tn Grk “to eat bread,” an idiom for participating in a meal.

619 tn Grk “a ruler of the Pharisees.” He was probably a synagogue official.

620 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

621 sn Watching…closely is a graphic term meaning to lurk and watch; see Luke 11:53-54.

622 tn Grk “And there.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

623 tn Grk “behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). Here it has been translated as “right” in the phrase “right in front of him,” giving a similar effect of vividness in the translation.

624 sn The condition called dropsy involves swollen limbs resulting from the accumulation of fluid in the body’s tissues, especially the legs.

625 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the sequence of events (Jesus’ question was prompted by the man’s appearance).

626 tn Grk “Jesus, answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English. In addition, since the context does not describe a previous question to Jesus (although one may well be implied), the phrase has been translated here as “Jesus asked.”

627 tn That is, experts in the interpretation of the Mosaic law (traditionally, “lawyers”).

628 snIs it lawful to heal on the Sabbath or not?” Will the Pharisees and experts in religious law defend tradition and speak out against doing good on the Sabbath? Has anything at all been learned since Luke 13:10-17? Has repentance come (13:6-9)?

629 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the sequence of events (Jesus’ healing the man was in response to their refusal to answer).

630 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

631 tn Grk “taking hold [of the man].” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενος (epilabomeno") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.

632 tn Or “and let him go.”

633 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

634 tc Here “son,” found in Ì45,75 (A) B W Ï, is the preferred reading. The other reading, “donkey” (found in א K L Ψ Ë1,13 33 579 892 1241 2542 al lat bo), looks like an assimilation to Luke 13:15 and Deut 22:4; Isa 32:20, and was perhaps motivated by an attempt to soften the unusual collocation of “son” and “ox.” The Western ms D differs from all others and reads “sheep.”

635 tn καί (kai) has been translated here as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. The experts, who should be expected to know the law, are unable to respond to Jesus’ question.

636 sn They could not reply. Twice in the scene, the experts remain silent (see v. 4). That, along with the presence of power working through Jesus, serves to indicate endorsement of his work and message.

637 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

638 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

639 tn Grk “those who were invited.”

640 tn Or “the best places.” The “places of honor” at the meal would be those closest to the host.

641 tn Or “banquet.” This may not refer only to a wedding feast, because this term can have broader sense (note the usage in Esth 2:18; 9:22 LXX). However, this difference does not affect the point of the parable.

642 tn Grk “do not recline in the place of honor.” 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

643 tn Grk “by him”; the referent (the host) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

644 tn Grk “host, and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate this action is a result of the situation described in the previous verse. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

645 tn Or “then in disgrace”; Grk “with shame.” In this culture avoiding shame was important.

646 tn Grk “lowest place” (also in the repetition of the phrase in the next verse).

647 tn Grk “the one who invited you.”

648 tn Grk “Go up higher.” This means to move to a more important place.

649 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context, which involves the reversal of expected roles.

650 sn The point of the statement the one who humbles himself will be exalted is humility and the reversal imagery used to underline it is common: Luke 1:52-53; 6:21; 10:15; 18:14.

651 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

652 sn That is, the leader of the Pharisees (v. 1).

653 tn The meaning of the two terms for meals here, ἄριστον (ariston) and δεῖπνον (deipnon), essentially overlap (L&N 23.22). Translators usually try to find two terms for a meal to use as equivalents (e.g., lunch and dinner, dinner and supper, etc.). In this translation “dinner” and “banquet” have been used, since the expected presence of rich neighbors later in the verse suggests a rather more elaborate occasion than an ordinary meal.

654 tn This term, δοχή (doch), is a third term for a meal (see v. 12) that could also be translated “banquet, feast.”

655 sn Normally the term means crippled as a result of being maimed or mutilated (L&N 23.177).

656 tn Here “and” has been supplied between the last two elements in the series in keeping with English style.

657 sn This list of needy is like Luke 7:22. See Deut 14:28-29; 16:11-14; 26:11-13.

658 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate that this follows from the preceding action. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

659 sn You will be blessed. God notes and approves of such generosity.

660 sn The passive verb will be repaid looks at God’s commendation.

661 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

662 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

663 tn Grk “whoever” (the indefinite relative pronoun). This has been translated as “everyone who” to conform to contemporary English style.

664 tn Or “will dine”; Grk “eat bread.” This refers to those who enjoy the endless fellowship of God’s coming rule.

665 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

666 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

667 tn Or “dinner.”

668 sn Presumably those invited would have sent a reply with the invitation stating their desire to attend, much like a modern R.S.V.P. Then they waited for the servant to announce the beginning of the celebration (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1272).

669 tn The word “guests” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

670 tn Grk “And at.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

671 tn Or “dinner.”

672 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

673 tn Or “all unanimously” (BDAG 107 s.v. ἀπό 6). "One after another" is suggested by L&N 61.2.

674 sn To make excuses and cancel at this point was an insult in the culture of the time. Regardless of customs concerning responses to invitations, refusal at this point was rude.

675 sn I have bought a field. An examination of newly bought land was a common practice. It was this person’s priority.

676 sn The expression Please excuse me is probably a polite way of refusing, given the dynamics of the situation, although it is important to note that an initial acceptance had probably been indicated and it was now a bit late for a refusal. The semantic equivalent of the phrase may well be “please accept my apologies.”

677 tn Grk “And another.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

678 sn Five yoke of oxen. This was a wealthy man, because the normal farmer had one or two yoke of oxen.

679 tn The translation “going out” for πορεύομαι (poreuomai) is used because “going” in this context could be understood to mean “I am about to” rather than the correct nuance, “I am on my way to.”

680 tn Grk “And another.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

681 sn I just got married, and I cannot come. There is no request to be excused here; just a refusal. Why this disqualifies attendance is not clear. The OT freed a newly married man from certain responsibilities such as serving in the army (Deut 20:7; 24:5), but that would hardly apply to a banquet. The invitation is not respected in any of the three cases.

682 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the preceding responses.

683 tn Grk “being furious, said.” The participle ὀργισθείς (orgisqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

684 sn It was necessary to go out quickly because the banquet was already prepared. All the food would spoil if not eaten immediately.

685 tn Or “town.”

686 sn The poor, the crippled, the blind and the lame. Note how the list matches v. 13, illustrating that point. Note also how the party goes on; it is not postponed until a later date. Instead new guests are invited.

687 tn Grk “and the crippled.” Normally crippled as a result of being maimed or mutilated (L&N 23.177). Καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following category (Grk “and the blind and the lame”) since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

688 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the order of events within the parable.

689 sn And still there is room. This comment suggests the celebration was quite a big one, picturing the openness of God’s grace.

690 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the master’s response to the slave’s report.

691 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

692 sn Go out to the highways and country roads. This suggests the inclusion of people outside the town, even beyond the needy (poor, crippled, blind, and lame) in the town, and so is an allusion to the inclusion of the Gentiles.

693 tn The Greek word φραγμός (fragmo") refers to a fence, wall, or hedge surrounding a vineyard (BDAG 1064 s.v. 1). “Highways” and “country roads” probably refer not to separate places, but to the situation outside the town where the rural roads run right alongside the hedges or fences surrounding the fields (cf. J. A. Fitzmyer, Luke [AB], 1057).

694 tn Traditionally “force” or “compel,” but according to BDAG 60 s.v. ἀναγκάζω 2 this is a weakened nuance: “strongly urge/invite.” The meaning in this context is more like “persuade.”

695 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

696 sn So that my house will be filled. God will bless many people.

697 tn The Greek word here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which frequently stresses males or husbands (in contrast to women or wives). However, the emphasis in the present context is on identifying these individuals as the ones previously invited, examples of which were given in vv. 18-20. Cf. also BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 2.

698 sn None of those individuals who were invited. This is both the point and the warning. To be a part of the original invitation does not mean one automatically has access to blessing. One must respond when the summons comes in order to participate. The summons came in the person of Jesus and his proclamation of the kingdom. The statement here refers to the fact that many in Israel will not be blessed with participation, for they have ignored the summons when it came.

699 tn Or “dinner.”

700 sn It is important to note that the following remarks are not just to disciples, but to the large crowds who were following Jesus.

701 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

702 tn This figurative use operates on a relative scale. God is to be loved more than family or self.

703 tn Grk “his own soul,” but ψυχή (yuch) is frequently used of one’s physical life. It clearly has that meaning in this context.

704 sn It was customary practice in a Roman crucifixion for the prisoner to be made to carry his own cross. Jesus is speaking figuratively here in the context of rejection. If the priority is not one’s allegiance to Jesus, then one will not follow him in the face of possible rejection; see Luke 9:23.

705 tn Grk “and come after.” In combination with the verb ἔρχομαι (ercomai) the improper preposition ὀπίσω (opisw) means “follow.”

706 tn The participle καθίσας (kaqisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

707 tn The first illustration involves checking to see if enough funds exist to build a watchtower. Both ψηφίζω (yhfizw, “compute”) and δαπάνη (dapanh, “cost”) are economic terms.

708 tn Grk “to complete it, lest.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation and ἵνα μήποτε ({ina mhpote, “lest”) has been translated as “Otherwise.”

709 tn The participle θέντος (qentos) has been taken temporally.

710 tn The words “the tower” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

711 tn The word “it” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

712 tn Or “mock,” “ridicule.” The person who did not plan ahead becomes an object of joking and ridicule.

713 tn Grk “make fun of him, saying.”

714 sn The phrase this man is often used in Luke in a derogatory sense; see “this one” and expressions like it in Luke 5:21; 7:39; 13:32; 23:4, 14, 22, 35.

715 sn The failure to finish the building project leads to embarrassment (in a culture where avoiding public shame was extremely important). The half completed tower testified to poor preparation and planning.

716 tn The participle καθίσας (kaqisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

717 tn On the meaning of this verb see also L&N 55.3, “to meet in battle, to face in battle.”

718 tn Grk “And if not.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated; “succeed” is implied and has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

719 tn Grk “a messenger.”

720 sn This image is slightly different from the former one about the tower (vv. 28-30). The first part of the illustration (sit down first and determine) deals with preparation. The second part of the illustration (ask for terms of peace) has to do with recognizing who is stronger. This could well suggest thinking about what refusing the “stronger one” (God) might mean, and thus constitutes a warning. Achieving peace with God, the more powerful king, is the point of the illustration.

721 tn Grk “Likewise therefore every one of you who does not renounce all his own possessions cannot be my disciple.” The complex double negation is potentially confusing to the modern reader and has been simplified in the translation. See L&N 57.70.

sn The application of the saying is this: Discipleship requires that God be in first place. The reference to renunciation of all his own possessions refers to all earthly attachments that have first place.

722 tn Grk “Now salt…”; here οὖν has not been translated.

sn Salt was used as seasoning or fertilizer (BDAG 41 s.v. ἅλας a), or as a preservative. If salt ceased to be useful, it was thrown away. With this illustration Jesus warned about a disciple who ceased to follow him.

723 sn The difficulty of this saying is understanding how salt could lose its flavor since its chemical properties cannot change. It is thus often assumed that Jesus was referring to chemically impure salt, perhaps a natural salt which, when exposed to the elements, had all the genuine salt leached out, leaving only the sediment or impurities behind. Others have suggested the background of the saying is the use of salt blocks by Arab bakers to line the floor of their ovens: Under the intense heat these blocks would eventually crystallize and undergo a change in chemical composition, finally being thrown out as unserviceable. A saying in the Talmud (b. Bekhorot 8b) attributed to R. Joshua ben Chananja (ca. a.d. 90), when asked the question “When salt loses its flavor, how can it be made salty again?” is said to have replied, “By salting it with the afterbirth of a mule.” He was then asked, “Then does the mule (being sterile) bear young?” to which he replied: “Can salt lose its flavor?” The point appears to be, both are impossible. The saying, while admittedly late, suggests that culturally the loss of flavor by salt was regarded as an impossibility. Genuine salt can never lose its flavor. In this case the saying by Jesus here may be similar to Matt 19:24, where it is likewise impossible for the camel to go through the eye of a sewing needle.

724 tn Or “It is not useful” (L&N 65.32).

725 tn Grk “they throw it out.” The third person plural with unspecified subject is a circumlocution for the passive here.

726 tn The translation “had better listen!” captures the force of the third person imperative more effectively than the traditional “let him hear,” which sounds more like a permissive than an imperative to the modern English reader. This was Jesus’ common expression to listen and heed carefully (cf. Matt 11:15; 13:9, 43; Mark 4:9, 23; Luke 8:8).

727 sn See the note on tax collectors in 3:12.

728 tn Grk “were drawing near.”

729 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

730 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

731 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

732 tn Or “grumbling”; Grk “were complaining, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

733 tn Or “accepts,” “receives.” This is not the first time this issue has been raised: Luke 5:27-32; 7:37-50.

734 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ telling of the parable is in response to the complaints of the Pharisees and experts in the law.

735 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

736 sn Them means at the minimum the parable is for the leadership, but probably also for those people Jesus accepted, but the leaders regarded as outcasts.

737 tn Grk “parable, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

738 tn Grk “What man.” The Greek word ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in a somewhat generic sense.

739 sn This individual with a hundred sheep is a shepherd of modest means, as flocks often had up to two hundred head of sheep.

740 tn Or “desert,” but here such a translation might suggest neglect of the 99 sheep left behind.

741 tn Grk “go after,” but in contemporary English the idiom “to look for” is used to express this.

742 sn Until he finds it. The parable pictures God’s pursuit of the sinner. On the image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd, see John 10:1-18.

743 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

744 tn Grk “And coming into his…” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

745 sn A touch of drama may be present, as the term calls together can mean a formal celebration (1 Kgs 1:9-10).

746 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215). It occurs before “neighbors” as well (“his friends and his neighbors”) but has not been translated the second time because of English style.

747 sn There will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents. The pursuit of the sinner is a priority in spite of the presence of others who are doing well (see also Luke 5:32; 19:10). The theme of repentance, a major Lukan theme, is again emphasized.

748 tn Here δικαίοις (dikaioi") is an adjective functioning substantivally and has been translated “righteous people.”

749 tn Or “who do not need to repent”; Grk “who do not have need of repentance.”

750 sn This silver coin is a drachma, equal to a denarius, that is, a day’s pay for the average laborer.

751 tn Grk “What woman who has ten silver coins, if she loses.” The initial participle ἔχουσα (ecousa) has been translated as a finite verb parallel to ἀπολέσῃ (apolesh) in the conditional clause to improve the English style.

752 tn Grk “one coin.”

753 tn Grk “and sweep,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

754 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

755 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

756 sn Rejoice. Besides the theme of pursuing the lost, the other theme of the parable is the joy of finding them.

757 tn Grk “drachma.”

758 sn The whole of heaven is said to rejoice. Joy in the presence of God’s angels is a way of referring to God’s joy as well without having to name him explicitly. Contemporary Judaism tended to refer to God indirectly where possible out of reverence or respect for the divine name.

759 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

760 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

761 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

762 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

763 tn L&N 57.19 notes that in nonbiblical contexts in which the word οὐσία (ousia) occurs, it refers to considerable possessions or wealth, thus “estate.”

764 tn L&N 57.3, “to belong to or come to belong to, with the possible implication of by right or by inheritance.”

765 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the father’s response to the younger son’s request.

766 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

767 sn He divided his assets between them. There was advice against doing this in the OT Apocrypha (Sir 33:20). The younger son would get half of what the older son received (Deut 21:17).

768 tn Grk “And after.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

769 tn Grk “after not many days.”

770 tn Or “wasted.” This verb is graphic; it means to scatter (L&N 57.151).

771 tn Or “estate” (the same word has been translated “estate” in v. 12).

772 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the sequence of events in the parable. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style generally does not.

773 tn Grk “joined himself to” (in this case an idiom for beginning to work for someone).

774 tn Grk “and he.” Here the conjunction καί (kai) and the personal pronoun have been translated by a relative pronoun to improve the English style.

775 sn To a Jew, being sent to the field to feed pigs would be an insult, since pigs were considered unclean animals (Lev 11:7).

776 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

777 tn Or “would gladly have eaten”; Grk “was longing to be filled with.”

778 tn This term refers to the edible pods from a carob tree (BDAG 540 s.v. κεράτιον). They were bean-like in nature and were commonly used for fattening pigs, although they were also used for food by poor people (L&N 3.46).

779 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

780 tn Grk “came to himself” (an idiom).

781 tn Grk “bread,” but used figuratively for food of any kind (L&N 5.1).

782 sn In the confession “I have sinned” there is a recognition of wrong that pictures the penitent coming home and “being found.”

783 sn The phrase against heaven is a circumlocution for God.

784 tn According to BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνωπιον 4.a, “in relation to ἁμαρτάνειν ἐ. τινος sin against someone Lk 15:18, 21 (cf. Jdth 5:17; 1 Km 7:6; 20:1).”

785 tn Or “make me.” Here is a sign of total humility.

786 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the son’s decision to return home. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style generally does not.

787 tn Grk “a long way off from [home].” The word “home” is implied (L&N 85.16).

788 tn Or “felt great affection for him,” “felt great pity for him.”

sn The major figure of the parable, the forgiving father, represents God the Father and his compassionate response. God is ready with open arms to welcome the sinner who comes back to him.

789 tn Grk “he fell on his neck,” an idiom for showing special affection for someone by throwing one’s arms around them. The picture is of the father hanging on the son’s neck in welcome.

790 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the son) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

791 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

792 sn The phrase against heaven is a circumlocution for God. 1st century Judaism tended to minimize use of the divine name out of reverence.

793 sn The younger son launches into his confession just as he had planned. See vv. 18-19.

794 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

795 sn With the instructions Hurry! Bring the best robe, there is a total acceptance of the younger son back into the home.

796 tn Grk “hand”; but χείρ (ceir) can refer to either the whole hand or any relevant part of it (L&N 8.30).

797 sn The need for sandals underlines the younger son’s previous destitution, because he was barefoot.

798 tn Grk “And bring.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

799 tn Or “the prize calf” (L&N 65.8). See also L&N 44.2, “grain-fattened.” Such a calf was usually reserved for religious celebrations.

800 tn The participle φαγόντες (fagontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

801 sn This statement links the parable to the theme of 15:6, 9.

802 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the father’s remarks in the preceding verses.

803 tn Grk “And as.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

804 sn This would have been primarily instrumental music, but might include singing as well.

805 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the older son hearing the noise of the celebration in progress.

806 tn The Greek term here, παῖς (pais), describes a slave, possibly a household servant regarded with some affection (L&N 87.77).

807 tn Grk “And he said to him.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated. The rest of the phrase has been simplified to “the slave replied,” with the referent (the slave) specified in the translation for clarity.

808 tn See note on the phrase “fattened calf” in v. 23.

809 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the younger son) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

810 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the older son, v. 25) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

811 tn The aorist verb ὠργίσθη (wrgisqh) has been translated as an ingressive aorist, reflecting entry into a state or condition.

812 sn Ironically the attitude of the older son has left him outside and without joy.

813 tn Grk “but answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “but he answered.”

814 tn Or simply, “have served,” but in the emotional context of the older son’s outburst the translation given is closer to the point.

815 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to bring out the contrast indicated by the context.

816 sn You never gave me even a goat. The older son’s complaint was that the generous treatment of the younger son was not fair: “I can’t get even a little celebration with a basic food staple like a goat!”

817 sn Note the younger son is not “my brother” but this son of yours (an expression with a distinctly pejorative nuance).

818 sn This is another graphic description. The younger son’s consumption had been like a glutton. He had both figuratively and literally devoured the assets which were given to him.

819 sn The charge concerning the prostitutes is unproven, but essentially the older brother accuses the father of committing an injustice by rewarding his younger son’s unrighteous behavior.

820 sn See note on the phrase “fattened calf” in v. 23.

821 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the parable.

822 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the father) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

823 tn Or “necessary.”

824 sn By referring to him as your brother, the father reminded the older brother that the younger brother was part of the family.

825 sn The theme he was lost and is found is repeated from v. 24. The conclusion is open-ended. The reader is left to ponder with the older son (who pictures the scribes and Pharisees) what the response will be. The parable does not reveal the ultimate response of the older brother. Jesus argued that sinners should be pursued and received back warmly when they returned.

826 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

827 tn These are not formal legal charges, but reports from friends, acquaintances, etc.; Grk “A certain man was rich who had a manager, and this one was reported to him as wasting his property.”

828 sn His manager was the steward in charge of managing the house. He could have been a slave trained for the role.

829 tn Or “squandering.” This verb is graphic; it means to scatter (L&N 57.151).

830 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the reports the man received about his manager.

831 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the manager) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

832 sn Although phrased as a question, the charges were believed by the owner, as his dismissal of the manager implies.

833 tn Or “stewardship”; the Greek word οἰκονομία (oikonomia) is cognate with the noun for the manager (οἰκονόμος, oikonomo").

834 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the parable.

835 tn Grk “the stewardship,” “the management.”

836 tn Here “dig” could refer (1) to excavation (“dig ditches,” L&N 19.55) or (2) to agricultural labor (“work the soil,” L&N 43.3). In either case this was labor performed by the uneducated, so it would be an insult as a job for a manager.

837 tn Grk “I do not have strength to dig; I am ashamed to beg.”

sn To beg would represent a real lowering of status for the manager, because many of those whom he had formerly collected debts from, he would now be forced to beg from.

838 tn This is a dramatic use of the aorist and the verse is left unconnected to the previous verse by asyndeton, giving the impression of a sudden realization.

839 sn Thinking ahead, the manager develops a plan to make people think kindly of him (welcome me into their homes).

840 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the manager’s decision.

841 tn Grk “summoning.” The participle προσκαλεσάμενος (proskalesameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

842 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the first debtor) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

843 sn A measure (sometimes translated “bath”) was just over 8 gallons (about 30 liters). This is a large debt – about 875 gallons (3000 liters) of olive oil, worth 1000 denarii, over three year’s pay for a daily worker.

844 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the manager) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated for stylistic reasons.

845 sn The bill was halved (sit down quickly, and write fifty). What was the steward doing? This is debated. 1) Did he simply lower the price? 2) Did he remove interest from the debt? 3) Did he remove his own commission? It is hard to be sure. Either of the latter two options is more likely. The goal was clear: The manager would be seen in a favorable light for bringing a deflationary trend to prices.

846 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the second debtor) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated for stylistic reasons.

847 sn The hundred measures here was a hundreds cors. A cor was a Hebrew dry measure for grain, flour, etc., of between 10-12 bushels (about 390 liters). This was a huge amount of wheat, representing the yield of about 100 acres, a debt of between 2500-3000 denarii.

848 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the manager) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

849 sn The percentage of reduction may not be as great because of the change in material.

850 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

851 sn Is the manager dishonest because of what he just did? Or is it a reference to what he had done earlier, described in v. 1? This is a difficult question, but it seems unlikely that the master, having fired the man for prior dishonesty, would now commend those same actions. It would also be unusual for Jesus to make that point of the story the example. Thus it is more likely the reference to dishonesty goes back to the earliest events, while the commendation is for the cleverness of the former manager reflected in vv. 5-7.

852 sn Where this parable ends is debated: Does it conclude with v. 7, after v. 8a, after v. 8b, or after v. 9? Verse 8a looks as if it is still part of the story, with its clear reference to the manager, while 8b looks like Jesus’ application, since its remarks are more general. So it is most likely the parable stops after v. 8a.

853 tn Grk “sons” (an idiom).

854 tn Grk “with their own generation.”

855 tn Grk “sons.” Here the phrase “sons of light” is a reference to the righteous. The point is that those of the world often think ahead about consequences better than the righteous do.

856 tn Grk “unrighteous mammon.” Mammon is the Aramaic term for wealth or possessions. The point is not that money is inherently evil, but that it is often misused so that it is a means of evil; see 1 Tim 6:6-10, 17-19. The call is to be generous and kind in its use. Zacchaeus becomes the example of this in Luke’s Gospel (19:1-10).

857 sn The passive refers to the welcome of heaven.

858 tn Grk “eternal tents” (as dwelling places).

859 sn The point of the statement faithful in a very little is that character is shown in how little things are treated.

860 tn Or “faithful.”

861 tn Grk “the unrighteous mammon.” See the note on the phrase “worldly wealth” in v. 9.

862 sn Entrust you with the true riches is a reference to future service for God. The idea is like 1 Cor 9:11, except there the imagery is reversed.

863 tn Or “faithful.”

864 tn Grk “have not been faithful with what is another’s.”

865 tn Grk “what is your own.”

866 sn The contrast between hate and love here is rhetorical. The point is that one will choose the favorite if a choice has to be made.

867 tn Or “and treat [the other] with contempt.”

868 tn Grk “God and mammon.” This is the same word (μαμωνᾶς, mamwnas; often merely transliterated as “mammon”) translated “worldly wealth” in vv. 9, 11.

sn The term money is used to translate mammon, the Aramaic term for wealth or possessions. The point is not that money is inherently evil, but that it is often misused so that it is a means of evil; see 1 Tim 6:6-10, 17-19. God must be first, not money or possessions.

869 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

870 tn A figurative extension of the literal meaning “to turn one’s nose up at someone”; here “ridicule, sneer at, show contempt for” (L&N 33.409).

871 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

872 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

873 tn Grk “before men.” The contrast is between outward appearance (“in people’s eyes”) and inward reality (“God knows your hearts”). Here the Greek term ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used twice in a generic sense, referring to both men and women, but “men” has been retained in the text to provide a strong verbal contrast with “God” in the second half of the verse.

874 tn Or “exalted.” This refers to the pride that often comes with money and position.

875 tn Or “is an abomination,” “is abhorrent” (L&N 25.187).

876 tn There is no verb in the Greek text; one must be supplied. Some translations (NASB, NIV) supply “proclaimed” based on the parallelism with the proclamation of the kingdom. The transitional nature of this verse, however, seems to call for something more like “in effect” (NRSV) or, as used here, “in force.” Further, Greek generally can omit one of two kinds of verbs – either the equative verb or one that is already mentioned in the preceding context (ExSyn 39).

877 sn John refers to John the Baptist.

878 sn Until John; since then. This verse indicates a shift in era, from law to kingdom.

879 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

880 tn Many translations have “entereth violently into it” (ASV) or “is forcing his way into it” (NASB, NIV). This is not true of everyone. It is better to read the verb here as passive rather than middle, and in a softened sense of “be urged.” See Gen 33:11; Judg 13:15-16; 19:7; 2 Sam 3:25, 27 in the LXX. This fits the context well because it agrees with Jesus’ attempt to persuade his opponents to respond morally. For further discussion and details, see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1352-53.

881 tn Or “one small part of a letter” (L&N 33.37).

882 tn Grk “to fall”; that is, “to drop out of the text.” Jesus’ point may be that the law is going to reach its goal without fail, in that the era of the promised kingdom comes.

883 sn The examples of marriage and divorce show that the ethical standards of the new era are still faithful to promises made in the presence of God. To contribute to the breakup of a marriage, which involved a vow before God, is to commit adultery. This works whether one gets a divorce or marries a person who is divorced, thus finalizing the breakup of the marriage. Jesus’ point concerns the need for fidelity and ethical integrity in the new era.

884 sn Purple describes a fine, expensive dye used on luxurious clothing, and by metonymy, refers to clothing colored with that dye. It pictures someone of great wealth.

885 tn Or “celebrated with ostentation” (L&N 88.255), that is, with showing off. Here was the original conspicuous consumer.

886 tn The passive verb ἐβέβλητο (ebeblhto) does not indicate how Lazarus got there. Cf. BDAG 163 s.v. βάλλω 1.b, “he lay before the door”; Josephus, Ant. 9.10.2 (9.209).

887 sn This is the one time in all the gospels that a figure in a parable is mentioned by name. It will become important later in the account.

888 tn Or “was covered with ulcers.” The words “whose body” are implied in the context (L&N 23.180).

889 tn Grk “to eat his fill,” but this phrase has been simplified as “to eat” for stylistic reasons.

890 tn The term κύνες (kunes) refers to “wild” dogs (either “street” dogs or watchdogs), not house pets (L&N 4.34).

891 sn When the dogs came and licked his sores it meant that he was unclean. See the negative image of Rev 22:15 that draws on this picture.

892 tn Grk “Now it happened that the.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

893 tn Grk “to Abraham’s bosom.” The phrase “carried by the angels to Abraham’s bosom” describes being gathered to the fathers and is a way to refer to heaven (Gen 15:15; 47:30; Deut 31:16).

894 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

895 sn The shorter description suggests a different fate, which is confirmed in the following verses.

896 sn The Greek term Hades stands for the Hebrew concept of Sheol. It is what is called hell today. This is where the dead were gathered (Ps 16:10; 86:13). In the NT Hades has an additional negative force of awaiting judgment (Rev 20:13).

897 sn Hades is a place of torment, especially as one knows that he is separated from God.

898 tn Grk “he lifted up his eyes” (an idiom).

899 tn Grk “in his bosom,” the same phrase used in 16:22. This idiom refers to heaven and/or participation in the eschatological banquet. An appropriate modern equivalent is “at Abraham’s side.”

900 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous actions in the narrative.

901 tn Grk “calling out he said”; this is redundant in contemporary English style and has been simplified to “he called out.”

902 sn The rich man had not helped Lazarus before, when he lay outside his gate (v. 2), but he knew him well enough to know his name. This is why the use of the name Lazarus in the parable is significant. (The rich man’s name, on the other hand, is not mentioned, because it is not significant for the point of the story.)

903 sn The dipping of the tip of his finger in water is evocative of thirst. The thirsty are in need of God’s presence (Ps 42:1-2; Isa 5:13). The imagery suggests the rich man is now separated from the presence of God.

904 tn Or “in terrible pain” (L&N 24.92).

905 sn Fire in this context is OT imagery; see Isa 66:24.

906 tn The Greek term here is τέκνον (teknon), which could be understood as a term of endearment.

907 tn Or “in terrible pain” (L&N 24.92). Here is the reversal Jesus mentioned in Luke 6:20-26.

908 tn Grk “And in all these things.” There is no way Lazarus could carry out this request even if divine justice were not involved.

909 sn The great chasm between heaven and hell is impassable forever. The rich man’s former status meant nothing now.

910 tn Grk “between us and you.”

911 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the rich man’s response to Abraham’s words.

912 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the rich man, v. 19) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

913 tn Grk “Then I beg you, father, that you send him”; the referent (Lazarus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

914 sn To warn them. The warning would consist of a call to act differently than their dead brother had, or else meet his current terrible fate.

915 tn Grk “lest they also come.”

916 tn Grk “says.” This is one of the few times Luke uses the historical present.

917 tn Or “obey”; Grk “hear.” This recalls the many OT texts calling for a righteous heart to respond to people in need (Deut 14:28-29; Isa 3:14-15; Amos 2:6-8; Mic 2:1-2; Zech 7:9-10).

918 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

919 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the rich man, v. 19) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

920 sn If someone from the dead goes to them. The irony and joy of the story is that what is denied the rich man’s brothers, a word of warning from beyond the grave, is given to the reader of the Gospel in this exchange.

921 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

922 tn Or “obey”; Grk “hear.” See the note on the phrase “respond to” in v. 29.

923 sn The concluding statement of the parable, they will not be convinced even if someone rises from the dead, provides a hint that even Jesus’ resurrection will not help some to respond. The message of God should be good enough. Scripture is the sign to be heeded.

924 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

925 sn See Luke 6:24-26.

926 tn This term refers to the heavy upper stone of a grinding mill (L&N 7.70; BDAG 660 s.v. μυλικός).

sn The punishment of drowning with a heavy weight attached is extremely gruesome and reflects Jesus’ views concerning those who cause others who believe in him to sin.

927 tn Grk “if a millstone were tied…and he were thrown.” The conditional construction in Greek has been translated by English infinitives: “to have… and be thrown.”

928 tn Or “to stumble.” This verb, σκανδαλίσῃ (skandalish), has the same root as the noun σκάνδαλον (skandalon) in 17:1, translated “stumbling blocks”; this wordplay is difficult to reproduce in English. It is possible that the primary cause of offense here would be leading disciples (“little ones”) astray in a similar fashion.

929 tn It is difficult to know if this looks back or forward or both. The warning suggests it looks back. For this verb, see Luke 8:18; 12:1, 15; 20:46; 21:8, 34. The present imperative reflects an ongoing spirit of watchfulness.

930 tn Both the “if” clause in this verse and the “if” clause in v. 4 are third class conditions in Greek.

931 tn Here the term “brother” means “fellow believer” or “fellow Christian” (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.a, contra BDAG 19 s.v. 2.c), but with a familial connotation. It refers equally to men, women, or children. However, because of the familial connotations, “brother” has been retained in the translation here in preference to the more generic “fellow believer” (“fellow Christian” would be anachronistic in this context).

932 tn Grk “And if.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

933 sn You must forgive him. Forgiveness is to be readily given and not withheld. In a community that is to have restored relationships, grudges are not beneficial.

934 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

935 sn The request of the apostles, “Increase our faith,” is not a request for a gift of faith, but a request to increase the depth of their faith.

936 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

937 tn Grk “said.”

938 tn This is a mixed condition, with ἄν (an) in the apodosis.

939 tn Grk “faith as,” “faith like.”

940 sn A black mulberry tree is a deciduous fruit tree that grows about 20 ft (6 m) tall and has black juicy berries. This tree has an extensive root system, so to pull it up would be a major operation.

941 tn The passives here (ἐκριζώθητι and φυτεύθητι, ekrizwqhti and futeuqhti) are probably a circumlocution for God performing the action (the so-called divine passive, see ExSyn 437-38). The issue is not the amount of faith (which in the example is only very tiny), but its presence, which can accomplish impossible things. To cause a tree to be uprooted and planted in the sea is impossible. The expression is a rhetorical idiom. It is like saying a camel can go through the eye of a needle (Luke 18:25).

942 tn The verb is aorist, though it looks at a future event, another rhetorical touch to communicate certainty of the effect of faith.

943 tn Grk “Who among you, having a slave… would say to him.”

944 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

945 tn Grk “and recline at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away. See BDAG 70 s.v. ἀναπίπτω 1.

946 tn The question includes a Greek particle, οὐχί (ouci), that expects a positive reply. The slave is expected to prepare a meal before eating himself.

947 tn Grk “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

948 tn Grk “and gird yourself” (with an apron or towel, in preparation for service).

949 tn BDAG 423 s.v. ἕως 2.b, “to denote contemporaneousness as long as, while… w. subjunctive… Lk 17:8.”

950 tn Grk “after these things.”

951 tn Grk “did what was commanded.”

952 tn The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ at the end, “will he?” Thanks are not required.

953 tn Some translations describe the slaves as “worthless” (NRSV) or “unworthy” (NASB, NIV) but that is not Jesus’ point. These disciples have not done anything deserving special commendation or praise (L&N 33.361), but only what would normally be expected of a slave in such a situation (thus the translation “we have only done what was our duty”).

954 tn Or “we have only done what we were supposed to do.”

955 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

956 sn This is another travel note about Jesus going to Jerusalem in Luke 9:51-19:48, the so-called “Jerusalem journey” section of Luke’s Gospel. It is not a straight line journey, because to travel along the Galilean and Samaritan border is to go east or west, not south to Jerusalem.

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

957 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

958 tn Or “was traveling about.”

959 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

960 tn The participle εἰσερχομένου (eisercomenou) is taken temporally.

961 sn The ten men with leprosy would have been unable to approach Jesus (Lev 13:45-46; Num 5:2-3). The ancient term for leprosy covered a wider array of conditions than what is called leprosy today. A leper was totally ostracized from society until he was declared cured (Lev 13:45-46).

962 tn Grk “leprosy, who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun was replaced with a personal pronoun and a new sentence started at this point in the translation.

963 snHave mercy on us” is a request to heal them (Luke 18:38-39; 16:24; Matt 9:27; 15:22; 17:15; 20:31-32; Mark 10:47-49).

964 tn Καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

965 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") is a good example of an adverbial participle of attendant circumstance. As such, it picks up the force of an imperative from the verb to which it is related (ExSyn 640-45).

966 sn These are the instructions of what to do with a healing (Lev 13:19; 14:1-11; Luke 5:14).

967 tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

968 tn Grk “glorifying God.”

969 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

970 tn Grk “he fell on his face” (an idiom for complete prostration).

971 sn And thanked him. This action recognized God’s healing work through Jesus.

972 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a parenthetical comment.

973 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. The comment that the man was a Samaritan means that to most Jews of Jesus’ day he would have been despised as a half-breed and a heretic. The note adds a touch of irony to the account (v. 18).

974 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

975 tn Grk “Jesus answering said”; this is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.

976 tn The Greek construction used here (οὐχί, ouci) expects a positive reply.

977 tn The word “other” is implied in the context.

978 sn Jesus’ point in calling the man a foreigner is that none of the other nine, who were presumably Israelites, responded with gratitude. Only the “outsiders” were listening and responding.

979 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

980 tn Grk “to him”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

981 tn Or “has delivered you”; Grk “has saved you.” The remark about faith suggests the benefit of trusting in Jesus’ ability to deliver. Apparently the Samaritan benefited from the healing in a way the other nine did not.

982 tn The words “at one point” are supplied to indicate that the following incident is not necessarily in chronological sequence with the preceding event.

983 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

984 tn Grk “having been asked by the Pharisees.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style, and the direct object, Jesus, has been supplied from the context.

985 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

986 tn Or “is not coming in a way that it can be closely watched” (L&N 24.48). Although there are differing interpretations of what this means, it probably refers to the cosmic signs often associated with the kingdom’s coming in the Jewish view (1 En. 91, 93; 2 Bar. 53—74). See D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1412-14, also H. Riesenfeld, TDNT 8:150.

987 tn This is a present tense in the Greek text. In contrast to waiting and looking for the kingdom, it is now available.

988 tn This is a far better translation than “in you.” Jesus would never tell the hostile Pharisees that the kingdom was inside them. The reference is to Jesus present in their midst. He brings the kingdom. Another possible translation would be “in your grasp.” For further discussion and options, see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1414-19.

989 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

990 sn This is a reference to the days of the full manifestation of Jesus’ power in a fully established kingdom. The reference to “days” instead of “day” is unusual, appearing only here and in v. 26, but it may be motivated merely by parallelism with the “days” of Noah there and the “days of Lot” in v. 28.

991 tn Grk “And they will say.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

992 tn The words “he is” here and in the following clause are understood and have been supplied from the context.

993 sn Do not go out or chase after them. There will be no need to search for the Son of Man at his coming, though many will falsely claim its arrival.

994 sn The Son of Man’s coming in power will be sudden and obvious like lightning. No one will need to point it out.

995 tc Some very important mss (Ì75 B D it sa) lack the words ἐν τῇ ἡμέρα αὐτοῦ (en th Jhmera autou, “in his day”), but the words are included in א A L W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat sy bo. On the one hand, the shorter reading is impressive because it has some of the best Alexandrian and Western witnesses in support; on the other hand, the expression ἐν τῇ ἡμέρα αὐτοῦ is unusual (found nowhere else in the NT), and may be considered the harder reading. A decision is difficult, but it is probably best to retain the words. NA27 rightly has the words in brackets, expressing doubt as to their authenticity.

996 sn The Son of Man’s suffering and rejection by this generation is another “it is necessary” type of event in God’s plan (Luke 4:43; 24:7, 26, 44) and the fifth passion prediction in Luke’s account (9:22, 44; 12:50; 13:32-33; for the last, see 18:32-33).

997 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

998 tn Or “as it happened.”

999 sn Like the days of Noah, the time of the flood in Gen 6:5-8:22, the judgment will come as a surprise as people live their day to day lives.

1000 tn Grk “They.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general.

1001 tn These verbs (“eating… drinking… marrying… being given in marriage”) are all progressive imperfects, describing action in progress at that time.

1002 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1003 sn Like that flood came and destroyed them all, the coming judgment associated with the Son of Man will condemn many.

1004 tn Or “as it happened.”

1005 tn Grk “they.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general.

1006 sn And destroyed them all. The coming of the Son of Man will be like the judgment on Sodom, one of the most immoral places of the OT (Gen 19:16-17; Deut 32:32-33; Isa 1:10).

1007 sn Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.

1008 sn The swiftness and devastation of the judgment will require a swift escape. There is no time to come down from one’s roof and pick up anything from inside one’s home.

1009 sn An allusion to Gen 19:26. The warning about Lot’s wife is not to look back and long to be where one used to be. The world is being judged, and the person who delays or turns back will be destroyed.

1010 tn Or “tries to preserve”; Grk “seeks to gain.”

sn If there is no willingness to suffer the world’s rejection at this point, then one will not respond to Jesus (which is trying to keep his life) and then will be subject to this judgment (which is losing it).

1011 sn Whoever loses his life. Suffering and persecution caused by the world, even to death, cannot stop God from saving (Luke 12:4-6).

1012 sn There is debate among commentators and scholars over the phrase one will be taken and the other left about whether one is taken for judgment or for salvation. If the imagery is patterned after the rescue of Noah from the flood and Lot from Sodom, as some suggest, the ones taken are the saved (as Noah and Lot were) andthose left behind are judged. The imagery, however, is not directly tied to theidentification of the two groups. Its primary purposein context is topicture the sudden, surprisingseparation of the righteous and the judged (i.e., condemned) at the return of the Son of Man.

1013 tn Grk “at the same place.” According to L&N 46.16, this refers to a hand mill normally operated by two women.

1014 tc Several mss (D Ë13 [579] 700 al lat sy) add (with several variations among these witnesses) 17:36 “There will be two in the field; one will be taken and the other left.” It is not well enough attested to be original. Further, it is an assimilation to the parallel in Matt 24:40, which marks the addition as secondary. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

1015 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1016 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the disciples, v. 22) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1017 tn Grk “answering, they said to him.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.

1018 sn The question “Where, Lord?” means, “Where will the judgment take place?”

1019 tn Or “corpse.”

1020 tn The same Greek term can refer to “eagles” or “vultures” (L&N 4.42; BDAG 22 s.v. ἀετός), but in this context it must mean vultures, because the gruesome image is one of dead bodies being consumed by scavengers.

sn Jesus’ answer is that when the judgment comes, the scenes of death will be obvious and so will the location of the judgment.

1021 tn Grk “will be gathered.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in English.

1022 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1023 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1024 tn Or “should pray at all times” (L&N 67.88).

1025 sn This is one of the few parables that comes with an explanation at the start: …they should always pray and not lose heart. It is part of Luke’s goal in encouraging Theophilus (1:4).

1026 tn Grk “lose heart, saying.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in the Greek text, but a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronominal subject “He.”

1027 tn Or “town.”

1028 sn The judge here is apparently portrayed as a civil judge who often handled financial cases.

1029 tn Grk “man,” but the singular ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used as a generic in comparison to God.

1030 sn This widow was not necessarily old, since many people lived only into their thirties in the 1st century.

1031 tn Or “town.”

1032 tn This is an iterative imperfect; the widow did this on numerous occasions.

1033 tn Grk “And for.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1034 tn Grk “after these things.”

1035 tn Grk “man,” but the singular ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used as a generic in comparison to God.

1036 tn The term ὑπωπιάζω (Jupwpiazw) in this context means “to wear someone out by continual annoying” (L&N 25.245).

1037 tn Grk “by her continual coming,” but the point of annoyance to the judge is her constant pleas for justice (v. 3).

1038 sn Listen to what the unrighteous judge says! The point of the parable is that the judge’s lack of compassion was overcome by the widow’s persistence.

1039 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

1040 sn The prayers have to do with the righteous who cry out to him to receive justice. The context assumes the righteous are persecuted.

1041 tn The emphatic particles in this sentence indicate that God will indeed give justice to the righteous.

1042 sn The issue of delay has produced a whole host of views for this verse. (1) Does this assume provision to endure in the meantime? Or (2) does it mean God restricts the level of persecution until he comes? Either view is possible.

1043 tn Some argue this should be translated “suddenly.” When vindication comes it will be quick. But the more natural meaning is “soon.” God will not forget his elect and will respond to them. It may be that this verse has a prophetic perspective. In light of the eternity that comes, vindication is soon.

1044 sn Will he find faith on earth? The Son of Man is looking for those who continue to believe in him, despite the wait.

1045 tn Grk “He”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1046 tn Grk “and despised.” This is a second parable with an explanatory introduction.

1047 sn The temple is on a hill in Jerusalem, so one would go up to enter its precincts.

1048 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

1049 sn See the note on tax collectors in 3:12.

1050 tn Or “stood by himself and prayed like this.” The prepositional phrase πρὸς ἑαυτόν (pros eauton, “to/about himself”) could go with either the aorist participle σταθείς (staqeis, “stood”) or with the imperfect verb προσηύχετο (proshuceto, “he prayed”). If taken with the participle, then the meaning would seem at first glance to be: “stood ‘by himself’,” or “stood ‘alone’.” Now it is true that πρός can mean “by” or “with” when used with intransitive verbs such as ἵστημι ({isthmi, “I stand”; cf. BDAG 874 s.v. πρός 2.a), but πρὸς ἑαυτόν together never means “by himself” or “alone” in biblical Greek. On the other hand, if πρὸς ἑαυτόν is taken with the verb, then two different nuances emerge, both of which highlight in different ways the principal point Jesus seems to be making about the arrogance of this religious leader: (1) “prayed to himself,” but not necessarily silently, or (2) “prayed about himself,” with the connotation that he prayed out loud, for all to hear. Since his prayer is really a review of his moral résumé, directed both at advertising his own righteousness and exposing the perversion of the tax collector, whom he actually mentions in his prayer, the latter option seems preferable. If this is the case, then the Pharisee’s mention of God is really nothing more than a formality.

1051 sn The Pharisee’s prayer started out as a thanksgiving psalm to God, but the praise ended up not being about God.

1052 tn Here the plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrwpwn) is used as a generic and can refer to both men and women (NASB, NRSV, “people”; NLT, “everyone else”; NAB, “the rest of humanity”).

1053 tn Or “swindlers” (BDAG 134 s.v. ἅρπαξ 2); see also Isa 10:2; Josephus, J. W. 6.3.4 [6.203].

1054 sn A general category for “sinners” (1 Cor 6:9; Lev 19:3).

1055 sn Note what the Pharisee assumes about the righteousness of this tax collector by grouping him with extortionists, unrighteous people, and adulterers.

1056 sn The law only required fasting on the Day of Atonement. Such voluntary fasting as this practiced twice a week by the Pharisee normally took place on Monday and Thursday.

1057 tn Or “I tithe.”

1058 tn Grk “standing”; the Greek participle has been translated as a finite verb.

1059 tn Grk “even lift up his eyes” (an idiom).

1060 tn The prayer is a humble call for forgiveness. The term for mercy (ἱλάσκομαι, Jilaskomai) is associated with the concept of a request for atonement (BDAG 473-74 s.v. 1; Ps 51:1, 3; 25:11; 34:6, 18).

1061 tn Grk “the sinner.” The tax collector views himself not just as any sinner but as the worst of all sinners. See ExSyn 222-23.

1062 sn The prayer that was heard and honored was the one given with humility; in a surprising reversal it was the tax collector who went down to his home justified.

1063 tn Grk “the other”; the referent (the Pharisee, v. 10) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1064 sn Everyone who exalts himself. See Luke 14:11. Jesus often called for humility and condemned those who sought honor.

1065 tn Grk “they.”

1066 tn The term βρέφος (brefos) here can refer to babies or to toddlers (2:12, 16; Acts 7:19; 2 Tim 3:15; 1 Pet 2:2).

1067 tn Grk “so that he would touch them.” Here the touch is connected with (or conveys) a blessing (cf. Mark 10:16; also BDAG 126 s.v. ἅπτω 2.c).

1068 tn Grk “the disciples began to scold them.” In the translation the referent has been specified as “those who brought them,” since otherwise the statement could be understood to mean that the disciples began scolding the children rather than their parents who brought them.

1069 tn Grk “summoned them”; the referent (the children) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1070 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

1071 sn The kingdom of God belongs to such as these. Children are a picture of those whose simple trust illustrates what faith is all about. The remark illustrates how everyone is important to God, even those whom others regard as insignificant.

1072 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

1073 sn On receive see John 1:12.

1074 sn The point of the comparison receive the kingdom of God like a child has more to do with a child’s trusting spirit and willingness to be dependent and receive from others than any inherent humility the child might possess.

1075 tn The negation in Greek used here (οὐ μή, ou mh) is very strong.

1076 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

1077 sn Only Luke states this man is a ruler (cf. the parallels in Matt 19:16-22 and Mark 10:17-22, where the questioner is described only as “someone”). He is probably a civic leader of some kind, a leader in the society.

1078 sn The rich man wanted to know what he must do to inherit eternal life, but Jesus had just finished teaching that eternal life was not earned but simply received (18:17). See the similar question about inheriting eternal life in Luke 10:25.

1079 tn Grk “And Jesus.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1080 sn Jesus’ response, Why do you call me good?, was designed to cause the ruler to stop and think for a moment about who Jesus really was. The following statement No one is good except God alone seems to point the man in the direction of Jesus’ essential nature and the demands which logically follow on the man for having said it.

1081 sn A quotation from Exod 20:12-16 and Deut 5:16-20. Jesus cited the parts of the ten commandments that relate to how others should be treated.

1082 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the ruler mentioned in v. 18) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1083 tn Grk “kept.” The implication of this verb is that the man has obeyed the commandments without fail throughout his life, so the adverb “wholeheartedly” has been added to the translation to bring out this nuance.

1084 tn Grk “these things.” The referent of the pronoun (the laws mentioned by Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn While the rich man was probably being sincere when he insisted I have wholeheartedly obeyed all these laws, he had confined his righteousness to external obedience. The rich man’s response to Jesus’ command to give away all he had revealed that internally he loved money more than God.

1085 sn Since my youth. Judaism regarded the age of thirteen as the age when a man would have become responsible to live by God’s commands.

1086 sn See Luke 14:33.

1087 tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

1088 sn See Luke 1:50-53; 6:20-23; 14:12-14.

1089 sn The call for sacrifice comes with a promise of eternal reward: …you will have treasure in heaven. Jesus’ call is a test to see how responsive the man is to God’s direction through him. Will he walk the path God’s agent calls him to walk? For a rich person who got it right, see Zacchaeus in Luke 19:1-10.

1090 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the conversation.

1091 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1092 tn Or “very distressed” (L&N 25.277).

1093 tc ‡ The phrase περίλυπον γενόμενον (perilupon genomenon, “[When Jesus saw him] becoming sad”) is found in the majority of mss (A [D] W Θ Ψ 078 Ë13 33vid Ï latt sy), and it is not unknown in Lukan style to repeat a word or phrase in adjacent passages (TCGNT 143). However, the phrase is lacking in some significant mss (א B L Ë1 579 1241 2542 co). The shorter reading is nevertheless difficult to explain if it is not original: It is possible that these witnesses omitted this phrase out of perceived redundancy from the preceding verse, although intentional omissions, especially by several and varied witnesses, are generally unlikely. NA27 places the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.

tn Grk “him.”

1094 sn For the rich it is hard for wealth not to be the point of focus, as the contrast in vv. 28-30 will show, and for rich people to trust God. Wealth was not an automatic sign of blessing as far as Jesus was concerned.

1095 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

1096 sn The eye of a needle refers to a sewing needle, one of the smallest items one might deal with on a regular basis, in contrast to the biggest animal of the region. (The gate in Jerusalem known as “The Needle’s Eye” was built during the middle ages and was not in existence in Jesus’ day.) Jesus is saying rhetorically that this is impossible, unless God (v. 27) intervenes.

1097 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of thought.

1098 sn The assumption is that the rich are blessed, so if they risk exclusion, who is left to be saved?

1099 sn The term impossible is in the emphatic position in the Greek text. God makes the impossible possible.

1100 tn The plural Greek term ἄνθρωποις (anqrwpois) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NASB 1995 update, “people”). Because of the contrast here between mere mortals and God (“impossible for men…possible for God”) the phrase “mere humans” has been used in the translation.

1101 tn Or “left our homes,” “left our possessions”; Grk “left our own things.” The word ἴδιος (idios) can refer to one’s home (including the people and possessions in it) or to one’s property or possessions. Both options are mentioned in BDAG 467 s.v. 4.b. See also I. H. Marshall, Luke (NIGTC), 688; D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1488.

1102 tn Grk “We have left everything we own and followed you.” Koine Greek often used paratactic structure when hypotactic was implied.

1103 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1104 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1105 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

1106 tn The term “brothers” could be understood as generic here, referring to either male or female siblings. However, it is noteworthy that in the parallel passages in both Matt 19:29 and Mark 10:29, “sisters” are explicitly mentioned in the Greek text.

1107 sn Jesus reassures his disciples with a promise that (1) much benefit in this life (many times more) and (2) eternal life in the age to come will be given.

1108 tn Grk “this time” (καιρός, kairos), but for stylistic reasons this has been translated “this age” here.

1109 sn Note that Luke (see also Matt 19:29; Mark 10:30; Luke 10:25) portrays eternal life as something one receives in the age to come, unlike John, who emphasizes the possibility of receiving eternal life in the present (John 5:24).

1110 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1111 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1112 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

1113 tn Or “fulfilled.” Jesus goes to Jerusalem by divine plan as the scripture records (Luke 2:39; 12:50; 22:37; Acts 13:29). See Luke 9:22, 44.

1114 sn The passive voice verb be handed over does not indicate by whom, but other passages note the Jewish leadership and betrayal (9:22, 44).

1115 sn See Luke 22:63; 23:11, 36.

1116 tn Or “and insulted.” L&N 33.390 and 88.130 note ὑβρίζω (Jubrizw) can mean either “insult” or “mistreat with insolence.”

1117 sn And spat on. Later Luke does not note this detail in the passion narrative in chaps. 22-23, but see Mark 14:65; 15:19; Matt 26:67; 27:30 where Jesus’ prediction is fulfilled.

1118 tn Traditionally, “scourge” (the term means to beat severely with a whip, L&N 19.9). BDAG 620 s.v. μαστιγόω 1. states, “Of the beating (Lat. verberatio) given those condemned to death…J 19:1; cf. Mt 20:19; Mk 10:34; Lk 18:33.” Here the term has been translated “flog…severely” to distinguish it from the term φραγελλόω (fragellow) used in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15.

1119 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

1120 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast.

1121 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the twelve, v. 31) has been specified in the context for clarity.

1122 tn Grk “And this.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

1123 sn This failure of the Twelve to grasp what Jesus meant probably does not mean that they did not understand linguistically what Jesus said, but that they could not comprehend how this could happen to him, if he was really God’s agent. The saying being hidden probably refers to God’s sovereign timing.

1124 tn Grk “the things having been said.” The active agent, Jesus, has been specified for clarity, and “said” has been translated as “meant” to indicate that comprehension of the significance is really in view here.

1125 tn Grk “Now it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1126 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

1127 tn The phrase is “he drew near to” (19:29; 24:28). It is also possible the term merely means “is in the vicinity of.” Also possible is a reversal in the timing of the healing and Zacchaeus events for literary reasons as the blind man “sees” where the rich man with everything did not.

1128 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

1129 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. “They” could refer to bystanders or people in the crowd.

1130 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the blind man learning that Jesus was nearby.

1131 tn Grk “called out, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1132 sn Jesus was more than a Nazarene to this blind person, who saw quite well that Jesus was Son of David. He understood what Luke 7:22-23 affirms. There was a tradition in Judaism that the Son of David (Solomon) had great powers of healing (Josephus, Ant. 8.2.5 [8.42-49]).

1133 sn Have mercy on me is a request for healing (cf. 17:13). It is not owed the man. He simply asks for God’s kind grace.

1134 sn That is, those who were at the front of the procession.

1135 tn Or “rebuked.” The crowd’s view was that surely Jesus would not be bothered with someone as unimportant as a blind beggar.

1136 sn Public opinion would not sway the blind man from getting Jesus’ attention. The term shouted is strong as it can be used of animal cries.

1137 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the beggar’s cries.

1138 tn Grk “ordered him”; the referent (the blind beggar, v. 35) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1139 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the beggar) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1140 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1141 tn Grk “said.”

1142 tn Grk “Lord, that I may see [again].” The phrase can be rendered as an imperative of request, “Please, give me sight.” Since the man is not noted as having been blind from birth (as the man in John 9 was) it is likely the request is to receive back the sight he once had.

1143 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1144 tn Or “Regain” (see the note on the phrase “let me see again” in the previous verse).

1145 tn Grk “has saved you,” but in a nonsoteriological sense; the man has been delivered from his disability.

1146 tn Or “received” (see the note on the phrase “let me see again” in v. 41).

1147 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1148 sn The presence of God’s work leads again to joy, with both the beggar and the people praising God (1:64; 2:20; 5:25-26; 7:16; 13:13; 17:15; 19:37).

1149 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1150 tn The word “too” has been supplied for stylistic reasons.

1151 tn Grk “And entering, he passed through”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1152 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

1153 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new character. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

1154 sn This is the one place in the NT the office of chief tax collector is noted. He would organize the other tax collectors and collect healthy commissions (see also the note on the word tax collector in 3:12).

1155 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1156 tn Grk “He was trying to see who Jesus was.”

1157 tn Grk “and he was not able to because of the crowd, for he was short in stature.”

1158 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Zacchaeus not being able to see over the crowd.

1159 sn A sycamore tree would have large branches near the ground like an oak tree and would be fairly easy to climb. These trees reach a height of some 50 ft (about 15 m).

1160 tn Grk “that one”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1161 tc Most mss (A [D] W [Ψ] Ë13 33vid Ï latt) read “Jesus looking up, saw him and said.” The words “saw him and” are not in א B L T Θ Ë1 579 1241 2542 pc co. Both the testimony for the omission and the natural tendency toward scribal expansion argue for the shorter reading here.

1162 tn Grk “hastening, come down.” σπεύσας (speusa") has been translated as a participle of manner.

1163 sn I must stay. Jesus revealed the necessity of his associating with people like Zacchaeus (5:31-32). This act of fellowship indicated acceptance.

1164 sn On today here and in v. 9, see the note on today in 2:11.

1165 tn Grk “hastening, he came down.” σπεύσας (speusas) has been translated as a participle of manner.

1166 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1167 tn The participle χαίρων (cairwn) has been taken as indicating manner.

sn Zacchaeus responded joyfully. Luke likes to mention joy as a response to what God was doing (1:14; 2:10; 10:20; 13:17; 15:5, 32; 19:37; 24:41, 52).

1168 tn Grk “they”; the referent is unspecified but is probably the crowd in general, who would have no great love for a man like Zacchaeus who had enriched himself many times over at their expense.

1169 tn This term is used only twice in the NT, both times in Luke (here and 15:2) and has negative connotations both times (BDAG 227 s.v. διαγογγύζω). The participle λέγοντες (legonte") is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1170 sn Being the guest of a man who is a sinner was a common complaint about Jesus: Luke 5:31-32; 7:37-50; 15:1-2.

1171 sn Zacchaeus was a penitent man who resolved on the spot to act differently in the face of Jesus’ acceptance of him. In resolving to give half his possessions to the poor, Zacchaeus was not defending himself against the crowd’s charges and claiming to be righteous. Rather as a result of this meeting with Jesus, he was a changed individual. So Jesus could speak of salvation coming that day (v. 9) and of the lost being saved (v. 10).

1172 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text. It virtually confesses fraud.

1173 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative

1174 sn This is one of the few uses of the specific term salvation in Luke (1:69, 71, 77), though the concept runs throughout the Gospel.

1175 sn The household is not a reference to the building, but to the people who lived within it (L&N 10.8).

1176 sn Zacchaeus was personally affirmed by Jesus as a descendant (son) of Abraham and a member of God’s family.

1177 sn The Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost is Jesus’ mission succinctly defined. See Luke 15:1-32.

1178 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1179 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

1180 tn The present active infinitive δοκεῖν (dokein) has been translated as causal.

1181 sn Luke means here the appearance of the full kingdom of God in power with the Son of Man as judge as Luke 17:22-37 describes.

1182 tn Or perhaps, “the kingdom of God must appear immediately (see L&N 71.36).

1183 tn Grk “a man of noble birth” or “a man of noble status” (L&N 87.27).

1184 sn Note that the receiving of the kingdom takes place in the far country. This suggests that those in the far country recognize and acknowledge the king when his own citizens did not want him as king (v. 14; cf. John 1:11-12).

1185 sn The background to this story about the nobleman who wentto receive for himself a kingdom had some parallels in the area’s recent history: Archelaus was appointed ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea in 4 b.c., but the people did not like him. Herod the Great also made a similar journey to Rome where he was crowned King of Judea in 40 b.c., although he was not able to claim his kingdom until 37 b.c.

1186 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

1187 sn That is, one for each. A mina was a Greek monetary unit worth one hundred denarii or about four months’ wages for an average worker based on a six-day work week.

1188 tn Or “subjects.” Technically these people were not his subjects yet, but would be upon his return. They were citizens of his country who opposed his appointment as their king; later the newly-appointed king will refer to them as his “enemies” (v. 27).

1189 tn The imperfect is intense in this context, suggesting an ongoing attitude.

1190 tn Grk “this one” (somewhat derogatory in this context).

1191 tn Or “to rule.”

1192 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1193 tn Grk “he said for these slaves to be called to him.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one and simplified to “he summoned.”

1194 tn Grk “in order that he might know” (a continuation of the preceding sentence). Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he” as subject and the verb “wanted” to convey the idea of purpose.

1195 sn The Greek verb earned refers to profit from engaging in commerce and trade (L&N 57.195). This is an examination of stewardship.

1196 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the royal summons.

1197 tn Or “Lord”; or “Master.” (and so throughout this paragraph).

1198 tn See the note on the word “minas” in v. 13.

1199 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1200 tn See Luke 16:10.

1201 sn The faithful slave received expanded responsibility (authority over ten cities) as a result of his faithfulness; this in turn is an exhortation to faithfulness for the reader.

1202 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1203 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the second slave’s report.

1204 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1205 sn Though ten were given minas, the story stops to focus on the one who did nothing with the opportunity given to him. Here is the parable’s warning about the one who does not trust the master. This figure is called “another,” marking him out as different than the first two.

1206 tn The word “slave” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for stylistic reasons.

1207 tn Grk “behold.”

1208 tn Or “that I stored away.” L&N 85.53 defines ἀπόκειμαι (apokeimai) here as “to put something away for safekeeping – ‘to store, to put away in a safe place.’”

1209 tn The piece of cloth, called a σουδάριον (soudarion), could have been a towel, napkin, handkerchief, or face cloth (L&N 6.159).

1210 tn Or “exacting,” “harsh,” “hard.”

1211 tn Grk “man, taking out.” The Greek word can refer to withdrawing money from a bank (L&N 57.218), and in this context of financial accountability that is the most probable meaning. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “you” as subject and translating the participle αἴρεις (airei") as a finite verb.

1212 tn The Greek verb τίθημι (tiqhmi) can be used of depositing money with a banker to earn interest (L&N 57.217). In effect the slave charges that the master takes what he has not earned.

1213 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1214 tn Grk “out of your own mouth” (an idiom).

1215 tn Note the contrast between this slave, described as “wicked,” and the slave in v. 17, described as “good.”

1216 tn Or “exacting,” “harsh,” “hard.”

1217 tn That is, “If you really feared me why did you not do a minimum to get what I asked for?”

1218 tn Grk “on the table”; the idiom refers to a place where money is kept or managed, or credit is established, thus “bank” (L&N 57.215).

1219 tn Grk “to those standing by,” but in this context involving an audience before the king to give an accounting, these would not be casual bystanders but courtiers or attendants.

1220 tn Grk “the ten minas.”

1221 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Those watching the evaluation are shocked, as the one with the most gets even more. The word “already” is supplied at the end of the statement to indicate this surprise and shock.

1222 tc A few mss (D W 69 pc and a few versional witnesses) omit this verse either to harmonize it with Matt 25:28-29 or to keep the king’s speech seamless.

1223 tn Grk “to everyone who has, he will be given more.”

sn Everyone who has will be given more. Again, faithfulness yields great reward (see Luke 8:18; also Matt 13:12; Mark 4:25).

1224 sn The one who has nothing has even what he seems to have taken away from him, ending up with no reward at all (see also Luke 8:18). The exact force of this is left ambiguous, but there is no comfort here for those who are pictured by the third slave as being totally unmoved by the master. Though not an outright enemy, there is no relationship to the master either. Three groups are represented in the parable: the faithful of various sorts (vv. 16, 18); the unfaithful who associate with Jesus but do not trust him (v. 21); and the enemies (v. 27).

1225 tn Grk “to rule over them.”

1226 tn This term, when used of people rather than animals, has some connotations of violence and mercilessness (L&N 20.72).

1227 sn Slaughter them. To reject the king is to face certain judgment from him.

1228 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1229 tn This could mean “before [his disciples],” but that is slightly more awkward, requiring an elided element (the disciples) to be supplied.

1230 sn This is yet another travel note on the journey to Jerusalem. See also Luke 18:31; 19:11. Jesus does not actually enter Jerusalem until 19:45.

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

1231 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

1232 sn The exact location of the village of Bethphage is not known. Most locate it on the southeast side of the Mount of Olives and northwest of Bethany, about 1.5 miles (3 km) east of Jerusalem.

1233 tn Grk “at the mountain called ‘of Olives.’” This form of reference is awkward in contemporary English, so the more familiar “Mount of Olives” has been used in the translation.

sn “Mountain” in English generally denotes a higher elevation than it often does in reference to places in Palestine. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 1.8 mi (3 km) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.

1234 tn Grk “saying.”

1235 tn Grk “the village lying before [you]” (BDAG 530 s.v. κατέναντι 2.a).

1236 tn Grk “in which entering.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek, but because of the length and complexity of the construction a new sentence was started here in the translation.

1237 tn Grk “a colt tied there on which no one of men has ever sat.”

1238 sn The custom called angaria allowed the impressment of animals for service to a significant figure.

1239 tn Grk “sent ahead and went and found.”

1240 sn Exactly as he had told them. Nothing in Luke 19-23 catches Jesus by surprise. Often he directs the action.

1241 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1242 tn Grk “said to them.”

1243 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1244 tn Grk “garments”; but this refers in context to their outer cloaks. The action is like 2 Kgs 9:13.

1245 sn See Zech 9:9.

1246 tn Although ἐπεβίβασαν (epebibasan) is frequently translated “set [Jesus] on it” or “put [Jesus] on it,” when used of a riding animal the verb can mean “to cause to mount” (L&N 15.98); thus here “had Jesus get on it.” The degree of assistance is not specified.

1247 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1248 tn The disciples initiated this action (since in 19:35 and 37 they are the subject) but the other gospels indicate the crowds also became involved. Thus it is difficult to specify the referent here as “the disciples” or “people.”

1249 tn Grk “the descent of”; this could refer to either the slope of the hillside itself or the path leading down from it (the second option has been adopted for the translation, see L&N 15.109).

1250 sn See the note on the name Mount of Olives in v. 29.

1251 tn Grk “the”; the Greek article has been translated here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

1252 tn Here the participle χαίροντες (caironte") has been translated as a finite verb in English; it could also be translated adverbially as a participle of manner: “began to praise God joyfully.”

1253 sn See 2:13, 20; Acts 2:47; 3:8-9.

1254 tn Or “works of power,” “miracles.” Jesus’ ministry of miracles is what has drawn attention. See Luke 7:22.

1255 tn Grk “they had seen, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1256 sn Luke adds the title king to the citation from Ps 118:26 to make clear who was meant (see Luke 18:38). The psalm was used in looking for the deliverance of the end, thus leading to the Pharisees’ reaction.

1257 sn A quotation from Ps 118:26.

1258 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Not all present are willing to join in the acclamation.

1259 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

1260 sn Teacher, rebuke your disciples. The Pharisees were complaining that the claims were too great.

1261 tn Grk “and answering, he said.” This has been simplified in the translation to “He answered.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1262 tn Grk “these.”

1263 sn This statement amounts to a rebuke. The idiom of creation speaking means that even creation knows what is taking place, yet the Pharisees miss it. On this idiom, see Gen 4:10 and Hab 2:11.

1264 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

1265 tn Grk “he.”

1266 sn When Jesus approached and saw the city. This is the last travel note in Luke’s account (the so-called Jerusalem journey), as Jesus approached and saw the city before entering it.

1267 sn On this day. They had missed the time of Messiah’s coming; see v. 44.

1268 tn Grk “the things toward peace.” This expression seems to mean “the things that would ‘lead to,’ ‘bring about,’ or ‘make for’ peace.”

1269 sn But now they are hidden from your eyes. This becomes an oracle of doom in the classic OT sense; see Luke 13:31-35; 11:49-51; Jer 9:2; 13:7; 14:7. They are now blind and under judgment (Jer 15:5; Ps 122:6).

1270 sn Jesus now predicted the events that would be fulfilled in the fall of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. The details of the siege have led some to see Luke writing this after Jerusalem’s fall, but the language of the verse is like God’s exilic judgment for covenant unfaithfulness (Hab 2:8; Jer 6:6, 14; 8:13-22; 9:1; Ezek 4:2; 26:8; Isa 29:1-4). Specific details are lacking and the procedures described (build an embankment against you) were standard Roman military tactics.

1271 sn An embankment refers to either wooden barricades or earthworks, or a combination of the two.

1272 tn Grk “They will raze you to the ground.”

sn The singular pronoun you refers to the city of Jerusalem personified.

1273 tn Grk “your children within you.” The phrase “[your] walls” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the city of Jerusalem, metaphorically pictured as an individual, is spoken of here.

1274 sn (Not) one stone on top of another is an idiom for total destruction.

1275 tn Grk “leave stone on stone.”

1276 tn Grk “the time of your visitation.” To clarify what this refers to, the words “from God” are supplied at the end of the verse, although they do not occur in the Greek text.

sn You did not recognize the time of your visitation refers to the time God came to visit them. They had missed the Messiah; see Luke 1:68-79.

1277 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1278 tn Grk “he.”

1279 tn Grk “the temple” (also in v. 47).

sn The merchants (those who were selling things there) would have been located in the Court of the Gentiles.

1280 sn Matthew (21:12-27), Mark (11:15-19) and Luke (here, 19:45-46) record this incident of the temple cleansing at the end of Jesus’ ministry. John (2:13-16) records a cleansing of the temple at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry. See the note on the word temple courts in John 2:14 for a discussion of the relationship of these accounts to one another.

1281 sn A quotation from Isa 56:7.

1282 tn Or “a hideout” (see L&N 1.57).

1283 sn A quotation from Jer 7:11. The meaning of Jesus’ statement about making the temple courts a den of robbers probably operates here at two levels. Not only were the religious leaders robbing the people financially, but because of this they had also robbed them spiritually by stealing from them the opportunity to come to know God genuinely. It is possible that these merchants had recently been moved to this location for convenience.

1284 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1285 tn Grk “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

1286 tn Grk “to destroy.”

sn The action at the temple was the last straw. In their view, if Jesus could cause trouble in the holy place, then he must be stopped, so the leaders were seeking to assassinate him.

1287 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

1288 tn Grk “they did not find the thing that they might do.”

1289 sn All the people hung on his words is an idiom for intent, eager listening. Jesus’ popularity and support made it unwise for the leadership to seize him.



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