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  Discovery Box

Luke 9:1--19:48

Context
The Sending of the Twelve Apostles

9:1 After 1  Jesus 2  called 3  the twelve 4  together, he gave them power and authority over all demons and to cure 5  diseases, 9:2 and he sent 6  them out to proclaim 7  the kingdom of God 8  and to heal the sick. 9  9:3 He 10  said to them, “Take nothing for your 11  journey – no staff, 12  no bag, 13  no bread, no money, and do not take an extra tunic. 14  9:4 Whatever 15  house you enter, stay there 16  until you leave the area. 17  9:5 Wherever 18  they do not receive you, 19  as you leave that town, 20  shake the dust off 21  your feet as a testimony against them.” 9:6 Then 22  they departed and went throughout 23  the villages, proclaiming the good news 24  and healing people everywhere.

Herod’s Confusion about Jesus

9:7 Now Herod 25  the tetrarch 26  heard about everything that was happening, and he was thoroughly perplexed, 27  because some people were saying that John 28  had been raised from the dead, 9:8 while others were saying that Elijah 29  had appeared, and still others that one of the prophets of long ago had risen. 30  9:9 Herod said, “I had John 31  beheaded, but who is this about whom I hear such things?” So Herod wanted to learn about Jesus. 32 

The Feeding of the Five Thousand

9:10 When 33  the apostles returned, 34  they told Jesus 35  everything they had done. Then 36  he took them with him and they withdrew privately to a town 37  called Bethsaida. 38  9:11 But when the crowds found out, they followed him. He 39  welcomed them, spoke to them about the kingdom of God, 40  and cured those who needed healing. 41  9:12 Now the day began to draw to a close, 42  so 43  the twelve came and said to Jesus, 44  “Send the crowd away, so they can go into the surrounding villages and countryside and find lodging 45  and food, because we are in an isolated place.” 46  9:13 But he said to them, “You 47  give them something to eat.” They 48  replied, 49  “We have no more than five loaves and two fish – unless 50  we go 51  and buy food 52  for all these people.” 9:14 (Now about five thousand men 53  were there.) 54  Then 55  he said to his disciples, “Have 56  them sit down in groups of about fifty each.” 9:15 So they did as Jesus directed, 57  and the people 58  all sat down.

9:16 Then 59  he took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven he gave thanks 60  and broke them. He gave them to the disciples to set before the crowd. 9:17 They all ate and were satisfied, and what was left over 61  was picked up – twelve baskets of broken pieces.

Peter’s Confession

9:18 Once 62  when Jesus 63  was praying 64  by himself, and his disciples were nearby, he asked them, 65  “Who do the crowds say that I am?” 66  9:19 They 67  answered, 68  “John the Baptist; others say Elijah; 69  and still others that one of the prophets of long ago has risen.” 70  9:20 Then 71  he said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” Peter 72  answered, 73  “The Christ 74  of God.” 9:21 But he forcefully commanded 75  them not to tell this to anyone, 76  9:22 saying, “The Son of Man must suffer 77  many things and be rejected by the elders, 78  chief priests, and experts in the law, 79  and be killed, and on the third day be raised.” 80 

A Call to Discipleship

9:23 Then 81  he said to them all, 82  “If anyone wants to become my follower, 83  he must deny 84  himself, take up his cross daily, 85  and follow me. 9:24 For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, 86  but whoever loses his life for my sake will save it. 9:25 For what does it benefit a person 87  if he gains the whole world but loses or forfeits himself? 9:26 For whoever is ashamed 88  of me and my words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of that person 89  when he comes in his glory and in the glory 90  of the Father and of the holy angels. 9:27 But I tell you most certainly, 91  there are some standing here who will not 92  experience 93  death before they see the kingdom of God.” 94 

The Transfiguration

9:28 Now 95  about eight days 96  after these sayings, Jesus 97  took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up the mountain to pray. 9:29 As 98  he was praying, 99  the appearance of his face was transformed, 100  and his clothes became very bright, a brilliant white. 101  9:30 Then 102  two men, Moses and Elijah, 103  began talking with him. 104  9:31 They appeared in glorious splendor and spoke about his departure 105  that he was about to carry out 106  at Jerusalem. 107  9:32 Now Peter and those with him were quite sleepy, 108  but as they became fully awake, 109  they saw his glory and the two men standing with him. 9:33 Then 110  as the men 111  were starting to leave, 112  Peter said to Jesus, “Master, it is good for us to be here. Let us make three shelters, 113  one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah” – not knowing what he was saying. 9:34 As 114  he was saying this, a cloud 115  came 116  and overshadowed 117  them, and they were afraid as they entered the cloud. 9:35 Then 118  a voice came from the cloud, saying, “This is my Son, my Chosen One. 119  Listen to him!” 120  9:36 After 121  the voice had spoken, Jesus was found alone. So 122  they kept silent and told no one 123  at that time 124  anything of what they had seen.

Healing a Boy with an Unclean Spirit

9:37 Now on 125  the next day, when they had come down from the mountain, a large crowd met him. 9:38 Then 126  a man from the crowd cried out, 127  “Teacher, I beg you to look at 128  my son – he is my only child! 9:39 A 129  spirit seizes him, and he suddenly screams; 130  it throws him into convulsions 131  and causes him to foam at the mouth. It hardly ever leaves him alone, torturing 132  him severely. 9:40 I 133  begged 134  your disciples to cast it out, but 135  they could not do so.” 136  9:41 Jesus answered, 137  “You 138  unbelieving 139  and perverse generation! How much longer 140  must I be with you and endure 141  you? 142  Bring your son here.” 9:42 As 143  the boy 144  was approaching, the demon threw him to the ground 145  and shook him with convulsions. 146  But Jesus rebuked 147  the unclean 148  spirit, healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. 9:43 Then 149  they were all astonished at the mighty power 150  of God.

Another Prediction of Jesus’ Suffering

But while the entire crowd 151  was amazed at everything Jesus 152  was doing, he said to his disciples, 9:44 “Take these words to heart, 153  for the Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men.” 154  9:45 But they did not understand this statement; its meaning 155  had been concealed 156  from them, so that they could not grasp it. Yet 157  they were afraid to ask him about this statement.

Concerning the Greatest

9:46 Now an argument started among the disciples 158  as to which of them might be 159  the greatest. 9:47 But when Jesus discerned their innermost thoughts, 160  he took a child, had him stand by 161  his side, 9:48 and said to them, “Whoever welcomes 162  this child 163  in my name welcomes me, and whoever welcomes me welcomes the one who sent me, for the one who is least among you all is the one who is great.” 164 

On the Right Side

9:49 John answered, 165  “Master, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we tried to stop 166  him because he is not a disciple 167  along with us.” 9:50 But Jesus said to him, “Do not stop him, for whoever is not against you is for you.”

Rejection in Samaria

9:51 Now when 168  the days drew near 169  for him to be taken up, 170  Jesus 171  set out resolutely 172  to go to Jerusalem. 173  9:52 He 174  sent messengers on ahead of him. 175  As they went along, 176  they entered a Samaritan village to make things ready in advance 177  for him, 9:53 but the villagers 178  refused to welcome 179  him, because he was determined to go to Jerusalem. 180  9:54 Now when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, “Lord, do you want us to call fire to come down from heaven and consume 181  them?” 182  9:55 But Jesus 183  turned and rebuked them, 184  9:56 and they went on to another village.

Challenging Professed Followers

9:57 As 185  they were walking 186  along the road, someone said to him, “I will follow you wherever you go.” 187  9:58 Jesus said to him, “Foxes have dens and the birds in the sky 188  have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head.” 189  9:59 Jesus 190  said to another, “Follow me.” But he replied, 191  “Lord, first let me go and bury my father.” 9:60 But Jesus 192  said to him, “Let the dead bury their own dead, 193  but as for you, go and proclaim the kingdom of God.” 194  9:61 Yet 195  another said, “I will follow you, Lord, but first let me say goodbye to my family.” 196  9:62 Jesus 197  said to him, “No one who puts his 198  hand to the plow and looks back 199  is fit for the kingdom of God.” 200 

The Mission of the Seventy-Two

10:1 After this 201  the Lord appointed seventy-two 202  others and sent them on ahead of him two by two into every town 203  and place where he himself was about to go. 10:2 He 204  said to them, “The harvest is plentiful, but the workers are few. Therefore ask the Lord of the harvest 205  to send out 206  workers into his harvest. 10:3 Go! I 207  am sending you out like lambs 208  surrounded by wolves. 209  10:4 Do not carry 210  a money bag, 211  a traveler’s bag, 212  or sandals, and greet no one on the road. 213  10:5 Whenever 214  you enter a house, 215  first say, ‘May peace 216  be on this house!’ 10:6 And if a peace-loving person 217  is there, your peace will remain on him, but if not, it will return to you. 218  10:7 Stay 219  in that same house, eating and drinking what they give you, 220  for the worker deserves his pay. 221  Do not move around from house to house. 10:8 Whenever 222  you enter a town 223  and the people 224  welcome you, eat what is set before you. 10:9 Heal 225  the sick in that town 226  and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God 227  has come upon 228  you!’ 10:10 But whenever 229  you enter a town 230  and the people 231  do not welcome 232  you, go into its streets 233  and say, 10:11 ‘Even the dust of your town 234  that clings to our feet we wipe off 235  against you. 236  Nevertheless know this: The kingdom of God has come.’ 237  10:12 I tell you, it will be more bearable on that day for Sodom 238  than for that town! 239 

10:13 “Woe to you, Chorazin! 240  Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if 241  the miracles 242  done in you had been done in Tyre 243  and Sidon, 244  they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 10:14 But it will be more bearable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment than for you! 10:15 And you, Capernaum, 245  will you be exalted to heaven? 246  No, you will be thrown down to Hades! 247 

10:16 “The one who listens 248  to you listens to me, 249  and the one who rejects you rejects me, and the one who rejects me rejects 250  the one who sent me.” 251 

10:17 Then 252  the seventy-two 253  returned with joy, saying, “Lord, even the demons submit to 254  us in your name!” 255  10:18 So 256  he said to them, “I saw 257  Satan fall 258  like lightning 259  from heaven. 10:19 Look, I have given you authority to tread 260  on snakes and scorpions 261  and on the full force of the enemy, 262  and nothing will 263  hurt you. 10:20 Nevertheless, do not rejoice that 264  the spirits submit to you, but rejoice 265  that your names stand written 266  in heaven.”

10:21 On that same occasion 267  Jesus 268  rejoiced 269  in the Holy Spirit and said, “I praise 270  you, Father, Lord 271  of heaven and earth, because 272  you have hidden these things from the wise 273  and intelligent, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for this was your gracious will. 274  10:22 All things have been given to me by my Father. 275  No one knows who the Son is except the Father, or who the Father is except the Son and anyone to whom the Son decides 276  to reveal him.”

10:23 Then 277  Jesus 278  turned 279  to his 280  disciples and said privately, “Blessed 281  are the eyes that see what you see! 10:24 For I tell you that many prophets and kings longed to see 282  what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear but did not hear it.”

The Parable of the Good Samaritan

10:25 Now 283  an expert in religious law 284  stood up to test Jesus, 285  saying, “Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” 286  10:26 He said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you understand it?” 287  10:27 The expert 288  answered, “Love 289  the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind, 290  and love your neighbor as yourself.” 291  10:28 Jesus 292  said to him, “You have answered correctly; 293  do this, and you will live.”

10:29 But the expert, 294  wanting to justify 295  himself, said to Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?” 10:30 Jesus replied, 296  “A man was going down 297  from Jerusalem 298  to Jericho, 299  and fell into the hands of robbers, who stripped him, beat 300  him up, and went off, leaving him half dead. 301  10:31 Now by chance 302  a priest was going down that road, but 303  when he saw the injured man 304  he passed by 305  on the other side. 306  10:32 So too a Levite, when he came up to 307  the place and saw him, 308  passed by on the other side. 10:33 But 309  a Samaritan 310  who was traveling 311  came to where the injured man 312  was, and when he saw him, he felt compassion for him. 313  10:34 He 314  went up to him 315  and bandaged his wounds, pouring oil 316  and wine on them. Then 317  he put him on 318  his own animal, 319  brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 10:35 The 320  next day he took out two silver coins 321  and gave them to the innkeeper, saying, ‘Take care of him, and whatever else you spend, I will repay you when I come back this way.’ 322  10:36 Which of these three do you think became a neighbor 323  to the man who fell into the hands of the robbers?” 10:37 The expert in religious law 324  said, “The one who showed mercy 325  to him.” So 326  Jesus said to him, “Go and do 327  the same.”

Jesus and Martha

10:38 Now as they went on their way, Jesus 328  entered a certain village where a woman named Martha welcomed him as a guest. 329  10:39 She 330  had a sister named Mary, who sat 331  at the Lord’s feet 332  and listened to what he said. 10:40 But Martha was distracted 333  with all the preparations she had to make, 334  so 335  she came up to him and said, “Lord, don’t you care 336  that my sister has left me to do all the work 337  alone? Tell 338  her to help me.” 10:41 But the Lord 339  answered her, 340  “Martha, Martha, 341  you are worried and troubled 342  about many things, 10:42 but one thing 343  is needed. Mary has chosen the best 344  part; it will not be taken away from her.”

Instructions on Prayer

11:1 Now 345  Jesus 346  was praying in a certain place. When 347  he stopped, one of his disciples said to him, “Lord, teach us to pray, just as John 348  taught 349  his disciples.” 11:2 So he said to them, “When you pray, 350  say:

Father, 351  may your name be honored; 352 

may your kingdom come. 353 

11:3 Give us each day our daily bread, 354 

11:4 and forgive us our sins,

for we also forgive everyone who sins 355  against us.

And do not lead us into temptation.” 356 

11:5 Then 357  he said to them, “Suppose one of you 358  has a friend, and you go to him 359  at midnight and say to him, ‘Friend, lend me three loaves of bread, 360  11:6 because a friend of mine has stopped here while on a journey, 361  and I have nothing to set before 362  him.’ 11:7 Then 363  he will reply 364  from inside, ‘Do not bother me. The door is already shut, and my children and I are in bed. 365  I cannot get up and give you anything.’ 366  11:8 I tell you, even though the man inside 367  will not get up and give him anything because he is his friend, yet because of the first man’s 368  sheer persistence 369  he will get up and give him whatever he needs.

11:9 “So 370  I tell you: Ask, 371  and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and the door 372  will be opened for you. 11:10 For everyone who asks 373  receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks, the door 374  will be opened. 11:11 What father among you, if your 375  son asks for 376  a fish, will give him a snake 377  instead of a fish? 11:12 Or if he asks for an egg, will give him a scorpion? 378  11:13 If you then, although you are 379  evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit 380  to those who ask him!”

Jesus and Beelzebul

11:14 Now 381  he was casting out a demon that was mute. 382  When 383  the demon had gone out, the man who had been mute began to speak, 384  and the crowds were amazed. 11:15 But some of them said, “By the power of Beelzebul, 385  the ruler 386  of demons, he casts out demons.” 11:16 Others, to test 387  him, 388  began asking for 389  a sign 390  from heaven. 11:17 But Jesus, 391  realizing their thoughts, said to them, 392  “Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, 393  and a divided household falls. 394  11:18 So 395  if 396  Satan too is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? I ask you this because 397  you claim that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 11:19 Now if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons 398  cast them 399  out? Therefore they will be your judges. 11:20 But if I cast out demons by the finger 400  of God, then the kingdom of God 401  has already overtaken 402  you. 11:21 When a strong man, 403  fully armed, guards his own palace, 404  his possessions are safe. 405  11:22 But 406  when a stronger man 407  attacks 408  and conquers him, he takes away the first man’s 409  armor on which the man relied 410  and divides up 411  his plunder. 412  11:23 Whoever is not with me is against me, 413  and whoever does not gather with me scatters. 414 

Response to Jesus’ Work

11:24 “When an unclean spirit 415  goes out of a person, 416  it passes through waterless places 417  looking for rest but 418  not finding any. Then 419  it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ 420  11:25 When it returns, 421  it finds the house 422  swept clean and put in order. 423  11:26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there, so 424  the last state of that person 425  is worse than the first.” 426 

11:27 As 427  he said these things, a woman in the crowd spoke out 428  to him, “Blessed is the womb 429  that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!” 430  11:28 But he replied, 431  “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey 432  it!”

The Sign of Jonah

11:29 As 433  the crowds were increasing, Jesus 434  began to say, “This generation is a wicked generation; it looks for a sign, 435  but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah. 436  11:30 For just as Jonah became a sign to the people of Nineveh, 437  so the Son of Man will be a sign 438  to this generation. 439  11:31 The queen of the South 440  will rise up at the judgment 441  with the people 442  of this generation and condemn them, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon – and now, 443  something greater 444  than Solomon is here! 11:32 The people 445  of Nineveh will stand up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repented when Jonah preached to them 446  – and now, 447  something greater than Jonah is here!

Internal Light

11:33 “No one after lighting a lamp puts it in a hidden place 448  or under a basket, 449  but on a lampstand, so that those who come in can see the light. 11:34 Your eye is the lamp of your body. When your eye is healthy, 450  your whole body is full of light, but when it is diseased, 451  your body is full of darkness. 11:35 Therefore see to it 452  that the light in you 453  is not darkness. 11:36 If 454  then 455  your whole body is full of light, with no part in the dark, 456  it will be as full of light as when the light of a lamp shines on you.” 457 

Rebuking the Pharisees and Experts in the Law

11:37 As he spoke, 458  a Pharisee 459  invited Jesus 460  to have a meal with him, so he went in and took his place at the table. 461  11:38 The 462  Pharisee was astonished when he saw that Jesus 463  did not first wash his hands 464  before the meal. 11:39 But the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees clean 465  the outside of the cup and the plate, but inside you are full of greed and wickedness. 466  11:40 You fools! 467  Didn’t the one who made the outside make the inside as well? 468  11:41 But give from your heart to those in need, 469  and 470  then everything will be clean for you. 471 

11:42 “But woe to you Pharisees! 472  You give a tenth 473  of your mint, 474  rue, 475  and every herb, yet you neglect justice 476  and love for God! But you should have done these things without neglecting the others. 477  11:43 Woe to you Pharisees! You love the best seats 478  in the synagogues 479  and elaborate greetings 480  in the marketplaces! 11:44 Woe to you! 481  You are like unmarked graves, and people 482  walk over them without realizing it!” 483 

11:45 One of the experts in religious law 484  answered him, “Teacher, when you say these things you insult 485  us too.” 11:46 But Jesus 486  replied, 487  “Woe to you experts in religious law as well! 488  You load people 489  down with burdens difficult to bear, yet you yourselves refuse to touch 490  the burdens with even one of your fingers! 11:47 Woe to you! You build 491  the tombs of the prophets whom your ancestors 492  killed. 11:48 So you testify that you approve of 493  the deeds of your ancestors, 494  because they killed the prophets 495  and you build their 496  tombs! 497  11:49 For this reason also the wisdom 498  of God said, ‘I will send them prophets and apostles, some of whom they will kill and persecute,’ 11:50 so that this generation may be held accountable 499  for the blood of all the prophets that has been shed since the beginning 500  of the world, 501  11:51 from the blood of Abel 502  to the blood of Zechariah, 503  who was killed 504  between the altar and the sanctuary. 505  Yes, I tell you, it will be charged against 506  this generation. 11:52 Woe to you experts in religious law! You have taken away 507  the key to knowledge! You did not go in yourselves, and you hindered 508  those who were going in.”

11:53 When he went out from there, the experts in the law 509  and the Pharisees began to oppose him bitterly, 510  and to ask him hostile questions 511  about many things, 11:54 plotting against 512  him, to catch 513  him in something he might say.

Fear God, Not People

12:1 Meanwhile, 514  when many thousands of the crowd had gathered so that they were trampling on one another, Jesus 515  began to speak first to his disciples, “Be on your guard against 516  the yeast of the Pharisees, 517  which is hypocrisy. 518  12:2 Nothing is hidden 519  that will not be revealed, 520  and nothing is secret that will not be made known. 12:3 So then 521  whatever you have said in the dark will be heard in the light, and what you have whispered 522  in private rooms 523  will be proclaimed from the housetops. 524 

12:4 “I 525  tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body, 526  and after that have nothing more they can do. 12:5 But I will warn 527  you whom you should fear: Fear the one who, after the killing, 528  has authority to throw you 529  into hell. 530  Yes, I tell you, fear him! 12:6 Aren’t five sparrows sold for two pennies? 531  Yet not one of them is forgotten before God. 12:7 In fact, even the hairs on your head are all numbered. Do not be afraid; 532  you are more valuable than many sparrows.

12:8 “I 533  tell you, whoever acknowledges 534  me before men, 535  the Son of Man will also acknowledge 536  before God’s angels. 12:9 But the one who denies me before men will be denied before God’s angels. 12:10 And everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but the person who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit 537  will not be forgiven. 538  12:11 But when they bring you before the synagogues, 539  the 540  rulers, and the authorities, do not worry about how you should make your defense 541  or what you should say, 12:12 for the Holy Spirit will teach you at that moment 542  what you must say.” 543 

The Parable of the Rich Landowner

12:13 Then 544  someone from the crowd said to him, “Teacher, tell 545  my brother to divide the inheritance with me.” 12:14 But Jesus 546  said to him, “Man, 547  who made me a judge or arbitrator between you two?” 548  12:15 Then 549  he said to them, “Watch out and guard yourself from 550  all types of greed, 551  because one’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions.” 12:16 He then 552  told them a parable: 553  “The land of a certain rich man produced 554  an abundant crop, 12:17 so 555  he thought to himself, 556  ‘What should I do, for I have nowhere to store my crops?’ 557  12:18 Then 558  he said, ‘I 559  will do this: I will tear down my barns and build bigger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. 12:19 And I will say to myself, 560  “You have plenty of goods stored up for many years; relax, eat, drink, celebrate!”’ 12:20 But God said to him, ‘You fool! This very night your life 561  will be demanded back from 562  you, but who will get what you have prepared for yourself?’ 563  12:21 So it is with the one who stores up riches for himself, 564  but is not rich toward God.”

Exhortation Not to Worry

12:22 Then 565  Jesus 566  said to his 567  disciples, “Therefore I tell you, do not worry 568  about your 569  life, what you will eat, or about your 570  body, what you will wear. 12:23 For there is more to life than food, and more to the body than clothing. 12:24 Consider the ravens: 571  They do not sow or reap, they have no storeroom or barn, yet God feeds 572  them. How much more valuable are you than the birds! 12:25 And which of you by worrying 573  can add an hour to his life? 574  12:26 So if 575  you cannot do such a very little thing as this, why do you worry about 576  the rest? 12:27 Consider how the flowers 577  grow; they do not work 578  or spin. Yet I tell you, not even Solomon in all his glory was clothed like one of these! 12:28 And if 579  this is how God clothes the wild grass, 580  which is here 581  today and tomorrow is tossed into the fire to heat the oven, 582  how much more 583  will he clothe you, you people of little faith! 12:29 So 584  do not be overly concerned about 585  what you will eat and what you will drink, and do not worry about such things. 586  12:30 For all the nations of the world pursue 587  these things, and your Father knows that you need them. 12:31 Instead, pursue 588  his 589  kingdom, 590  and these things will be given to you as well.

12:32 “Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father is well pleased 591  to give you the kingdom. 12:33 Sell your possessions 592  and give to the poor. 593  Provide yourselves purses that do not wear out – a treasure in heaven 594  that never decreases, 595  where no thief approaches and no moth 596  destroys. 12:34 For where your treasure 597  is, there your heart will be also.

Call to Faithful Stewardship

12:35 “Get dressed for service 598  and keep your lamps burning; 599  12:36 be like people 600  waiting for their master to come back from the wedding celebration, 601  so that when he comes and knocks they can immediately open the door for him. 12:37 Blessed are those slaves 602  whom their master finds alert 603  when he returns! I tell you the truth, 604  he will dress himself to serve, 605  have them take their place at the table, 606  and will come 607  and wait on them! 608  12:38 Even if he comes in the second or third watch of the night 609  and finds them alert, 610  blessed are those slaves! 611  12:39 But understand this: If the owner of the house had known at what hour the thief 612  was coming, he would not have let 613  his house be broken into. 12:40 You also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him.” 614 

12:41 Then 615  Peter said, “Lord, are you telling this parable for us or for everyone?” 616  12:42 The Lord replied, 617  “Who then is the faithful and wise manager, 618  whom the master puts in charge of his household servants, 619  to give them their allowance of food at the proper time? 12:43 Blessed is that slave 620  whom his master finds at work 621  when he returns. 12:44 I tell you the truth, 622  the master 623  will put him in charge of all his possessions. 12:45 But if 624  that 625  slave should say to himself, 626  ‘My master is delayed 627  in returning,’ and he begins to beat 628  the other 629  slaves, both men and women, 630  and to eat, drink, and get drunk, 12:46 then the master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not foresee, and will cut him in two, 631  and assign him a place with the unfaithful. 632  12:47 That 633  servant who knew his master’s will but did not get ready or do what his master asked 634  will receive a severe beating. 12:48 But the one who did not know his master’s will 635  and did things worthy of punishment 636  will receive a light beating. 637  From everyone who has been given much, much will be required, 638  and from the one who has been entrusted with much, 639  even more will be asked. 640 

Not Peace, but Division

12:49 “I have come 641  to bring 642  fire on the earth – and how I wish it were already kindled! 12:50 I have a baptism 643  to undergo, 644  and how distressed I am until it is finished! 12:51 Do you think I have come to bring peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division! 645  12:52 For from now on 646  there will be five in one household divided, three against two and two against three. 12:53 They will be divided, 647  father against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother, mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law against mother-in-law.”

Reading the Signs

12:54 Jesus 648  also said to the crowds, “When you see a cloud rising in the west, 649  you say at once, ‘A rainstorm 650  is coming,’ and it does. 12:55 And when you see the south wind 651  blowing, you say, ‘There will be scorching heat,’ and there is. 12:56 You hypocrites! 652  You know how to interpret the appearance of the earth and the sky, but how can you not know how 653  to interpret the present time?

Clear the Debts

12:57 “And 654  why don’t you judge for yourselves what is right? 12:58 As you are going with your accuser before the magistrate, 655  make an effort to settle with him on the way, so that he will not drag you before the judge, and the judge hand you over to the officer, 656  and the officer throw you into prison. 12:59 I tell you, you will never get out of there until you have paid the very last cent!” 657 

A Call to Repent

13:1 Now 658  there were some present on that occasion who told him about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. 659  13:2 He 660  answered them, “Do you think these Galileans were worse sinners 661  than all the other Galileans, because they suffered these things? 13:3 No, I tell you! But unless you repent, 662  you will all perish as well! 663  13:4 Or those eighteen who were killed 664  when the tower in Siloam fell on them, 665  do you think they were worse offenders than all the others who live in Jerusalem? 666  13:5 No, I tell you! But unless you repent 667  you will all perish as well!” 668 

Warning to Israel to Bear Fruit

13:6 Then 669  Jesus 670  told this parable: “A man had a fig tree 671  planted in his vineyard, and he came looking for fruit on it and found none. 13:7 So 672  he said to the worker who tended the vineyard, ‘For 673  three years 674  now, I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree, and each time I inspect it 675  I find none. Cut 676  it down! Why 677  should it continue to deplete 678  the soil?’ 13:8 But the worker 679  answered him, ‘Sir, leave it alone this year too, until I dig around it and put fertilizer 680  on it. 13:9 Then if 681  it bears fruit next year, 682  very well, 683  but if 684  not, you can cut it down.’”

Healing on the Sabbath

13:10 Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues 685  on the Sabbath, 13:11 and a woman was there 686  who had been disabled by a spirit 687  for eighteen years. She 688  was bent over and could not straighten herself up completely. 689  13:12 When 690  Jesus saw her, he called her to him 691  and said, “Woman, 692  you are freed 693  from your infirmity.” 694  13:13 Then 695  he placed his hands on her, and immediately 696  she straightened up and praised God. 13:14 But the president of the synagogue, indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the crowd, “There are six days on which work 697  should be done! 698  So come 699  and be healed on those days, and not on the Sabbath day.” 13:15 Then the Lord answered him, 700  “You hypocrites! Does not each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or his donkey from its stall, 701  and lead it to water? 702  13:16 Then 703  shouldn’t 704  this woman, a daughter of Abraham whom Satan 705  bound for eighteen long 706  years, be released from this imprisonment 707  on the Sabbath day?” 13:17 When 708  he said this all his adversaries were humiliated, 709  but 710  the entire crowd was rejoicing at all the wonderful things 711  he was doing. 712 

On the Kingdom of God

13:18 Thus Jesus 713  asked, 714  “What is the kingdom of God 715  like? 716  To 717  what should I compare it? 13:19 It is like a mustard seed 718  that a man took and sowed 719  in his garden. It 720  grew and became a tree, 721  and the wild birds 722  nested in its branches.” 723 

13:20 Again 724  he said, “To what should I compare the kingdom of God? 725  13:21 It is like yeast that a woman took and mixed with 726  three measures 727  of flour until all the dough had risen.” 728 

The Narrow Door

13:22 Then 729  Jesus 730  traveled throughout 731  towns 732  and villages, teaching and making his way toward 733  Jerusalem. 734  13:23 Someone 735  asked 736  him, “Lord, will only a few 737  be saved?” So 738  he said to them, 13:24 “Exert every effort 739  to enter through the narrow door, because many, I tell you, will try to enter and will not be able to. 13:25 Once 740  the head of the house 741  gets up 742  and shuts the door, then you will stand outside and start to knock on the door and beg him, ‘Lord, 743  let us in!’ 744  But he will answer you, 745  ‘I don’t know where you come from.’ 746  13:26 Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets.’ 747  13:27 But 748  he will reply, 749  ‘I don’t know where you come from! 750  Go away from me, all you evildoers!’ 751  13:28 There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth 752  when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, 753  and all the prophets in the kingdom of God 754  but you yourselves thrown out. 755  13:29 Then 756  people 757  will come from east and west, and from north and south, and take their places at the banquet table 758  in the kingdom of God. 759  13:30 But 760  indeed, 761  some are last 762  who will be first, and some are first who will be last.”

Going to Jerusalem

13:31 At that time, 763  some Pharisees 764  came up and said to Jesus, 765  “Get away from here, 766  because Herod 767  wants to kill you.” 13:32 But 768  he said to them, “Go 769  and tell that fox, 770  ‘Look, I am casting out demons and performing healings today and tomorrow, and on the third day 771  I will complete my work. 772  13:33 Nevertheless I must 773  go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, because it is impossible 774  that a prophet should be killed 775  outside Jerusalem.’ 776  13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 777  you who kill the prophets and stone those who are sent to you! 778  How often I have longed 779  to gather your children together as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but 780  you would have none of it! 781  13:35 Look, your house is forsaken! 782  And I tell you, you will not see me until you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’” 783 

Healing Again on the Sabbath

14:1 Now 784  one Sabbath when Jesus went to dine 785  at the house of a leader 786  of the Pharisees, 787  they were watching 788  him closely. 14:2 There 789  right 790  in front of him was a man suffering from dropsy. 791  14:3 So 792  Jesus asked 793  the experts in religious law 794  and the Pharisees, “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath 795  or not?” 14:4 But they remained silent. So 796  Jesus 797  took hold of the man, 798  healed him, and sent him away. 799  14:5 Then 800  he said to them, “Which of you, if you have a son 801  or an ox that has fallen into a well on a Sabbath day, will not immediately pull him out?” 14:6 But 802  they could not reply 803  to this.

On Seeking Seats of Honor

14:7 Then 804  when Jesus 805  noticed how the guests 806  chose the places of honor, 807  he told them a parable. He said to them, 14:8 “When you are invited by someone to a wedding feast, 808  do not take 809  the place of honor, because a person more distinguished than you may have been invited by your host. 810  14:9 So 811  the host who invited both of you will come and say to you, ‘Give this man your place.’ Then, ashamed, 812  you will begin to move to the least important 813  place. 14:10 But when you are invited, go and take the least important place, so that when your host 814  approaches he will say to you, ‘Friend, move up here to a better place.’ 815  Then you will be honored in the presence of all who share the meal with you. 14:11 For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but 816  the one who humbles 817  himself will be exalted.”

14:12 He 818  said also to the man 819  who had invited him, “When you host a dinner or a banquet, 820  don’t invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors so you can be invited by them in return and get repaid. 14:13 But when you host an elaborate meal, 821  invite the poor, the crippled, 822  the lame, and 823  the blind. 824  14:14 Then 825  you will be blessed, 826  because they cannot repay you, for you will be repaid 827  at the resurrection of the righteous.”

The Parable of the Great Banquet

14:15 When 828  one of those at the meal with Jesus 829  heard this, he said to him, “Blessed is everyone 830  who will feast 831  in the kingdom of God!” 832  14:16 But Jesus 833  said to him, “A man once gave a great banquet 834  and invited 835  many guests. 836  14:17 At 837  the time for the banquet 838  he sent his slave 839  to tell those who had been invited, ‘Come, because everything is now ready.’ 14:18 But one after another they all 840  began to make excuses. 841  The first said to him, ‘I have bought a field, 842  and I must go out and see it. Please excuse me.’ 843  14:19 Another 844  said, ‘I have bought five yoke of oxen, 845  and I am going out 846  to examine them. Please excuse me.’ 14:20 Another 847  said, ‘I just got married, and I cannot come.’ 848  14:21 So 849  the slave came back and reported this to his master. Then the master of the household was furious 850  and said to his slave, ‘Go out quickly 851  to the streets and alleys of the city, 852  and bring in the poor, 853  the crippled, 854  the blind, and the lame.’ 14:22 Then 855  the slave said, ‘Sir, what you instructed has been done, and there is still room.’ 856  14:23 So 857  the master said to his 858  slave, ‘Go out to the highways 859  and country roads 860  and urge 861  people 862  to come in, so that my house will be filled. 863  14:24 For I tell you, not one of those individuals 864  who were invited 865  will taste my banquet!’” 866 

Counting the Cost

14:25 Now large crowds 867  were accompanying Jesus, 868  and turning to them he said, 14:26 “If anyone comes to me and does not hate 869  his own father and mother, and wife and children, and brothers and sisters, and even his own life, 870  he cannot be my disciple. 14:27 Whoever does not carry his own cross 871  and follow 872  me cannot be my disciple. 14:28 For which of you, wanting to build a tower, doesn’t sit down 873  first and compute the cost 874  to see if he has enough money to complete it? 14:29 Otherwise, 875  when he has laid 876  a foundation and is not able to finish the tower, 877  all who see it 878  will begin to make fun of 879  him. 14:30 They will say, 880  ‘This man 881  began to build and was not able to finish!’ 882  14:31 Or what king, going out to confront another king in battle, will not sit down 883  first and determine whether he is able with ten thousand to oppose 884  the one coming against him with twenty thousand? 14:32 If he cannot succeed, 885  he will send a representative 886  while the other is still a long way off and ask for terms of peace. 887  14:33 In the same way therefore not one of you can be my disciple if he does not renounce all his own possessions. 888 

14:34 “Salt 889  is good, but if salt loses its flavor, 890  how can its flavor be restored? 14:35 It is of no value 891  for the soil or for the manure pile; it is to be thrown out. 892  The one who has ears to hear had better listen!” 893 

The Parable of the Lost Sheep and Coin

15:1 Now all the tax collectors 894  and sinners were coming 895  to hear him. 15:2 But 896  the Pharisees 897  and the experts in the law 898  were complaining, 899  “This man welcomes 900  sinners and eats with them.”

15:3 So 901  Jesus 902  told them 903  this parable: 904  15:4 “Which one 905  of you, if he has a hundred 906  sheep and loses one of them, would not leave the ninety-nine in the open pasture 907  and go look for 908  the one that is lost until he finds it? 909  15:5 Then 910  when he has found it, he places it on his shoulders, rejoicing. 15:6 Returning 911  home, he calls together 912  his 913  friends and neighbors, telling them, ‘Rejoice with me, because I have found my sheep that was lost.’ 15:7 I tell you, in the same way there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner 914  who repents than over ninety-nine righteous people 915  who have no need to repent. 916 

15:8 “Or what woman, if she has ten silver coins 917  and loses 918  one of them, 919  does not light a lamp, sweep 920  the house, and search thoroughly until she finds it? 15:9 Then 921  when she has found it, she calls together her 922  friends and neighbors, saying, ‘Rejoice 923  with me, for I have found the coin 924  that I had lost.’ 15:10 In the same way, I tell you, there is joy in the presence of God’s angels 925  over one sinner who repents.”

The Parable of the Compassionate Father

15:11 Then 926  Jesus 927  said, “A man had two sons. 15:12 The 928  younger of them said to his 929  father, ‘Father, give me the share of the estate 930  that will belong 931  to me.’ So 932  he divided his 933  assets between them. 934  15:13 After 935  a few days, 936  the younger son gathered together all he had and left on a journey to a distant country, and there he squandered 937  his wealth 938  with a wild lifestyle. 15:14 Then 939  after he had spent everything, a severe famine took place in that country, and he began to be in need. 15:15 So he went and worked for 940  one of the citizens of that country, who 941  sent him to his fields to feed pigs. 942  15:16 He 943  was longing to eat 944  the carob pods 945  the pigs were eating, but 946  no one gave him anything. 15:17 But when he came to his senses 947  he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired workers have food 948  enough to spare, but here I am dying from hunger! 15:18 I will get up and go to my father and say to him, “Father, I have sinned 949  against heaven 950  and against 951  you. 15:19 I am no longer worthy to be called your son; treat me 952  like one of your hired workers.”’ 15:20 So 953  he got up and went to his father. But while he was still a long way from home 954  his father saw him, and his heart went out to him; 955  he ran and hugged 956  his son 957  and kissed him. 15:21 Then 958  his son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven 959  and against you; I am no longer worthy to be called your son.’ 960  15:22 But the father said to his slaves, 961  ‘Hurry! Bring the best robe, 962  and put it on him! Put a ring on his finger 963  and sandals 964  on his feet! 15:23 Bring 965  the fattened calf 966  and kill it! Let us eat 967  and celebrate, 15:24 because this son of mine was dead, and is alive again – he was lost and is found!’ 968  So 969  they began to celebrate.

15:25 “Now his older son was in the field. As 970  he came and approached the house, he heard music 971  and dancing. 15:26 So 972  he called one of the slaves 973  and asked what was happening. 15:27 The slave replied, 974  ‘Your brother has returned, and your father has killed the fattened calf 975  because he got his son 976  back safe and sound.’ 15:28 But the older son 977  became angry 978  and refused 979  to go in. His father came out and appealed to him, 15:29 but he answered 980  his father, ‘Look! These many years I have worked like a slave 981  for you, and I never disobeyed your commands. Yet 982  you never gave me even a goat 983  so that I could celebrate with my friends! 15:30 But when this son of yours 984  came back, who has devoured 985  your assets with prostitutes, 986  you killed the fattened calf 987  for him!’ 15:31 Then 988  the father 989  said to him, ‘Son, you are always with me, and everything that belongs to me is yours. 15:32 It was appropriate 990  to celebrate and be glad, for your brother 991  was dead, and is alive; he was lost and is found.’” 992 

The Parable of the Clever Steward

16:1 Jesus 993  also said to the disciples, “There was a rich man who was informed of accusations 994  that his manager 995  was wasting 996  his assets. 16:2 So 997  he called the manager 998  in and said to him, ‘What is this I hear about you? 999  Turn in the account of your administration, 1000  because you can no longer be my manager.’ 16:3 Then 1001  the manager said to himself, ‘What should I do, since my master is taking my position 1002  away from me? I’m not strong enough to dig, 1003  and I’m too ashamed 1004  to beg. 16:4 I know 1005  what to do so that when I am put out of management, people will welcome me into their homes.’ 1006  16:5 So 1007  he contacted 1008  his master’s debtors one by one. He asked the first, ‘How much do you owe my master?’ 16:6 The man 1009  replied, ‘A hundred measures 1010  of olive oil.’ The manager 1011  said to him, ‘Take your bill, sit down quickly, and write fifty.’ 1012  16:7 Then he said to another, ‘And how much do you owe?’ The second man 1013  replied, ‘A hundred measures 1014  of wheat.’ The manager 1015  said to him, ‘Take your bill, and write eighty.’ 1016  16:8 The 1017  master commended the dishonest 1018  manager because he acted shrewdly. 1019  For the people 1020  of this world are more shrewd in dealing with their contemporaries 1021  than the people 1022  of light. 16:9 And I tell you, make friends for yourselves by how you use worldly wealth, 1023  so that when it runs out you will be welcomed 1024  into the eternal homes. 1025 

16:10 “The one who is faithful in a very little 1026  is also faithful in much, and the one who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. 16:11 If then you haven’t been trustworthy 1027  in handling worldly wealth, 1028  who will entrust you with the true riches? 1029  16:12 And if you haven’t been trustworthy 1030  with someone else’s property, 1031  who will give you your own 1032 ? 16:13 No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate 1033  the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise 1034  the other. You cannot serve God and money.” 1035 

More Warnings about the Pharisees

16:14 The Pharisees 1036  (who loved money) heard all this and ridiculed 1037  him. 16:15 But 1038  Jesus 1039  said to them, “You are the ones who justify yourselves in men’s eyes, 1040  but God knows your hearts. For what is highly prized 1041  among men is utterly detestable 1042  in God’s sight.

16:16 “The law and the prophets were in force 1043  until John; 1044  since then, 1045  the good news of the kingdom of God 1046  has been proclaimed, and everyone is urged to enter it. 1047  16:17 But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one tiny stroke of a letter 1048  in the law to become void. 1049 

16:18 “Everyone who divorces his wife and marries 1050  someone else commits adultery, and the one who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adultery.

The Rich Man and Lazarus

16:19 “There was a rich man who dressed in purple 1051  and fine linen and who feasted sumptuously 1052  every day. 16:20 But at his gate lay 1053  a poor man named Lazarus 1054  whose body was covered with sores, 1055  16:21 who longed to eat 1056  what fell from the rich man’s table. In addition, the dogs 1057  came and licked 1058  his sores.

16:22 “Now 1059  the poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abraham’s side. 1060  The 1061  rich man also died and was buried. 1062  16:23 And in hell, 1063  as he was in torment, 1064  he looked up 1065  and saw Abraham far off with Lazarus at his side. 1066  16:24 So 1067  he called out, 1068  ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus 1069  to dip the tip of his finger 1070  in water and cool my tongue, because I am in anguish 1071  in this fire.’ 1072  16:25 But Abraham said, ‘Child, 1073  remember that in your lifetime you received your good things and Lazarus likewise bad things, but now he is comforted here and you are in anguish. 1074  16:26 Besides all this, 1075  a great chasm 1076  has been fixed between us, 1077  so that those who want to cross over from here to you cannot do so, and no one can cross from there to us.’ 16:27 So 1078  the rich man 1079  said, ‘Then I beg you, father – send Lazarus 1080  to my father’s house 16:28 (for I have five brothers) to warn 1081  them so that they don’t come 1082  into this place of torment.’ 16:29 But Abraham said, 1083  ‘They have Moses and the prophets; they must respond to 1084  them.’ 16:30 Then 1085  the rich man 1086  said, ‘No, father Abraham, but if someone from the dead 1087  goes to them, they will repent.’ 16:31 He 1088  replied to him, ‘If they do not respond to 1089  Moses and the prophets, they will not be convinced even if someone rises from the dead.’” 1090 

Sin, Forgiveness, Faith, and Service

17:1 Jesus 1091  said to his disciples, “Stumbling blocks are sure to come, but woe 1092  to the one through whom they come! 17:2 It would be better for him to have a millstone 1093  tied around his neck and be thrown into the sea 1094  than for him to cause one of these little ones to sin. 1095  17:3 Watch 1096  yourselves! If 1097  your brother 1098  sins, rebuke him. If 1099  he repents, forgive him. 17:4 Even if he sins against you seven times in a day, and seven times returns to you saying, ‘I repent,’ you must forgive 1100  him.”

17:5 The 1101  apostles said to the Lord, “Increase our faith!” 1102  17:6 So 1103  the Lord replied, 1104  “If 1105  you had faith the size of 1106  a mustard seed, you could say to this black mulberry 1107  tree, ‘Be pulled out by the roots and planted in the sea,’ 1108  and it would obey 1109  you.

17:7 “Would any one of you say 1110  to your slave 1111  who comes in from the field after plowing or shepherding sheep, ‘Come at once and sit down for a meal’? 1112  17:8 Won’t 1113  the master 1114  instead say to him, ‘Get my dinner ready, and make yourself ready 1115  to serve me while 1116  I eat and drink. Then 1117  you may eat and drink’? 17:9 He won’t thank the slave because he did what he was told, 1118  will he? 1119  17:10 So you too, when you have done everything you were commanded to do, should say, ‘We are slaves undeserving of special praise; 1120  we have only done what was our duty.’” 1121 

The Grateful Leper

17:11 Now on 1122  the way to Jerusalem, 1123  Jesus 1124  was passing along 1125  between Samaria and Galilee. 17:12 As 1126  he was entering 1127  a village, ten men with leprosy 1128  met him. They 1129  stood at a distance, 17:13 raised their voices and said, “Jesus, Master, have mercy 1130  on us.” 17:14 When 1131  he saw them he said, “Go 1132  and show yourselves to the priests.” 1133  And 1134  as they went along, they were cleansed. 17:15 Then one of them, when he saw he was healed, turned back, praising 1135  God with a loud voice. 17:16 He 1136  fell with his face to the ground 1137  at Jesus’ feet and thanked him. 1138  (Now 1139  he was a Samaritan.) 1140  17:17 Then 1141  Jesus said, 1142  “Were 1143  not ten cleansed? Where are the other 1144  nine? 17:18 Was no one found to turn back and give praise to God except this foreigner?” 1145  17:19 Then 1146  he said to the man, 1147  “Get up and go your way. Your faith has made you well.” 1148 

The Coming of the Kingdom

17:20 Now at one point 1149  the Pharisees 1150  asked Jesus 1151  when the kingdom of God 1152  was coming, so he answered, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs 1153  to be observed, 17:21 nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is!’ or ‘There!’ For indeed, the kingdom of God is 1154  in your midst.” 1155 

The Coming of the Son of Man

17:22 Then 1156  he said to the disciples, “The days are coming when you will desire to see one of the days 1157  of the Son of Man, and you will not see it. 17:23 Then people 1158  will say to you, ‘Look, there he is!’ 1159  or ‘Look, here he is!’ Do not go out or chase after them. 1160  17:24 For just like the lightning flashes 1161  and lights up the sky from one side to the other, so will the Son of Man be in his day. 1162  17:25 But first he must 1163  suffer many things and be rejected by this generation. 17:26 Just 1164  as it was 1165  in the days of Noah, 1166  so too it will be in the days of the Son of Man. 17:27 People 1167  were eating, 1168  they were drinking, they were marrying, they were being given in marriage – right up to the day Noah entered the ark. Then 1169  the flood came and destroyed them all. 1170  17:28 Likewise, just as it was 1171  in the days of Lot, people 1172  were eating, drinking, buying, selling, planting, building; 17:29 but on the day Lot went out from Sodom, fire and sulfur rained down from heaven and destroyed them all. 1173  17:30 It will be the same on the day the Son of Man is revealed. 17:31 On that day, anyone who is on the roof, 1174  with his goods in the house, must not come down 1175  to take them away, and likewise the person in the field must not turn back. 17:32 Remember Lot’s wife! 1176  17:33 Whoever tries to keep 1177  his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life 1178  will preserve it. 17:34 I tell you, in that night there will be two people in one bed; one will be taken and the other left. 1179  17:35 There will be two women grinding grain together; 1180  one will be taken and the other left.”

17:36 [[EMPTY]] 1181 

17:37 Then 1182  the disciples 1183  said 1184  to him, “Where, 1185  Lord?” He replied to them, “Where the dead body 1186  is, there the vultures 1187  will gather.” 1188 

Prayer and the Parable of the Persistent Widow

18:1 Then 1189  Jesus 1190  told them a parable to show them they should always 1191  pray and not lose heart. 1192  18:2 He said, 1193  “In a certain city 1194  there was a judge 1195  who neither feared God nor respected people. 1196  18:3 There was also a widow 1197  in that city 1198  who kept coming 1199  to him and saying, ‘Give me justice against my adversary.’ 18:4 For 1200  a while he refused, but later on 1201  he said to himself, ‘Though I neither fear God nor have regard for people, 1202  18:5 yet because this widow keeps on bothering me, I will give her justice, or in the end she will wear me out 1203  by her unending pleas.’” 1204  18:6 And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unrighteous judge says! 1205  18:7 Won’t 1206  God give justice to his chosen ones, who cry out 1207  to him day and night? 1208  Will he delay 1209  long to help them? 18:8 I tell you, he will give them justice speedily. 1210  Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith 1211  on earth?”

The Parable of the Pharisee and Tax Collector

18:9 Jesus 1212  also told this parable to some who were confident that they were righteous and looked down 1213  on everyone else. 18:10 “Two men went up 1214  to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee 1215  and the other a tax collector. 1216  18:11 The Pharisee stood and prayed about himself like this: 1217  ‘God, I thank 1218  you that I am not like other people: 1219  extortionists, 1220  unrighteous people, 1221  adulterers – or even like this tax collector. 1222  18:12 I fast twice 1223  a week; I give a tenth 1224  of everything I get.’ 18:13 The tax collector, however, stood 1225  far off and would not even look up 1226  to heaven, but beat his breast and said, ‘God, be merciful 1227  to me, sinner that I am!’ 1228  18:14 I tell you that this man went down to his home justified 1229  rather than the Pharisee. 1230  For everyone who exalts 1231  himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted.”

Jesus and Little Children

18:15 Now people 1232  were even bringing their babies 1233  to him for him to touch. 1234  But when the disciples saw it, they began to scold those who brought them. 1235  18:16 But Jesus called for the children, 1236  saying, “Let the little children come to me and do not try to stop them, for the kingdom of God 1237  belongs to such as these. 1238  18:17 I tell you the truth, 1239  whoever does not receive 1240  the kingdom of God like a child 1241  will never 1242  enter it.”

The Wealthy Ruler

18:18 Now 1243  a certain ruler 1244  asked him, “Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” 1245  18:19 Jesus 1246  said to him, “Why do you call me good? 1247  No one is good except God alone. 18:20 You know the commandments: ‘Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not give false testimony, honor your father and mother.’” 1248  18:21 The man 1249  replied, “I have wholeheartedly obeyed 1250  all these laws 1251  since my youth.” 1252  18:22 When Jesus heard this, he said to him, “One thing you still lack. Sell all that you have 1253  and give the money 1254  to the poor, 1255  and you will have treasure 1256  in heaven. Then 1257  come, follow me.” 18:23 But when the man 1258  heard this he became very sad, 1259  for he was extremely wealthy. 18:24 When Jesus noticed this, 1260  he said, “How hard 1261  it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God! 1262  18:25 In fact, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle 1263  than for a rich person to enter the kingdom of God.” 18:26 Those who heard this said, “Then 1264  who can be saved?” 1265  18:27 He replied, “What is impossible 1266  for mere humans 1267  is possible for God.” 18:28 And Peter said, “Look, we have left everything we own 1268  to follow you!” 1269  18:29 Then 1270  Jesus 1271  said to them, “I tell you the truth, 1272  there is no one who has left home or wife or brothers 1273  or parents or children for the sake of God’s kingdom 18:30 who will not receive many times more 1274  in this age 1275  – and in the age to come, eternal life.” 1276 

Another Prediction of Jesus’ Passion

18:31 Then 1277  Jesus 1278  took the twelve aside and said to them, “Look, we are going up to Jerusalem, 1279  and everything that is written about the Son of Man by the prophets will be accomplished. 1280  18:32 For he will be handed over 1281  to the Gentiles; he will be mocked, 1282  mistreated, 1283  and spat on. 1284  18:33 They will flog him severely 1285  and kill him. Yet 1286  on the third day he will rise again.” 18:34 But 1287  the twelve 1288  understood none of these things. This 1289  saying was hidden from them, and they did not grasp 1290  what Jesus meant. 1291 

Healing a Blind Man

18:35 As 1292  Jesus 1293  approached 1294  Jericho, 1295  a blind man was sitting by the road begging. 18:36 When he heard a crowd going by, he asked what was going on. 18:37 They 1296  told him, “Jesus the Nazarene is passing by.” 18:38 So 1297  he called out, 1298  “Jesus, Son of David, 1299  have mercy 1300  on me!” 18:39 And those who were in front 1301  scolded 1302  him to get him to be quiet, but he shouted 1303  even more, “Son of David, have mercy on me!” 18:40 So 1304  Jesus stopped and ordered the beggar 1305  to be brought to him. When the man 1306  came near, Jesus 1307  asked him, 18:41 “What do you want me to do for you?” He replied, 1308  “Lord, let me see again.” 1309  18:42 Jesus 1310  said to him, “Receive 1311  your sight; your faith has healed you.” 1312  18:43 And immediately he regained 1313  his sight and followed Jesus, 1314  praising 1315  God. When 1316  all the people saw it, they too 1317  gave praise to God.

Jesus and Zacchaeus

19:1 Jesus 1318  entered Jericho 1319  and was passing through it. 19:2 Now 1320  a man named Zacchaeus was there; he was a chief tax collector 1321  and was rich. 19:3 He 1322  was trying to get a look at Jesus, 1323  but being a short man he could not see over the crowd. 1324  19:4 So 1325  he ran on ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree 1326  to see him, because Jesus 1327  was going to pass that way. 19:5 And when Jesus came to that place, he looked up 1328  and said to him, “Zacchaeus, come down quickly, 1329  because I must 1330  stay at your house today.” 1331  19:6 So he came down quickly 1332  and welcomed Jesus 1333  joyfully. 1334  19:7 And when the people 1335  saw it, they all complained, 1336  “He has gone in to be the guest of a man who is a sinner.” 1337  19:8 But Zacchaeus stopped and said to the Lord, “Look, Lord, half of my possessions I now give 1338  to the poor, and if 1339  I have cheated anyone of anything, I am paying back four times as much!” 19:9 Then 1340  Jesus said to him, “Today salvation 1341  has come to this household, 1342  because he too is a son of Abraham! 1343  19:10 For the Son of Man came 1344  to seek and to save the lost.”

The Parable of the Ten Minas

19:11 While the people were listening to these things, Jesus 1345  proceeded to tell a parable, because he was near to Jerusalem, 1346  and because they thought 1347  that the kingdom of God 1348  was going to 1349  appear immediately. 19:12 Therefore he said, “A nobleman 1350  went to a distant country to receive 1351  for himself a kingdom and then return. 1352  19:13 And he summoned ten of his slaves, 1353  gave them ten minas, 1354  and said to them, ‘Do business with these until I come back.’ 19:14 But his citizens 1355  hated 1356  him and sent a delegation after him, saying, ‘We do not want this man 1357  to be king 1358  over us!’ 19:15 When 1359  he returned after receiving the kingdom, he summoned 1360  these slaves to whom he had given the money. He wanted 1361  to know how much they had earned 1362  by trading. 19:16 So 1363  the first one came before him and said, ‘Sir, 1364  your mina 1365  has made ten minas more.’ 19:17 And the king 1366  said to him, ‘Well done, good slave! Because you have been faithful 1367  in a very small matter, you will have authority 1368  over ten cities.’ 19:18 Then 1369  the second one came and said, ‘Sir, your mina has made five minas.’ 19:19 So 1370  the king 1371  said to him, ‘And you are to be over five cities.’ 19:20 Then another 1372  slave 1373  came and said, ‘Sir, here is 1374  your mina that I put away for safekeeping 1375  in a piece of cloth. 1376  19:21 For I was afraid of you, because you are a severe 1377  man. You withdraw 1378  what you did not deposit 1379  and reap what you did not sow.’ 19:22 The king 1380  said to him, ‘I will judge you by your own words, 1381  you wicked slave! 1382  So you knew, did you, that I was a severe 1383  man, withdrawing what I didn’t deposit and reaping what I didn’t sow? 19:23 Why then didn’t you put 1384  my money in the bank, 1385  so that when I returned I could have collected it with interest?’ 19:24 And he said to his attendants, 1386  ‘Take the mina from him, and give it to the one who has ten.’ 1387  19:25 But 1388  they said to him, ‘Sir, he has ten minas already!’ 1389  19:26 ‘I tell you that everyone who has will be given more, 1390  but from the one who does not have, even what he has will be taken away. 1391  19:27 But as for these enemies of mine who did not want me to be their king, 1392  bring them here and slaughter 1393  them 1394  in front of me!’”

The Triumphal Entry

19:28 After Jesus 1395  had said this, he continued on ahead, 1396  going up to Jerusalem. 1397  19:29 Now 1398  when he approached Bethphage 1399  and Bethany, at the place called the Mount of Olives, 1400  he sent two of the disciples, 19:30 telling them, 1401  “Go to the village ahead of you. 1402  When 1403  you enter it, you will find a colt tied there that has never been ridden. 1404  Untie it and bring it here. 19:31 If anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ just say, ‘The Lord needs 1405  it.’” 19:32 So those who were sent ahead found 1406  it exactly 1407  as he had told them. 19:33 As 1408  they were untying the colt, its owners asked them, 1409  “Why are you untying that colt?” 19:34 They replied, “The Lord needs it.” 19:35 Then 1410  they brought it to Jesus, threw their cloaks 1411  on the colt, 1412  and had Jesus get on 1413  it. 19:36 As 1414  he rode along, they 1415  spread their cloaks on the road. 19:37 As he approached the road leading down from 1416  the Mount of Olives, 1417  the whole crowd of his 1418  disciples began to rejoice 1419  and praise 1420  God with a loud voice for all the mighty works 1421  they had seen: 1422  19:38Blessed is the king 1423  who comes in the name of the Lord! 1424  Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!” 19:39 But 1425  some of the Pharisees 1426  in the crowd said to him, “Teacher, rebuke your disciples.” 1427  19:40 He answered, 1428  “I tell you, if they 1429  keep silent, the very stones 1430  will cry out!”

Jesus Weeps for Jerusalem under Judgment

19:41 Now 1431  when Jesus 1432  approached 1433  and saw the city, he wept over it, 19:42 saying, “If you had only known on this day, 1434  even you, the things that make for peace! 1435  But now they are hidden 1436  from your eyes. 19:43 For the days will come upon you when your enemies will build 1437  an embankment 1438  against you and surround you and close in on you from every side. 19:44 They will demolish you 1439  – you and your children within your walls 1440  – and they will not leave within you one stone 1441  on top of another, 1442  because you did not recognize the time of your visitation from God.” 1443 

Cleansing the Temple

19:45 Then 1444  Jesus 1445  entered the temple courts 1446  and began to drive out those who were selling things there, 1447  19:46 saying to them, “It is written, ‘My house will be a house of prayer,’ 1448  but you have turned it into a den 1449  of robbers!” 1450 

19:47 Jesus 1451  was teaching daily in the temple courts. The chief priests and the experts in the law 1452  and the prominent leaders among the people were seeking to assassinate 1453  him, 19:48 but 1454  they could not find a way to do it, 1455  for all the people hung on his words. 1456 

1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

2 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 tn An aorist participle preceding an aorist main verb may indicate either contemporaneous (simultaneous) action (“When he called… he gave”) or antecedent (prior) action (“After he called… he gave”). The participle συγκαλεσάμενος (sunkalesameno") has been translated here as indicating antecedent action.

4 tc Some mss add ἀποστόλους (apostolou", “apostles”; א C* L Θ Ψ 070 0291 Ë13 33 579 892 1241 1424 2542 pc lat) or μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ (maqhta" autou, “his disciples”; C3 al it) here, but such clarifying notes are clearly secondary.

5 sn Note how Luke distinguishes between exorcisms (authority over all demons) and diseases here.

6 sn “To send out” is often a term of divine commission in Luke: 1:19; 4:18, 43; 7:27; 9:48; 10:1, 16; 11:49; 13:34; 24:49.

7 tn Or “to preach.”

8 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

9 sn As Jesus’ own ministry (Luke 4:16-44) involved both word (to proclaim) and deed (to heal) so also would that of the disciples.

10 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

11 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

12 sn Mark 6:8 allows one staff. It might be that Luke’s summary (cf. Matt 10:9-10) means not taking an extra staff or that the expression is merely rhetorical for “traveling light” which has been rendered in two slightly different ways.

13 tn Or “no traveler’s bag”; or possibly “no beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145; BDAG 811 s.v. πήρα).

14 tn Grk “have two tunics.” See the note on the word “tunics” in 3:11.

15 tn Grk “And whatever.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

16 sn Jesus telling his disciples to stay there in one house contrasts with the practice of religious philosophers in the ancient world who went from house to house begging.

17 tn Grk “and depart from there.” The literal wording could be easily misunderstood; the meaning is that the disciples were not to move from house to house in the same town or locality, but remain at the same house as long as they were in that place.

18 tn Grk “And wherever.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

19 tn Grk “all those who do not receive you.”

20 tn Or “city.”

21 sn To shake the dust off represented shaking off the uncleanness from one’s feet; see Luke 10:11; Acts 13:51; 18:6. It was a sign of rejection.

22 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

23 tn This is a distributive use of κατά (kata); see L&N 83:12 where this verse is cited as an example of the usage.

24 tn Or “preaching the gospel.”

sn This verse is similar to Luke 9:2, except for good news at this point. The change means that to “preach the kingdom” is to “preach the good news.” The ideas are interchangeable as summaries for the disciples’ message. They are combined in Luke 8:1.

25 sn Herod refers here to Herod Antipas. See the note on Herod Antipas in 3:1.

26 sn See the note on tetrarch in 3:1.

27 tn Or “was very confused.” See L&N 32.10 where this verse is given as an example of the usage.

28 sn John refers to John the Baptist, whom Herod had beheaded (v. 9).

29 sn The appearance of Elijah would mean that the end time had come. According to 2 Kgs 2:11, Elijah was still alive. In Mal 4:5 it is said that Elijah would be the precursor of Messiah.

30 sn The phrase had risen could be understood to mean “had been resurrected,” but this is only a possible option, not a necessary one, since the phrase could merely mean that a figure had appeared on the scene who mirrored an earlier historical figure. The three options of vv. 7-8 will be repeated in v. 19.

31 tn Grk “John I beheaded”; John’s name is in emphatic position in the Greek text. The verb is causative, since Herod would not have personally carried out the execution.

32 tn The expression ἐζήτει ἰδεῖν αὐτόν (ezhtei idein auton, “was seeking to see him”) probably indicates that Herod, for curiosity’s sake or more likely for evil purposes, wanted to get to know Jesus, i.e., who he was and what he was doing. See I. H. Marshall, Luke (NIGTC), 357. Herod finally got his wish in Luke 23:6-12, with inconclusive results from his point of view.

33 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

34 tn The participle ὑποστρέψαντες (Jupostreyante") has been taken temporally.

35 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

37 tc There is a seeming myriad of variants for this text. Many mss read εἰς τόπον ἔρημον (ei" topon erhmon, “to a deserted place”; א*,2 [1241]) or εἰς τόπον ἔρημον πόλεως καλουμένης Βηθσαϊδά (ei" topon erhmon polew" kaloumenh" Bhqsai>da, “to a deserted place of a town called Bethsaida”; [A] C W Ξmg [Ë1,13] [565] Ï) here, while others have εἰς κώμην λεγομένην Βηδσαϊδά (ei" kwmhn legomenhn Bhdsai>da, “to a village called Bedsaida”; D), εἰς κώμην καλουμένην Βηθσαϊδά εἰς τόπον ἔρημον (ei" kwmhn kaloumenhn Bhqsai>da ei" topon erhmon, “to a village called Bethsaida to a deserted place”; Θ), or εἰς τόπον καλουμένον Βηθσαϊδά (ei" topon kaloumenon Bhqsaida, “to a place called Bethsaida”; Ψ). The Greek behind the translation (εἰς πόλιν καλουμένην Βηθσαϊδά, ei" polin kaloumenhn Bhqsai>da) is supported by (Ì75) א1 B L Ξ* 33 2542 pc co. The variants can be grouped generally into those that speak of a “deserted place” and those that speak of a place/city/town called Bethsaida. The Byzantine reading is evidently a conflation of the earlier texts, and should be dismissed as secondary. The variants that speak of a deserted place are an assimilation to Mark 6:32, as well a harmonization with v. 12, and should also be regarded as secondary. The reading that best explains the rise of the others – both internally and externally – is the one that stands behind the translation and is found in the text of NA27.

tn Or “city.”

38 sn Bethsaida was a town on the northeast side of the Sea of Galilee. Probably this should be understood to mean a place in the vicinity of the town. It represents an attempt to reconcile the location with the place of the miraculous feeding that follows.

39 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

40 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

41 sn Again the combination of word (spoke to them) and healing (cured, compassionate deed) is what summarizes Jesus’ ministry: See Luke 4:38-44; 6:17-19; 7:22 (as also the disciples, 9:6).

42 tn Grk “the day began to decline,” looking to the approach of sunset.

43 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the disciples’ request was related to the approach of sunset.

44 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

45 tn That is, find someone to show them hospitality. L&N 34.61 has “find lodging,” using this verse as an example.

46 tn Or “in a desert” (meaning a deserted or desolate area with sparse vegetation). Here ὧδε (Jwde) has not been translated.

47 tn Here the pronoun ὑμεῖς (Jumeis) is used, making “you” in the translation emphatic.

48 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

49 tn Grk “said.”

50 tn This possibility is introduced through a conditional clause, but it is expressed with some skepticism (BDF §376).

51 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.

52 sn Not only would going and buying food have been expensive and awkward at this late time of day, it would have taken quite a logistical effort to get the food back out to this isolated location.

53 tn The Greek text reads here ἄνδρες (andres) – that is, adult males. The actual count would be larger, since the use of this Greek term suggests that women and children were not included in this number (see the parallel in Matt 14:21).

54 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

55 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

56 tn Or “Make” (depending on how the force of the imperative verb is understood). Grk “cause them to recline” (the verb has causative force here).

57 tn Grk “And they did thus.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the disciples’ action was a result of Jesus’ instructions. The adverb οὕτως ({outw", “thus”) has been expanded in the translation to “as Jesus directed” to clarify what was done.

58 tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

59 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

60 sn Gave thanks adds a note of gratitude to the setting. The scene is like two other later meals: Luke 22:19 and 24:30. Jesus gives thanks to God “with respect to” the provision of food. The disciples learn how Jesus is the mediator of blessing. John 6 speaks of him in this scene as picturing the “Bread of Life.”

61 sn There was more than enough for everybody, as indicated by the gathering of what was left over.

62 tn Grk “And it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

63 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

64 sn Prayer is a favorite theme of Luke and he is the only one of the gospel authors to mention it in the following texts (with the exception of 22:41): Luke 3:21; 5:16; 6:12; 9:28-29; 11:1; 22:41; 23:34, 46.

65 tn Grk “the disciples were with him, and he asked them, saying.”

66 snWho do the crowds say that I am?” The question of who Jesus is occurs frequently in this section of Luke: 7:49; 8:25; 9:9. The answer resolves a major theme of Luke’s Gospel.

67 tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

68 tn Grk “And answering, they said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “They answered.”

69 sn The appearance of Elijah would mean that the end time had come. According to 2 Kgs 2:11, Elijah was still alive. In Mal 4:5 it is said that Elijah would be the precursor of Messiah.

70 sn The phrase has risen could be understood to mean “has been resurrected,” but this is only a possible option, not a necessary one, since the phrase could merely mean that a figure had appeared on the scene who mirrored an earlier historical figure. Note that the three categories in the reply match the ones in Luke 9:7-8.

71 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

72 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

73 tn Grk “Peter answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “Peter answered.”

74 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.

75 tn The combination of the participle and verb ἐπιτιμήσας and παρήγγειλεν (epitimhsa" and parhngeilen, “commanding, he ordered”) is a hendiadys that makes the instruction emphatic.

76 sn No explanation for the command not to tell this to anyone is given, but the central section of Luke, chapters 9-19, appears to reveal a reason. The disciples needed to understand who the Messiah really was and exactly what he would do before they were ready to proclaim Jesus as such. But they and the people had an expectation that needed some instruction to be correct.

77 sn The necessity that the Son of Man suffer is the particular point that needed emphasis, since for many 1st century Jews the Messiah was a glorious and powerful figure, not a suffering one.

78 sn Rejection in Luke is especially by the Jewish leadership (here elders, chief priests, and experts in the law), though in Luke 23 almost all will join in.

79 tn Or “and scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

80 sn The description of the Son of Man being rejected…killed, and…raised is the first of six passion summaries in Luke: 9:44; 17:25; 18:31-33; 24:7; 24:46-47.

81 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

82 sn Here them all could be limited to the disciples, since Jesus was alone with them in v. 18. It could also be that by this time the crowd had followed and found him, and he addressed them, or this could be construed as a separate occasion from the discussion with the disciples in 9:18-22. The cost of discipleship is something Jesus was willing to tell both insiders and outsiders about. The rejection he felt would also fall on his followers.

83 tn Grk “to come after me.”

84 tn This translation better expresses the force of the Greek third person imperative than the traditional “let him deny,” which could be understood as merely permissive.

85 sn Only Luke mentions taking up one’s cross daily. To bear the cross means to accept the rejection of the world for turning to Jesus and following him. Discipleship involves a death that is like a crucifixion; see Gal 6:14.

86 sn The point of the saying whoever wants to save his life will lose it is that if one comes to Jesus then rejection by many will certainly follow. If self-protection is a key motivation, then one will not respond to Jesus and will not be saved. One who is willing to risk rejection will respond and find true life.

87 tn Grk “a man,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense here to refer to both men and women.

88 sn How one responds now to Jesus and his teaching is a reflection of how Jesus, as the Son of Man who judges, will respond then in the final judgment.

89 tn This pronoun (τοῦτον, touton) is in emphatic position in its own clause in the Greek text: “of that person the Son of Man will be ashamed…”

90 tn Grk “in the glory of him and of the Father and of the holy angels.” “Glory” is repeated here in the translation for clarity and smoothness because the literal phrase is unacceptably awkward in contemporary English.

91 tn Grk “I tell you truly” (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ἀληθῶς, legw de Jumin alhqw").

92 tn The Greek negative here (οὐ μή, ou mh) is the strongest possible.

93 tn Grk “will not taste.” Here the Greek verb does not mean “sample a small amount” (as a typical English reader might infer from the word “taste”), but “experience something cognitively or emotionally; come to know something” (cf. BDAG 195 s.v. γεύομαι 2).

94 sn The meaning of the statement that some will not taste death before they see the kingdom of God is clear at one level, harder at another. Jesus predicts some will experience the kingdom before they die. When does this happen? (1) An initial fulfillment is the next event, the transfiguration. (2) It is also possible in Luke’s understanding that all but Judas experience the initial fulfillment of the coming of God’s presence and rule in the work of Acts 2. In either case, the “kingdom of God” referred to here would be the initial rather than the final phase.

95 tn Grk “Now it happened that about.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

96 tn Matt 17:1 and Mark 9:2 specify the interval more exactly, saying it was the sixth day. Luke uses ὡσεί (Jwsei, “about”) to give an approximate reference.

97 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

98 tn Grk “And as.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

99 tn Here the preposition ἐν (en) plus the dative articular aorist infinitive has been translated as a temporal clause (ExSyn 595).

100 tn Or “the appearance of his face became different.”

sn In 1st century Judaism and in the NT, there was the belief that the righteous get new, glorified bodies in order to enter heaven (1 Cor 15:42-49; 2 Cor 5:1-10). This transformation means the righteous will share the glory of God. One recalls the way Moses shared the Lord’s glory after his visit to the mountain in Exod 34. So the disciples saw the appearance of his face transformed, and they were getting a sneak preview of the great glory that Jesus would have (only his glory is more inherent to him as one who shares in the rule of the kingdom).

101 tn Or “became bright as a flash of lightning” (cf. BDAG 346 s.v. ἐξαστράπτω); or “became brilliant as light” (cf. BDAG 593 s.v. λευκός 1).

102 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

103 sn Commentators and scholars discuss why Moses and Elijah are present. The most likely explanation is that Moses represents the prophetic office (Acts 3:18-22) and Elijah pictures the presence of the last days (Mal 4:5-6), the prophet of the eschaton (the end times).

104 tn Grk “two men were talking with him, who were Moses and Elijah.” The relative clause has been simplified to an appositive and transposed in keeping with contemporary English style.

105 tn Grk “his exodus,” which refers to Jesus’ death in Jerusalem and journey back to glory. Here is the first lesson that the disciples must learn. The wondrous rule comes only after suffering.

106 tn Or “accomplish,” “bring to completion.”

107 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

108 tn Grk “weighed down with sleep” (an idiom).

109 tn Or “after they became fully awake,” “but they became fully awake and saw.”

110 tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

111 tn Grk “as they”; the referent (“the men,” referring to Moses and Elijah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

112 tn Grk “to leave from him.”

113 tn Or “booths,” “dwellings” (referring to the temporary booths constructed in the celebration of the feast of Tabernacles).

sn By making three shelters Peter apparently wanted to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles or Booths that looked forward to the end and to treat Moses, Elijah, and Jesus as equals. It was actually a way of expressing honor to Jesus, but the remark at the end of the verse makes it clear that it was not enough honor.

114 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

115 sn This cloud is the cloud of God’s presence and the voice is his as well.

116 tn Or “appeared.”

117 tn Or “surrounded.”

118 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

119 tc Most mss, especially the later ones, have ἀγαπητός (agaphto", “the one I love”; A C* W Ë13 33 Ï it), or ἀγαπητὸς ἐν ᾧ ()υδόκησα (agaphto" en |w (h)udokhsa, “the one I love, in whom I am well pleased”; C3 D Ψ pc) here, instead of ἐκλελεγμένος (eklelegmeno", “the Chosen One”), but these variants are probably assimilations to Matt 17:5 and Mark 9:7. The text behind the translation also enjoys excellent support from Ì45,75 א B L Ξ (579) 892 1241 pc co.

tn The participle ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος (Jo eklelegmeno"), which could be translated “the One who has been chosen,” is best understood as a title rather than a descriptive phrase, probably deriving from Isa 42:1 (LXX) which uses the similar ὁ ἐκλεκτός (Jo eklekto") which also appears in Luke 23:35.

sn This divine endorsement is like Luke 3:22 at Jesus’ baptism. One difference here is the mention of the Chosen One, a reference to the unique and beloved role of the regal, messianic Son.

120 sn The expression listen to him comes from Deut 18:15 and makes two points: 1) Jesus is a prophet like Moses, a leader-prophet, and 2) they have much yet to learn from him.

121 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

122 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding summary of the account.

123 sn Although the disciples told no one at the time, later they did recount this. The commentary on this scene is 2 Pet 1:17-18.

124 tn Grk “in those days.”

125 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

126 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the somewhat unexpected appearance of the man. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

127 tn Grk “cried out, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

128 tn This verb means “to have regard for”; see Luke 1:48.

129 tn Grk “and behold, a.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated here; instead a new sentence was started in the translation. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

130 tn The Greek here is slightly ambiguous; the subject of the verb “screams” could be either the son or the spirit.

131 sn The reaction is like an epileptic fit (see L&N 14.27). See the parallel in Matt 17:14-20.

132 tn Or “bruising,” or “crushing.” This verb appears to allude to the damage caused when it throws him to the ground. According to L&N 19.46 it is difficult to know from this verb precisely what the symptoms caused by the demon were, but it is clear they must have involved severe pain. The multiple details given in the account show how gruesome the condition of the boy was.

133 tn Grk “And I.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated here; instead a new sentence was started in the translation.

134 sn Note the repetition of the verb from v. 38, an indication of the father’s desperation.

135 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

136 tn The words “do so” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity and stylistic reasons.

137 tn Grk “And answering, Jesus said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “Jesus answered.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

138 tn Grk “O.” The marker of direct address, (w), is functionally equivalent to a vocative and is represented in the translation by “you.”

139 tn Or “faithless.”

sn The rebuke for lack of faith has OT roots: Num 14:27; Deut 32:5, 30; Isa 59:8.

140 tn Grk “how long.”

141 tn Or “and put up with.” See Num 11:12; Isa 46:4.

142 sn The pronouns you…you are plural, indicating that Jesus is speaking to a group rather than an individual.

143 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

144 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the boy) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

145 sn At this point the boy was thrown down in another convulsion by the demon. See L&N 23.168.

146 tn See L&N 23.167-68, where the second verb συσπαράσσω (susparassw) is taken to mean the violent shaking associated with the convulsions, thus the translation here “and shook him with convulsions.”

147 tn Or “commanded” (often with the implication of a threat, L&N 33.331).

148 sn This is a reference to an evil spirit. See Luke 4:33.

149 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the response at the conclusion of the account.

150 sn The revelation of the mighty power of God was the manifestation of God’s power shown through Jesus. See Acts 10:38.

151 tn Grk “all”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

152 tc Most mss, especially the later ones (A C W Θ Ψ 0115 Ë13 33 892 Ï al), actually supply ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (Jo Ihsous, “Jesus”) here. Since the earliest and best witnesses, along with many others (Ì75 א B D L Ξ Ë1 579 700 1241 2542 pc lat), lack the name, and since scribes were unlikely to intentionally omit it, the shorter reading is preferred as the original reading.

tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Some mss have done the same.

153 tn Grk “Place these words into your ears,” an idiom. The meaning is either “do not forget these words” (L&N 29.5) or “Listen carefully to these words” (L&N 24.64). See also Exod 17:14. For a variation of this expression, see Luke 8:8.

154 tn The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrwpwn) is considered by some to be used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NRSV, “into human hands”; TEV, “to the power of human beings”). However, because this can be taken as a specific reference to the group responsible for Jesus’ arrest, where it is unlikely women were present (cf. Matt 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12), the word “men” has been retained in the translation. There may also be a slight wordplay with “the Son of Man” earlier in the verse.

155 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the meaning of the statement) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

156 sn The passive verb had been concealed probably indicates that some force was preventing them from responding. It is debated whether God or Satan is meant here. By 24:25 it is clear that their lack of response is their own responsibility. The only way to reverse this is to pay careful attention as v. 44a urges.

157 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate that in spite of their lack of understanding, the disciples were afraid to ask about it. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

158 tn Grk “among them”; the referent (the disciples) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

159 tn The use of the optative mood means the answer is not clear (BDF §§267.2.3; 385.2.2).

160 tn Grk “knowing the thoughts of their hearts” (an idiom).

161 tn On this use of παρά (para), see BDF §239.1.1.

162 tn This verb, δέχομαι (decomai), is a term of hospitality (L&N 34.53).

163 sn Children were very insignificant in ancient culture, so this child would be the perfect object lesson to counter the disciples’ selfish ambitions.

164 tn Grk “among you all, this one is great.” The absence of a comparative term here makes the point that comparison should not be done.

165 tn Grk “And answering, John said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “John answered.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

166 tc The translation follows the reading that has Luke’s normal imperfect here (ἐκωλύομεν, ekwluomen; found in Ì75vid א B L Ξ 579 892 1241). Most mss, however, have an aorist (ἐκωλύσαμεν, ekwlusamen; found in A C D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï co), which would be translated “we forbade him.” The imperfect enjoys the best external and internal support.

167 tn Grk “does not follow with us.” BDAG 36 s.v. ἀκολουθέω 2 indicates that the pronoun σοι (soi, “you”) is to be supplied after the verb in this particular instance; the translation in the text best represents this nuance.

168 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

169 tn Grk “the days were being fulfilled.” There is literary design here. This starts what has been called in the Gospel of Luke the “Jerusalem Journey.” It is not a straight-line trip, but a journey to meet his fate (Luke 13:31-35).

170 sn Taken up is a reference to Jesus’ upcoming return to heaven by crucifixion and resurrection (compare Luke 9:31). This term was used in the LXX of Elijah’s departure in 2 Kgs 2:9.

171 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

172 tn Grk “he set his face,” a Semitic idiom that speaks of a firm, unshakable resolve to do something (Gen 31:21; Isa 50:7).

173 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

174 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

175 tn Grk “sent messengers before his face,” an idiom.

176 tn Grk “And going along, they entered.” The aorist passive participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken temporally. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

177 tn Or “to prepare (things) for him.”

178 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the villagers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

179 tn Or “did not receive”; this verb, δέχομαι (decomai), is a term of hospitality or welcome (L&N 34.53).

180 tn Grk “because his face was set toward Jerusalem.”

sn Jerusalem is to be the place of rejection, as Luke 9:44 suggested. Jesus had resolved to meet his fate in Jerusalem, so the rejection was no surprise.

181 tn Or “destroy.”

182 tc Most mss, especially the later ones (A C D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï it), read here “as also Elijah did,” making the allusion to 2 Kgs 1:10, 12, 14 more explicit. The shorter reading has better and earlier support (Ì45,75 א B L Ξ 579 700* 1241 pc lat sa). It is difficult to explain how the shorter reading could have arisen from the longer, especially since it is well represented early on. However, the longer reading looks to have been a marginal note originally, incorporated into the text of Luke by early scribes.

sn An allusion to 2 Kgs 1:10, 12, 14.

183 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

184 tc Many mss ([D] K Γ Θ Ë1,13 [579] 700 2542 pm it) have at the end of the verse (with slight variations) “and he said, ‘You do not know what sort of spirit you are of, for the Son of Man did not come to destroy people’s lives, but to save [them].’” This variant is clearly secondary, as it gives some content to the rebuke. Further, it is difficult to explain how such rich material would have been omitted by the rest of the witnesses, including the earliest and best mss.

sn The point of the rebuke is that now was not the time for judgment but patience; see 2 Pet 3:9.

185 tn Grk “And as.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

186 tn Grk “going,” but “walking” is an accurate description of how they traveled about.

187 tc Most mss (A C W Θ Ψ Ë13 33 Ï) add κύριε (kurie, “Lord”) here, but scribes were prone to add to the text, especially appellations for the Lord. The shorter reading also enjoys significant ms support (Ì45,75 א B D L Ξ Ë1 lat co).

sn The statement “I will follow you wherever you go” is an offer to follow Jesus as a disciple, no matter what the cost.

188 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

189 sn Jesus’ reply is simply this: Does the man understand the rejection he will be facing? Jesus has no home in the world (the Son of Man has no place to lay his head).

190 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

191 tn Grk “said.”

192 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

193 sn There are several options for the meaning of Jesus’ reply Leave the dead to bury their own dead: (1) Recent research suggests that burial customs in the vicinity of Jerusalem from about 20 b.c. to a.d. 70 involved a reinterment of the bones a year after the initial burial, once the flesh had rotted away. At that point the son would have placed his father’s bones in a special box known as an ossuary to be set into the wall of the tomb. Thus Jesus could well be rebuking the man for wanting to wait around for as much as a year before making a commitment to follow him. In 1st century Jewish culture, to have followed Jesus rather than burying one’s father would have seriously dishonored one’s father (cf. Tobit 4:3-4). (2) The remark is an idiom (possibly a proverbial saying) that means, “The matter in question is not the real issue,” in which case Jesus was making a wordplay on the wording of the man’s (literal) request (see L&N 33.137). (3) This remark could be a figurative reference to various kinds of people, meaning, “Let the spiritually dead bury the dead.” (4) It could also be literal and designed to shock the hearer by the surprise of the contrast. Whichever option is preferred, it is clear that the most important priority is to preach the gospel (proclaim the kingdom of God).

194 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

195 tn Grk “And another also said.”

196 tn Grk “to those in my house.”

197 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

198 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

199 sn Jesus warns that excessive concern for family ties (looks back) will make the kingdom a lesser priority, which is not appropriate for discipleship. The image is graphic, for who can plow straight ahead toward a goal while looking back? Discipleship cannot be double-minded.

200 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

201 tn Grk “And after these things.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

202 tc There is a difficult textual problem here and in v. 17, where the number is either “seventy” (א A C L W Θ Ξ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï and several church fathers and early versions) or “seventy-two” (Ì75 B D 0181 pc lat as well as other versions and fathers). The more difficult reading is “seventy-two,” since scribes would be prone to assimilate this passage to several OT passages that refer to groups of seventy people (Num 11:13-17; Deut 10:22; Judg 8:30; 2 Kgs 10:1 et al.); this reading also has slightly better ms support. “Seventy” could be the preferred reading if scribes drew from the tradition of the number of translators of the LXX, which the Letter of Aristeas puts at seventy-two (TCGNT 127), although this is far less likely. All things considered, “seventy-two” is a much more difficult reading and accounts for the rise of the other. Only Luke notes a second larger mission like the one in 9:1-6.

203 tn Or “city.”

204 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

205 sn The phrase Lord of the harvest recognizes God’s sovereignty over the harvest process.

206 tn Grk “to thrust out.”

207 tn Grk “Behold I.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

208 sn On the imagery of lambs see Isa 40:11, Ezek 34:11-31, and John 10:1-18.

209 sn This imagery of wolves is found in intertestamental Judaism as well; see Pss. Sol. 8:23.

210 sn On the command Do not carry see Luke 9:3. The travel instructions communicate a note of urgency and stand in contrast to philosophical teachers, who often took a bag. There is no ostentation in this ministry.

211 tn Traditionally, “a purse.”

212 tn Or possibly “a beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145; BDAG 811 s.v. πήρα).

213 tn Or “no one along the way.”

214 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

215 tn Grk “Into whatever house you enter.” This acts as a distributive, meaning every house they enter; this is expressed more naturally in English as “whenever you enter a house.”

216 sn The statement ‘May peace be on this house!’ is really a benediction, asking for God’s blessing. The requested shalom (peace) is understood as coming from God.

217 tn Grk “a son of peace,” a Hebrew idiom for a person of a certain class or kind, as specified by the following genitive construction (in this case, “of peace”). Such constructions are discussed further in L&N 9.4. Here the expression refers to someone who responds positively to the disciples’ message, like “wisdom’s child” in Luke 7:30.

218 sn The response to these messengers determines how God’s blessing is bestowed – if they are not welcomed with peace, their blessing will return to them. Jesus shows just how important their mission is by this remark.

219 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

220 tn Grk “eating and drinking the things from them” (an idiom for what the people in the house provide the guests).

221 sn On the phrase the worker deserves his pay see 1 Tim 5:18 and 1 Cor 9:14.

222 tn Grk “And whatever town you enter,” but this is more often expressed in English as “whenever you enter a town.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

223 tn Or “city.” Jesus now speaks of the town as a whole, as he will in vv. 10-12.

224 tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people who live in the town) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

225 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

sn Ministry (heal the sick) is to take place where it is well received (note welcome in the preceding verse).

226 tn Grk “in it”; the referent (that town) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

227 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

228 tn Or “come near to you,” suggesting the approach (but not arrival) of the kingdom. But the combination of the perfect tense of ἐγγίζω (engizw) with the preposition ἐπί (epi) most likely suggests that the sense is “has come upon” (see BDAG 270 s.v. ἐγγίζω 2; W. R. Hutton, “The Kingdom of God Has Come,” ExpTim 64 [Dec 1952]: 89-91; and D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1000; cf. also NAB “is at hand for you”). These passages argue that a key element of the kingdom is its ability to overcome the power of Satan and those elements in the creation that oppose humanity. Confirmation of this understanding comes in v. 18 and in Luke 11:14-23, especially the parable of vv. 21-23.

229 tn Grk “whatever town you enter,” but this is more often expressed in English as “whenever you enter a town.”

230 tn Or “city.”

231 tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people who live in the town) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

232 sn More discussion takes place concerning rejection (the people do not welcome you), as these verses lead into the condemnation of certain towns for their rejection of God’s kingdom.

233 tn The term πλατεῖα (plateia) refers to the “broad street,” so this refers to the main roads of the town.

234 tn Or “city.”

235 sn See Luke 9:5, where the verb is different but the meaning is the same. This was a sign of rejection.

236 tn Here ὑμῖν (Jumin) has been translated as a dative of disadvantage.

237 tn Or “has come near.” As in v. 9 (see above), the combination of ἐγγίζω (engizw) with the preposition ἐπί (epi) is decisive in showing that the sense is “has come” (see BDAG 270 s.v. ἐγγίζω 2, and W. R. Hutton, “The Kingdom of God Has Come,” ExpTim 64 [Dec 1952]: 89-91).

238 sn The allusion to Sodom, the most wicked of OT cities from Gen 19:1-29, shows that to reject the current message is even more serious than the worst sins of the old era and will result in more severe punishment. The noun Sodom is in emphatic position in the Greek text.

239 tn Or “city.”

240 sn Chorazin was a town of Galilee that was probably fairly small in contrast to Bethsaida and is otherwise unattested. Bethsaida was declared a polis by the tetrarch Herod Philip, sometime after a.d. 30.

241 tn This introduces a second class (contrary to fact) condition in the Greek text.

242 tn Or “powerful deeds.”

243 map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

244 sn Tyre and Sidon are two other notorious OT cities (Isa 23; Jer 25:22; 47:4). The remark is a severe rebuke, in effect: “Even the sinners of the old era would have responded to the proclamation of the kingdom, unlike you!”

map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

245 sn Capernaum was a town on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region.

map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 C3; Map3 B2.

246 tn The interrogative particle introducing this question expects a negative reply.

247 sn In the OT, Hades was known as Sheol. It is the place where the unrighteous will reside (Matt 11:23; Luke 16:23; Rev 20:13-14).

248 tn Grk “hears you”; but as the context of vv. 8-9 makes clear, it is response that is the point. In contemporary English, “listen to” is one way to express this function (L&N 31.56).

249 sn Jesus linked himself to the disciples’ message: Responding to the disciples (listens to you) counts as responding to him.

250 tn The double mention of rejection in this clause – ἀθετῶν ἀθετεῖ (aqetwn aqetei) in the Greek text – keeps up the emphasis of the section.

251 sn The one who sent me refers to God.

252 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

253 tc See the tc note on the number “seventy-two” in Luke 10:1.

254 tn Or “the demons obey”; see L&N 36.18.

255 tn The prepositional phrase “in your name” indicates the sphere of authority for the messengers’ work of exorcism.

256 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ reply in vv. 18-20 follows from the positive report of the messengers in v. 17.

257 tn This is an imperfect tense verb.

258 tn In Greek, this is a participle and comes at the end of the verse, making it somewhat emphatic.

259 tn This is probably best taken as allusion to Isa 14:12; the phrase in common is ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (ek tou ouranou). These exorcisms in Jesus’ name are a picture of Satan’s greater defeat at Jesus’ hands (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1006-7).

260 tn Or perhaps, “trample on” (which emphasizes the impact of the feet on the snakes). See L&N 15.226.

261 sn Snakes and scorpions are examples of the hostility in the creation that is defeated by Jesus. The use of battle imagery shows who the kingdom fights against. See Acts 28:3-6.

262 tn Or “I have given you authority to tread on snakes and scorpions, and [authority] over the full force of the enemy.” The second prepositional phrase can be taken either as modifying the infinitive πατεῖν (patein, “to tread”) or the noun ἐξουσίαν (exousian, “power”). The former is to be preferred and has been represented in the translation.

sn The enemy is a reference to Satan (mentioned in v. 18).

263 tn This is an emphatic double negative in the Greek text.

264 tn Grk “do not rejoice in this, that.” This is awkward in contemporary English and has been simplified to “do not rejoice that.”

265 tn The verb here is a present imperative, so the call is to an attitude of rejoicing.

266 tn The verb here, a perfect tense, stresses a present reality of that which was a completed action, that is, their names were etched in the heavenly stone, as it were.

267 tn Grk “In that same hour” (L&N 67.1).

268 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

269 sn Jesus rejoiced. The account of the mission in 10:1-24 ends with several remarks about joy.

270 tn Or “thank.”

271 sn The title Lord is an important name for God, showing his sovereignty, but it is interesting that it comes next to a reference to the Father, a term indicative of God’s care. The two concepts are often related in the NT; see Eph 1:3-6.

272 tn Or “that.”

273 sn See 1 Cor 1:26-31.

274 tn Grk “for (to do) thus was well pleasing before you,” BDAG 325 s.v. ἔμπροσθεν 1.δ; speaking of something taking place “before” God is a reverential way of avoiding direct connection of the action to him.

275 sn This verse has been noted for its conceptual similarity to teaching in John’s Gospel (10:15; 17:2). The authority of the Son and the Father are totally intertwined.

276 tn Or “wishes”; or “intends”; or “plans” (cf. BDAG 182 s.v. βούλομαι 2.b). Here it is the Son who has sovereignty.

277 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

278 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

279 tn Grk “turning to the disciples, he said.” The participle στραφείς (strafei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

280 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

281 sn This beatitude highlights the great honor bestowed on the disciples to share in this salvation, as v. 20 also noted. See also Luke 2:30.

282 sn This is what past prophets and kings had wanted very much to see, yet the fulfillment had come to the disciples. This remark is like 1 Pet 1:10-12 or Heb 1:1-2.

283 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

284 tn Traditionally, “a lawyer.” This was an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law (see also Luke 7:30, where the same term occurs).

285 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

286 sn The combination of inherit with eternal life asks, in effect, “What must I do to be saved?”

287 tn Grk “How do you read?” The pronoun “it” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

288 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law, shortened here to “the expert”) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

289 tn Grk “You will love.” The future indicative is used here with imperatival force (see ExSyn 452 and 569).

290 sn A quotation from Deut 6:5. The fourfold reference to different parts of the person says, in effect, that one should love God with all one’s being.

291 tn This portion of the reply is a quotation from Lev 19:18. The verb is repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons.

292 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

293 sn Jesus commends the reply (you have answered correctly). What is assumed here, given the previous context, is that he will respond to Jesus’ message, as to love God is to respond to his Son; see v. 22.

294 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law, shortened here to “the expert”) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

295 tn Or “vindicate.”

sn The expert in religious law picked up on the remark about the neighbor and sought to limit his responsibility for loving. Some believed this obligation would only be required toward the righteous (Sir 12:1-4). The lawyer was trying to see if that was right and thus confidently establish his righteousness (wanting to justify himself).

296 tn Grk “answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “replied.”

297 sn The journey from Jerusalem to Jericho was 17 mi (27 km), descending some 1800 ft (540 m) in altitude. It was known for its danger because the road ran through areas of desert and caves where the robbers hid.

298 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

299 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

300 tn Grk “and beat,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

301 sn That is, in a state between life and death; severely wounded.

302 sn The phrase by chance adds an initial note of hope and fortune to the expectation in the story.

303 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context between the priest’s expected action (helping the victim) and what he really did.

304 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the injured man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

305 sn It is not said why the priest passed by and refused to help. It is not relevant to the point of the parable that no help was given in the emergency situation.

306 sn The text suggests that the priest went out of his way (on the other side) not to get too close to the scene.

307 tn Here κατά (kata) has been translated “up to”; it could also be translated “upon.”

308 tn The clause containing the aorist active participle ἐλθών (elqwn) suggests that the Levite came up to the place, took a look, and then moved on.

309 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context between the previous characters (considered by society to be examples of piety and religious duty) and a hated Samaritan.

310 tn This is at the beginning of the clause, in emphatic position in the Greek text.

311 tn The participle ὁδεύων (Jodeuwn) has been translated as an adjectival participle (cf. NAB, NASB, TEV); it could also be taken temporally (“while he was traveling,” cf. NRSV, NIV).

312 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the injured man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

313 tn “Him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. The verb means “to feel compassion for,” and the object of the compassion is understood.

sn Here is what made the Samaritan different: He felt compassion for him. In the story, compassion becomes the concrete expression of love. The next verse details explicitly six acts of compassion.

314 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Instead, because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

315 tn The words “to him” are not in the Greek text but are implied. The participle προσελθών (proselqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

316 sn The ancient practice of pouring oil was designed to comfort and clean the wounds (Isa 1:6).

317 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Because of the length and complexity of this Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

318 tn It is not clear whether the causative nuance of the verb included actual assistance or not (“helped him on” versus “had him get on”; see L&N 15.98), but in light of the severity of the man’s condition as described in the preceding verses, some degree of assistance was almost certainly needed.

319 sn His own animal refers to a riding animal, presumably a donkey, but not specified.

320 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

321 tn Grk “two denarii.”

sn The two silver coins were denarii. A denarius was a silver coin worth about a day’s pay for a laborer; this would be an amount worth about two days’ pay.

322 tn Grk “when I come back”; the words “this way” are part of an English idiom used to translate the phrase.

323 sn Jesus reversed the question the expert in religious law asked in v. 29 to one of becoming a neighbor by loving. “Do not think about who they are, but who you are,” was his reply.

324 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

325 sn The neighbor did not do what was required (that is why his response is called mercy) but had compassion and out of kindness went the extra step that shows love. See Mic 6:8. Note how the expert in religious law could not bring himself to admit that the example was a Samaritan, someone who would have been seen as a racial half-breed and one not worthy of respect. So Jesus makes a second point that neighbors may appear in surprising places.

326 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding summary.

327 tn This recalls the verb of the earlier reply in v. 28.

328 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

329 tc Most mss have “into the house” (Ì3vid א C L Ξ 33 579 pc) or “into her house” (א1 A C2 D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 Ï lat) at the end of the sentence. But the English translation masks the multitude of variants: Different forms of “house” (οἰκίαν [oikian], οἶκον [oikon]) and “her” occur (see TCGNT 129). These variations argue against authenticity; they no doubt arose because of the abrupt ending of the sentence (the Greek is more literally translated simply as “Martha received him”), prompting copyists to add the location. The shorter reading is found in Ì45,75 B sa.

tn For the meaning “to welcome, to have as a guest” see L&N 34.53.

330 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

331 tn This reflexive makes it clear that Mary took the initiative in sitting by Jesus.

332 sn The description of Mary sitting at the Lord’s feet and listening to him makes her sound like a disciple (compare Luke 8:35).

333 sn The term distracted means “to be pulled away” by something (L&N 25.238). It is a narrative comment that makes clear who is right in the account.

334 tn Grk “with much serving.”

335 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the following was a result of Martha’s distraction.

336 tn The negative οὐ (ou) used with the verb expects a positive reply. Martha expected Jesus to respond and rebuke Mary.

337 tn Grk “has left me to serve alone.”

338 tn The conjunction οὖν (oun, “then, therefore”) has not been translated here.

339 tc Most mss (A B* C D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï it) read “Jesus” instead of “the Lord” here, but κύριος (kurios, “Lord”) has the support of some weighty papyri, uncials, and other witnesses (Ì3,[45],75 א B2 L 579 892 pc lat sa).

340 tn Grk “answering, said to her.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “answered her.”

341 sn The double vocative Martha, Martha communicates emotion.

342 tn Or “upset.” Here the meanings of μεριμνάω (merimnaw) and θορυβάζομαι (qorubazomai) reinforce each other (L&N 25.234).

343 tc Or, with some mss (Ì3 [א] B C2 L 070vid Ë1 33 [579] pc), “few things are needed – or only one” (as well as other variants). The textual problem here is a difficult one to decide. The shorter reading is normally preferred, but it is not altogether clear how the variants would arise from it. However, the reading followed in the translation has good support (with some internal variations) from a number of witnesses (Ì45,75 A C* W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï lat sa).

344 tn Or “better”; Grk “good.” This is an instance of the positive adjective used in place of the superlative adjective. According to ExSyn 298, this could also be treated as a positive for comparative (“better”).

345 tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

346 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

347 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

348 sn John refers to John the Baptist.

349 sn It was not unusual for Jewish groups to have their own prayer as a way of expressing corporate identity. Judaism had the Eighteen Benedictions and apparently John the Baptist had a prayer for his disciples as well.

350 sn When you pray. What follows, although traditionally known as the Lord’s prayer, is really the disciples’ prayer. It represents how they are to approach God, by acknowledging his uniqueness and their need for his provision and protection.

351 tc Most mss, including later majority (A C D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33vid Ï it), add ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς (Jhmwn Jo en toi" oujranoi", “our [Father] in heaven”) here. This makes the prayer begin like the version in Matt 6:9. The shorter version is read by Ì75 א B (L: + ἡμῶν) 1 700 pc as well as some versions and fathers. Given this more weighty external evidence, combined with the scribal tendency to harmonize Gospel parallels, the shorter reading is preferred.

sn God is addressed in terms of intimacy (Father). The original Semitic term here was probably Abba. The term is a little unusual in a personal prayer, especially as it lacks qualification. It is not the exact equivalent of “Daddy” (as is sometimes popularly suggested), but it does suggest a close, familial relationship.

352 tn Grk “hallowed be your name.”

353 tc Most mss (א A C D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33vid Ï it) read at the end of the verse “may your will be done on earth as [it is] in heaven,” making this version parallel to Matt 6:10. The shorter reading is found, however, in weighty mss (Ì75 B L pc), and cannot be easily explained as arising from the longer reading.

sn Your kingdom come represents the hope for the full manifestation of God’s promised rule.

354 tn Or “Give us bread each day for the coming day,” or “Give us each day the bread we need for today.” The term ἐπιούσιος (epiousio") does not occur outside of early Christian literature (other occurrences are in Matt 6:11 and Didache 8:2), so its meaning is difficult to determine. Various suggestions include “daily,” “the coming day,” and “for existence.” See BDAG 376 s.v.; L&N 67:183, 206.

355 tn Grk “who is indebted to us” (an idiom). The picture of sin as debt is not unusual. As for forgiveness offered and forgiveness given, see 1 Pet 3:7.

356 tc Most mss (א1 A C D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33 Ï it syc,p,h) add “but deliver us from the evil one,” an assimilation to Matt 6:13. The shorter reading has better attestation (Ì75 א*,2 B L 1 700 pc vg sa Or). Internally, since the mss that have the longer reading here display the same tendency throughout the Lord’s Prayer to assimilate the Lukan version to the Matthean version, the shorter reading should be regarded as authentic in Luke.

tn Or “into a time of testing.”

sn The request Do not lead us into temptation is not to suggest that God causes temptation, but is a rhetorical way to ask for his protection from sin.

357 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

358 tn Grk “Who among you will have a friend and go to him.”

359 tn Grk “he will go to him.”

360 tn The words “of bread” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by ἄρτους (artou", “loaves”).

361 tn Grk “has come to me from the road.”

362 sn The background to the statement I have nothing to set before him is that in ancient Middle Eastern culture it was a matter of cultural honor to be a good host to visitors.

363 tn Κἀκεῖνος (kakeino") has been translated “Then he.”

364 tn Grk “answering, he will say.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “he will reply.”

365 tn Grk “my children are with me in the bed.” In Jewish homes in the time of Jesus, the beds were often all together in one room; thus the householder may be speaking of individual beds (using a collective singular) rather than a common bed.

366 tn The syntax of vv. 6-7 is complex. In the Greek text Jesus’ words in v. 6 begin as a question. Some see Jesus’ question ending at v. 6, but the reply starting in v. 8 favors extending the question through the entire illustration. The translation breaks up the long sentence at the beginning of v. 7 and translates Jesus’ words as a statement for reasons of English style.

367 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man in bed in the house) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

368 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the first man mentioned) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

369 tn The term ἀναίδεια (anaideia) is hard to translate. It refers to a combination of ideas, a boldness that persists over time, or “audacity,” which comes close. It most likely describes the one making the request, since the unit’s teaching is an exhortation about persistence in prayer. Some translate the term “shamelessness” which is the term’s normal meaning, and apply it to the neighbor as an illustration of God responding for the sake of his honor. But the original question was posed in terms of the first man who makes the request, not of the neighbor, so the teaching underscores the action of the one making the request.

370 tn Here καί (kai, from καγώ [kagw]) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion drawn from the preceding parable.

371 sn The three present imperatives in this verse (Ask…seek…knock) are probably intended to call for a repeated or continual approach before God.

372 tn Grk “it”; the referent (a door) is implied by the context and has been specified in the translation for clarity.

373 sn The actions of asking, seeking, and knocking are repeated here from v. 9 with the encouragement that God does respond.

374 tn Grk “it”; the referent (a door) is implied by the context and has been specified in the translation for clarity.

375 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

376 tc Most mss (א A C D L W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat syc,p,h bo) have “bread, does not give him a stone instead, or” before “a fish”; the longer reading, however, looks like a harmonization to Matt 7:9. The shorter reading is thus preferred, attested by Ì45,75 B 1241 pc sys sa.

377 sn The snake probably refers to a water snake.

378 sn The two questions of vv. 11-12 expect the answer, “No father would do this!”

379 tn The participle ὑπάρχοντες (Juparconte") has been translated as a concessive participle.

380 sn The provision of the Holy Spirit is probably a reference to the wisdom and guidance supplied in response to repeated requests. Some apply it to the general provision of the Spirit, but this would seem to look only at one request in a context that speaks of repeated asking. The teaching as a whole stresses not that God gives everything his children want, but that God gives the good that they need. The parallel account in Matthew (7:11) refers to good things where Luke mentions the Holy Spirit.

381 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

382 tn The phrase “a demon that was mute” should probably be understood to mean that the demon caused muteness or speechlessness in its victim, although it is sometimes taken to refer to the demon’s own inability to speak (cf. TEV, “a demon that could not talk”).

383 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here δέ (de) has not been translated either.

384 sn This miracle is different from others in Luke. The miracle is told entirely in one verse and with minimum detail, while the response covers several verses. The emphasis is on explaining what Jesus’ work means.

385 tn Grk “By Beelzebul.”

sn Beelzebul is another name for Satan. So some people recognized Jesus’ work as supernatural, but called it diabolical.

386 tn Or “prince.”

387 tn Grk “testing”; the participle is taken as indicating the purpose of the demand.

388 tn The pronoun “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

389 tn Grk “seeking from him.” The imperfect ἐζήτουν (ezhtoun) is taken ingressively. It is also possible to regard it as iterative (“kept on asking”).

390 sn What exactly this sign would have been, given what Jesus was already doing, is not clear. But here is where the fence-sitters reside, refusing to commit to him.

391 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

392 sn Jesus here demonstrated the absurdity of the thinking of those who maintained that he was in league with Satan and that he actually derived his power from the devil. He first teaches (vv. 17-20) that if he casts out demons by the ruler of the demons, then in reality Satan is fighting against himself, with the result that his kingdom has come to an end. He then teaches (v. 21-22) about defeating the strong man to prove that he does not need to align himself with the devil because he is more powerful. Jesus defeated Satan at his temptation (4:1-13) and by his exorcisms he clearly demonstrated himself to be stronger than the devil. The passage reveals the desperate condition of the religious leaders, who in their hatred for Jesus end up attributing the work of the Holy Spirit to Satan.

393 tn Or “is left in ruins.”

394 tn Grk “and house falls on house.” This phrase pictures one house collapsing on another, what is called today a “house of cards.”

395 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the clause that follows is a logical conclusion based on the preceding examples.

396 tn This first class condition, the first of three “if” clauses in the following verses, presents the example vividly as if it were so. In fact, all three conditions in these verses are first class. The examples are made totally parallel. The expected answer is that Satan’s kingdom will not stand, so the suggestion makes no sense. Satan would not seek to heal.

397 tn Grk “because.” “I ask you this” is supplied for the sake of English.

398 sn Most read your sons as a reference to Jewish exorcists (cf. “your followers,” L&N 9.4; for various views see D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1077-78), but more likely this is a reference to the disciples of Jesus themselves, who are also Jewish and have been healing as well (R. J. Shirock, “Whose Exorcists are they? The Referents of οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν at Matthew 12:27/Luke 11:19,” JSNT 46 [1992]: 41-51). If this is a reference to the disciples, then Jesus’ point is that it is not only him, but those associated with him whose power the hearers must assess. The following reference to judging also favors this reading.

399 tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

400 sn The finger of God is a figurative reference to God’s power (L&N 76.3). This phrase was used of God’s activity during the Exodus (Exod 8:19).

401 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

402 tn The phrase ἔφθασεν ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (efqasen efJuma") is important. Does it mean merely “approach” (which would be reflected in a translation like “has come near to you”) or actually “come upon” (as in the translation given above, “has already overtaken you,” which has the added connotation of suddenness)? The issue here is like the one in 10:9 (see note there on the phrase “come on”). Is the arrival of the kingdom merely anticipated or already in process? Two factors favor arrival over anticipation here. First, the prepositional phrase “upon you” suggests arrival (Dan 4:24, 28 Theodotion). Second, the following illustration in vv. 21-23 looks at the healing as portraying Satan being overrun. So the presence of God’s authority has arrived. See also L&N 13.123 for the translation of φθάνω (fqanw) as “to happen to already, to come upon, to come upon already.”

403 tn The referent of the expression “a strong man” is Satan.

404 tn The word αὐλή (aulh) describes any building large and elaborate enough to have an interior courtyard, thus “dwelling, palace, mansion” (L&N 7.6).

405 tn Grk “his goods are in peace.”

406 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

407 tn The referent of the expression “a stronger man” is Jesus.

408 tn Grk “stronger man than he attacks.”

409 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the first man mentioned) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

410 tn Grk “on which he relied.”

411 tn Or “and distributes.”

412 sn Some see the imagery here as similar to Eph 4:7-10, although no opponents are explicitly named in that passage. Jesus has the victory over Satan. Jesus’ acts of healing mean that the war is being won and the kingdom is coming.

413 sn Whoever is not with me is against me. The call here is to join the victor. Failure to do so means that one is being destructive. Responding to Jesus is the issue.

414 sn For the image of scattering, see Pss. Sol. 17:18.

415 sn This is a reference to an evil spirit. See Luke 4:33.

416 tn Grk “man.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

417 sn The background for the reference to waterless places is not entirely clear, though some Jewish texts suggest spirits must have a place to dwell, but not with water (Luke 8:29-31; Tob 8:3). Some suggest that the image of the desert or deserted cities as the places demons dwell is where this idea started (Isa 13:21; 34:14).

418 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

419 tc ‡ Most mss, including a few early and important ones (Ì45 א* A C D W Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat), lack τότε (tote, “then”). Other mss, including some early and important ones (Ì75 א2 B L Θ Ξ 070 33 579 892 1241 pc co), have the adverb. Although the external evidence better supports the longer reading, the internal evidence is on the side of the shorter, for conjunctions and adverbs were frequently added by copyists to remove asyndeton and to add clarification. The shorter reading is thus preferred. The translation, however, adds “Then” because of English stylistic requirements. NA27 has τότε in brackets indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

420 tn Grk “I will return to my house from which I came.”

421 tn Grk “comes.”

422 tn The words “the house” are not in Greek but are implied.

423 sn The image of the house swept clean and put in order refers to the life of the person from whom the demon departed. The key to the example appears to be that no one else has been invited in to dwell. If an exorcism occurs and there is no response to God, then the way is free for the demon to return. Some see the reference to exorcism as more symbolic; thus the story’s only point is about responding to Jesus. This is possible and certainly is an application of the passage.

424 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding point of the story.

425 tn Grk “man.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

426 sn The point of the story is that to fail to respond is to risk a worse fate than when one started.

427 tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

428 tn Grk “lifted up her voice and said.” This idiom is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “spoke out.”

429 tn For this term see L&N 8.69.

430 sn Both the reference to the womb and the breasts form a figure of speech called metonymy. In this case the parts are mentioned instead of the whole; the meaning is “Blessed is your mother!” The warnings seem to have sparked a little nervousness that brought forth this response. In the culture a mother was valued for the accomplishments of her son. So this amounts to a compliment to Jesus.

431 tn Grk “said.”

432 sn This is another reference to hearing and doing the word of God, which here describes Jesus’ teaching; see Luke 8:21.

433 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

434 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

435 sn The mention of a sign alludes back to Luke 11:16. Given what Jesus had done, nothing would be good enough. This leads to the rebuke that follows.

436 sn As the following comparisons to Solomon and Jonah show, in the present context the sign of Jonah is not an allusion to Jonah being three days in the belly of the fish, but to Jesus’ teaching about wisdom and repentance.

437 tn Grk “to the Ninevites.” What the Ninevites experienced was Jonah’s message (Jonah 3:4, 10; 4:1).

438 tn The repetition of the words “a sign” are not in the Greek text, but are implied and are supplied here for clarity.

439 tc Only the Western ms D and a few Itala mss add here a long reference to Jonah being in the belly of the fish for three days and nights and the Son of Man being three days in the earth, apparently harmonizing the text to the parallel in Matt 12:40.

440 sn On the queen of the South see 1 Kgs 10:1-3 and 2 Chr 9:1-12, as well as Josephus, Ant. 8.6.5-6 (8.165-175). The South most likely refers to modern southwest Arabia, possibly the eastern part of modern Yemen, although there is an ancient tradition reflected in Josephus which identifies this geo-political entity as Ethiopia.

441 sn For the imagery of judgment, see Luke 10:13-15 and 11:19. The warnings are coming consistently now.

442 tn Grk “men”; the word here (ἀνήρ, anhr) usually indicates males or husbands, but occasionally is used in a generic sense of people in general, as is the case here (cf. BDAG 79 s.v. 1, 2). The same term, translated the same way, occurs in v. 32.

443 tn Grk “behold.”

444 sn The message of Jesus was something greater than what Solomon offered. On Jesus and wisdom, see Luke 7:35; 10:21-22; 1 Cor 1:24, 30.

445 tn See the note on the word “people” in v. 31.

446 tn Grk “at the preaching of Jonah.”

sn The phrase repented when Jonah preached to them confirms that in this context the sign of Jonah (v. 30) is his message.

447 tn Grk “behold.”

448 tn Or perhaps “in a cellar” (L&N 28.78). The point is that the light of Jesus’ teaching has been put in public view.

449 tc The phrase “or under a basket” is lacking in some important and early mss (Ì45,75 L Γ Ξ 070 Ë1 700* 1241 2542 pc sys sa). It is hard to decide in this case, since the inclusion of “or under a basket” is widely attested by some early and decent witnesses, as well as the overwhelming majority of mss (א A B C D W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï latt). The parallel passage in Luke 8:16 does not include “under a basket.” If the phrase “under a basket” were added as a harmonization with Mark 4:21 and Matt 5:15, it is perhaps surprising that scribes did not add the phrase at Luke 8:16 as well. It seems somewhat more likely that a scribe copying Luke would be inclined to harmonize 11:33 with 8:16 by omitting the phrase here. Thus, the words “or under a basket” seem to have the marks of authenticity.

tn Or “a bowl”; this refers to any container for dry material of about eight liters (two gallons) capacity. It could be translated “basket, box, bowl” (L&N 6.151).

450 tn Or “sound” (so L&N 23.132 and most scholars). A few scholars take this word to mean something like “generous” here (L&N 57.107), partly due to the immediate context of this saying in Matt 6:22 which concerns money, in which case the “eye” is a metonymy for the entire person (“if you are generous”).

451 tn Or “when it is sick” (L&N 23.149).

sn There may be a slight wordplay here, as this term can also mean “evil,” so the figure uses a term that points to the real meaning of being careful as to what one pays attention to or looks at.

452 tn This is a present imperative, calling for a constant watch (L&N 24.32; ExSyn 721).

453 sn Here you is a singular pronoun, individualizing the application.

454 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text, so the example ends on a hopeful, positive note.

455 tn Grk “Therefore”; the same conjunction as at the beginning of v. 35, but since it indicates a further inference or conclusion, it has been translated “then” here.

456 tn Grk “not having any part dark.”

457 tn Grk “it will be completely illumined as when a lamp illumines you with its rays.”

458 tn The use of the aorist infinitive here should probably be translated “as he spoke” rather than “while he was speaking” (see ExSyn 595). The Pharisee did not necessarily interrupt Jesus to issue the invitation.

459 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

460 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

461 tn Grk “and reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

462 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

463 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

464 tn The words “his hands” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.

sn Washing before meals was a cultural practice that was described in the OT, but not prescribed there (Gen 18:4; Judg 19:21). It was apparently related to concern about contracting ceremonial uncleanness (Lev 11:31-38; t. Demai 2.11-12).

465 sn The allusion to washing (clean the outside of the cup) shows Jesus knew what they were thinking and deliberately set up a contrast that charged them with hypocrisy and majoring on minors.

466 tn Or “and evil.”

467 sn You fools is a rebuke which in the OT refers to someone who is blind to God (Ps 14:1, 53:1; 92:6; Prov 6:12).

468 tn The question includes a Greek particle, οὐ (ou), that expects a positive reply. God, the maker of both, is concerned for what is both inside and outside.

469 tn Grk “Give the things inside as alms.” Three different approaches have been taken to the syntax and meaning of this phrase: (1) τὰ ἐνόντα (ta enonta, “the things inside”) is an accusative of respect (“give alms with respect to the things inside”); (2) τὰ ἐνόντα is an adverbial accusative (“give alms inwardly,” i.e., from the heart); (3) the word translated “alms” represents a mistranslation of the original Aramaic term “cleanse,” so the statement urges the hearers to “cleanse the things inside.” According to D. L. Bock (Luke [BECNT], 2:1115) the latter meaning is unlikely because the present verse is independent of Matt 23:26, not parallel to it, and makes good sense as it stands.

sn In Jewish culture giving alms to the poor was a very important religious observance; it was meant to be an act of mercy, kindness, and love (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1114). The implication from the text is that the Pharisees gave alms, but without any of the spiritual concern which should have motivated those generous actions. Here Jesus commands the Pharisees to give from within themselves to those in need instead of just giving of their possessions. In so doing they would show true inner purity acceptable to God. This is in keeping with the author’s social concerns elsewhere in the Gospel (cf., e.g., 1:52-53, 4:18-19, 6:20-21, 14:13).

470 tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this clause has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

471 sn The expression everything will be clean for you refers to the agreement that should exist between the overt practice of one’s religious duties, such as almsgiving, and the inner condition of one’s heart, including true love for God and the poor; one is not only to wash the outside of the cup and plate, but the inside as well, since as Jesus said, God created the inside too. Religious duties are not to be performed hypocritically, i.e., for the applause and esteem of people, but rather they are to be done out of a deep love for God and a sensitivity to and concern for the needs of others. Then, everything will be clean, both hearts and lives.

472 tn Grk “Woe to you…because you…” The causal particle ὅτι (Joti) has not been translated here for rhetorical effect (and so to the end of this chapter).

473 tn Or “you tithe mint.”

474 sn These small herbs were tithed with great care (Mishnah, m. Demai 2:1).

475 tn Grk “and rue.” Καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

sn Rue was an evergreen herb used for seasoning.

476 sn Justice was a major theme of OT ethics (Mic 6:8; Zech 7:8-10).

477 tn Grk “those”; but this has been translated as “the others” to clarify which are meant.

478 tn Or “seats of honor.” The term here is plural and is not a reference only to the lead “seat of Moses” in the synagogue, but includes the front seats near the ark.

479 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

480 tn Grk “and the greetings.”

sn The later Jewish summary of oral tradition, the Talmud, notes elaborate greetings for rabbis. The rebuke here is for pride.

481 tc Most mss (A [D] W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï it) have “experts in the law and Pharisees, hypocrites” after “you,” but this looks like an assimilation to the parallel in Matt 23:25, 27, 29. The shorter reading has earlier attestation from a variety of reliable mss (Ì45,75 א B C L Ë1 33 1241 2542 lat sa).

482 tn Grk “men.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

483 sn In Judaism to come into contact with the dead or what is associated with them, even without knowing it, makes one unclean (Num 19:11-22; Lev 21:1-3; Mishnah, m. Demai 2:3). To Pharisees, who would have been so sensitive about contracting ceremonial uncleanness, it would have been quite a stinging rebuke to be told they caused it.

484 sn That is, an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law. They worked closely with the Pharisees.

485 tn For this term, see Matt 22;6; Luke 18:32; Acts 14:5; 1 Thess 2:2.

486 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

487 tn Grk “said.”

488 tn Here “as well” is used to translate καί (kai) at the beginning of the statement.

489 tn Grk “men.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

490 tn Grk “you yourselves do not touch.” This could mean one of two things: (1) Either they make others do what they themselves do not (through various technical exceptions) or (2) they make no effort to help the others fulfill what they are required to do. Considering the care these religious figures are said to have given to the law, the second option is more likely (see L&N 18.11).

491 sn The effect of what the experts in the law were doing was to deny the message of the prophets and thus honor their death by supporting those who had sought their removal. The charge that this is what previous generations did shows the problem is chronic. As T. W. Manson said, the charge here is “The only prophet you honor is a dead prophet!” (The Sayings of Jesus, 101).

492 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

493 tn Grk “you are witnesses and approve of.”

494 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

495 tn Grk “them”; the referent (the prophets) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

496 tn “Their,” i.e., the prophets.

497 tc The majority of mss list a specific object (“their tombs”), filling out the sentence (although there are two different words for “tombs” among the mss, as well as different word orders: αὐτῶν τὰ μνημεῖα (autwn ta mnhmeia; found in A C W Θ Ψ 33 Ï) and τοὺς τάφους αὐτῶν (tou" tafou" autwn; found in Ë1,[13] 2542 pc). This suggests that early copyists had no term in front of them but felt the verb needed an object. But since a wide distribution of early Alexandrian and Western mss lack these words (Ì75 א B D L 579 1241 it sa), it is likely that they were not part of the original text of Luke. Nevertheless, the words “their tombs” are inserted in the translation because of requirements of English style.

498 sn The expression the wisdom of God is a personification of an attribute of God that refers to his wise will.

499 tn Or “that this generation may be charged with”; or “the blood of all the prophets… may be required from this generation.” This is a warning of judgment. These people are responsible for the shedding of prophetic blood.

500 tn Or “foundation.” However, this does not suggest a time to the modern reader.

501 tn The order of the clauses in this complicated sentence has been rearranged to simplify it for the modern reader.

502 sn Gen 4:10 indicates that Abel’s blood cried out for justice.

503 sn It is not clear which Zechariah is meant here. It is probably the person mentioned in 2 Chr 24:20-25.

504 tn Or “who perished.”

505 tn Or “and the temple”; Grk “and the house,” but in this context a reference to the house of God as a place of sanctuary.

506 tn Or “required from.”

507 sn You have taken away the key to knowledge is another stinging rebuke. They had done the opposite of what they were trying to do.

508 tn Or “you tried to prevent.”

509 tn Or “the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

510 tn Or “terribly.”

511 tn For this term see L&N 33.183.

512 tn Grk “lying in ambush against,” but this is a figurative extension of that meaning.

513 tn This term was often used in a hunting context (BDAG 455 s.v. θηρεύω; L&N 27.30). Later examples of this appear in Luke 20.

514 tn The phrase ἐν οἷς (en Jois) can be translated “meanwhile.”

515 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

516 tn According to L&N 27.59, “to pay attention to, to keep on the lookout for, to be alert for, to be on your guard against.” This is another Lukan present imperative calling for constant vigilance.

517 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

518 sn The pursuit of popularity can lead to hypocrisy, if one is not careful.

519 tn Or “concealed.”

520 sn I.e., be revealed by God. The passive voice verbs here (“be revealed,” be made known”) see the revelation as coming from God. The text is both a warning about bad things being revealed and an encouragement that good things will be made known, though the stress with the images of darkness and what is hidden in vv. 2-3 is on the attempt to conceal.

521 tn Or “because.” Understanding this verse as a result of v. 2 is a slightly better reading of the context. Knowing what is coming should impact our behavior now.

522 tn Grk “spoken in the ear,” an idiom. The contemporary expression is “whispered.”

523 sn The term translated private rooms refers to the inner room of a house, normally without any windows opening outside, the most private location possible (BDAG 988 s.v. ταμεῖον 2).

524 tn The expression “proclaimed from the housetops” is an idiom for proclaiming something publicly (L&N 7.51). Roofs of many first century Jewish houses in Judea and Galilee were flat and had access either from outside or from within the house. Something shouted from atop a house would be heard by everyone in the street below.

525 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

526 sn Judaism had a similar exhortation in 4 Macc 13:14-15.

527 tn Grk “will show,” but in this reflective context such a demonstration is a warning or exhortation.

528 sn The actual performer of the killing is not here specified. It could be understood to be God (so NASB, NRSV) but it could simply emphasize that, after a killing has taken place, it is God who casts the person into hell.

529 tn The direct object (“you”) is understood.

530 sn The word translated hell is “Gehenna” (γέεννα, geenna), a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew words ge hinnom (“Valley of Hinnom”). This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. In OT times it was used for human sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (cf. Jer 7:31; 19:5-6; 32:35), and it came to be used as a place where human excrement and rubbish were disposed of and burned. In the intertestamental period, it came to be used symbolically as the place of divine punishment (cf. 1 En. 27:2, 90:26; 4 Ezra 7:36).

531 sn The pennies refer to the assarion, a small Roman copper coin. One of them was worth one sixteenth of a denarius or less than a half hour’s average wage. Sparrows were the cheapest thing sold in the market. God knows about even the most financially insignificant things; see Isa 49:15.

532 sn Do not be afraid. One should respect and show reverence to God (v. 5), but need not fear his tender care.

533 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

534 tn Or “confesses.”

535 tn Although this is a generic reference and includes both males and females, in this context “men” has been retained because of the wordplay with the Son of Man and the contrast with the angels. The same is true of the occurrence of “men” in v. 9.

536 sn This acknowledgment will take place at the judgment. Of course, the Son of Man is a reference to Jesus as it has been throughout the Gospel. On Jesus and judgment, see 22:69; Acts 10:42-43; 17:31.

537 sn Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit probably refers to a total rejection of the testimony that the Spirit gives to Jesus and the plan of God. This is not so much a sin of the moment as of one’s entire life, an obstinate rejection of God’s message and testimony. Cf. Matt 12:31-32 and Mark 3:28-30.

538 tn Grk “it will not be forgiven the person who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit.”

539 sn The saying looks at persecution both from a Jewish context as the mention of synagogues suggests, and from a Gentile one as the reference to the rulers and the authorities suggests.

sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

540 tn Grk “and the,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

541 tn Grk “about how or what you should say in your defense,” but this is redundant with the following clause, “or what you should say.”

542 tn Grk “in that very hour” (an idiom).

543 tn Grk “what it is necessary to say.”

544 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

545 sn Tell my brother. In 1st century Jewish culture, a figure like a rabbi was often asked to mediate disputes, except that here mediation was not requested, but representation.

546 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

547 tn This term of address can be harsh or gentle depending on the context (BDAG 82 s.v. ἄνθρωπος 8). Here it is a rebuke.

548 tn The pronoun ὑμᾶς (Jumas) is plural, referring to both the man and his brother; thus the translation “you two.”

549 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

550 tn See L&N 13.154 for this use of the middle voice of φυλάσσω (fulassw) in this verse.

551 tn Or “avarice,” “covetousness.” Note the warning covers more than money and gets at the root attitude – the strong desire to acquire more and more possessions and experiences.

552 tn Grk “And he.” Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the connection to the preceding statement.

553 tn Grk “a parable, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated here.

554 tn Or “yielded a plentiful harvest.”

555 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that this is a result of the preceding statement.

556 tn Grk “to himself, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated here.

557 sn I have nowhere to store my crops. The thinking here is prudent in terms of recognizing the problem. The issue in the parable will be the rich man’s solution, particularly the arrogance reflected in v. 19.

558 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

559 sn Note how often the first person pronoun is present in these verses. The farmer is totally self absorbed.

560 tn Grk “to my soul,” which is repeated as a vocative in the following statement, but is left untranslated as redundant.

561 tn Grk “your soul,” but ψυχή (yuch) is frequently used of one’s physical life. It clearly has that meaning in this context.

562 tn Or “required back.” This term, ἀπαιτέω (apaitew), has an economic feel to it and is often used of a debt being called in for repayment (BDAG 96 s.v. 1).

563 tn Grk “the things you have prepared, whose will they be?” The words “for yourself” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

564 sn It is selfishness that is rebuked here, in the accumulation of riches for himself. Recall the emphasis on the first person pronouns throughout the parable.

565 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Jesus’ remarks to the disciples are an application of the point made in the previous parable.

566 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

567 tc αὐτοῦ (autou, “his”) is lacking in Ì45vid,75 B 1241 c e. Although the addition of clarifying pronouns is a known scribal alteration, in this case it is probably better to view the dropping of the pronoun as the alteration in light of its minimal attestation.

568 tn Or “do not be anxious.”

569 tc Most mss (Ì45 Ψ 070 Ë13 33 Ï) supply the pronoun ὑμῶν (Jumwn, “your”) here, although several important and early witnesses omit it (Ì75 א A B D L Q W Θ Ë1 700 2542 al lat). Externally, the shorter reading is superior. Internally, the pronoun looks to be a scribal clarification. In context the article can be translated as a possessive pronoun anyway (ExSyn 215), as it has been done for this translation.

570 tc Some mss (B 070 Ë13 33 1424 al) supply the pronoun ὑμῶν (Jumwn, “your”) here, although the witnesses for the omission are early, important, and varied (Ì45vid,75 א A D L Q W Θ Ψ Ë1 Ï lat). See previous tc note for more discussion.

571 tn Or “crows.” Crows and ravens belong to the same family of birds. English uses “crow” as a general word for the family. Palestine has several indigenous members of the crow family.

572 tn Or “God gives them food to eat.” L&N 23.6 has both “to provide food for” and “to give food to someone to eat.”

573 tn Or “by being anxious.”

574 tn Or “a cubit to his height.” A cubit (πῆχυς, phcu") can measure length (normally about 45 cm or 18 inches) or time (a small unit, “hour” is usually used [BDAG 812 s.v.] although “day” has been suggested [L&N 67.151]). The term ἡλικία (Jhlikia) is ambiguous in the same way as πῆχυς. Most scholars take the term to describe age or length of life here, although a few refer it to bodily stature (see BDAG 435-36 s.v. 1.a for discussion). Worry about length of life seems a more natural figure than worry about height. However, the point either way is clear: Worrying adds nothing to life span or height.

575 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.

576 tn Or “why are you anxious for.”

577 tn Traditionally, “lilies.” According to L&N 3.32, “Though traditionally κρίνον has been regarded as a type of lily, scholars have suggested several other possible types of flowers, including an anemone, a poppy, a gladiolus, and a rather inconspicuous type of daisy.” In view of the uncertainty, the more generic “flowers” has been used in the translation.

578 tn Traditionally, “toil.” Although it might be argued that “work hard” would be a more precise translation of κοπιάω (kopiaw) here, the line in English scans better in terms of cadence with a single syllable.

579 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.

580 tn Grk “grass in the field.”

581 tn Grk “which is in the field today.”

582 tn Grk “into the oven.” The expanded translation “into the fire to heat the oven” has been used to avoid misunderstanding; most items put into modern ovens are put there to be baked, not burned.

sn The oven was most likely a rounded clay oven used for baking bread, which was heated by burning wood and dried grass.

583 sn The phrase how much more is a typical form of rabbinic argumentation, from the lesser to the greater. If God cares for the little things, surely he will care for the more important things.

584 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate a conclusion drawn from the previous illustrations.

585 tn Grk “do not seek,” but this could be misunderstood to mean that people should make no attempt to obtain their food. The translation “do not be overly concerned” attempts to reflect the force of the original.

586 tn The words “about such things” have been supplied to qualify the meaning; the phrase relates to obtaining food and drink mentioned in the previous clause.

587 tn Grk “seek.”

588 tn Grk “seek,” but in the sense of the previous verses.

589 tc Most mss (Ì45 A D1 Q W Θ 070 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat sy) read τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou, “of God”) instead of αὐτοῦ (autou, “his”; found in א B D* L Ψ 579 892 pc co). But such a clarifying reading is suspect. αὐτοῦ is superior on both internal and external grounds. Ì75 includes neither and as such would support the translation above since the article alone can often be translated as a possessive pronoun.

590 sn His (that is, God’s) kingdom is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

591 tn Or perhaps, “your Father chooses.”

592 sn The call to sell your possessions is a call to a lack of attachment to the earth and a generosity as a result.

593 tn Grk “give alms,” but this term is not in common use today.

594 tn Grk “in the heavens.”

595 tn Or “an unfailing treasure in heaven,” or “an inexhaustible treasure in heaven.”

596 tn The term σής (shs) refers to moths in general. It is specifically the larvae of moths that destroy clothing by eating holes in it (L&N 4.49; BDAG 922 s.v.). See Jas 5:2, which mentions “moth-eaten” clothing.

597 sn Seeking heavenly treasure means serving others and honoring God by doing so; see Luke 6:35-36.

598 tn Grk “Let your loins be girded,” an idiom referring to the practice of tucking the ends of the long cloak (outer garment) into the belt to shorten it in preparation for activities like running, etc.

599 sn Keep your lamps burning means to be ready at all times.

600 tn That is, like slaves (who are mentioned later, vv. 37-38), although the term ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") is used here. Since in this context it appears generic rather than gender-specific, the translation “people” is employed.

601 sn An ancient wedding celebration could last for days (Tob 11:18).

602 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

603 tn Or “watching”; Grk “awake,” but in context this is not just being awake but alert and looking out.

604 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

605 tn See v. 35 (same verb).

606 tn Grk “have them recline at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

607 tn The participle παρελθών (parelqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

608 sn He…will come and wait on them is a reversal of expectation, but shows that what Jesus asks for he is willing to do as well; see John 13:5 and 15:18-27, although those instances merely foreshadow what is in view here.

609 sn The second or third watch of the night would be between 9 p.m. and 3 a.m. on a Roman schedule and 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. on a Jewish schedule. Luke uses the four-watch schedule of the Romans in Acts 12:4, so that is more probable here. Regardless of the precise times of the watches, however, it is clear that the late-night watches when a person is least alert are in view here.

610 tn Grk “finds (them) thus”; but this has been clarified in the translation by referring to the status (“alert”) mentioned in v. 37.

611 tn Grk “blessed are they”; the referent (the watchful slaves, v. 37) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

612 sn On Jesus pictured as a returning thief, see 1 Thess 5:2, 4; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 3:3; 16:15.

613 tc Most mss (א1 A B L Q W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat syp,h sams bo) read “he would have watched and not let” here, but this looks like an assimilation to Matt 24:43. The alliance of two important and early mss along with a few others (Ì75 א* [D] e i sys,c samss), coupled with much stronger internal evidence, suggests that the shorter reading is authentic.

614 sn Jesus made clear that his coming could not be timed, and suggested it might take some time – so long, in fact, that some would not be looking for him any longer (at an hour when you do not expect him).

615 tn Grk “And Peter.” Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the connection to the preceding statement.

616 sn Is the parable only for disciples (us) or for all humanity (everyone)? Or does Peter mean for disciples (us) or for the crowd (everyone)? The fact that unfaithful slaves are mentioned in v. 46 looks to a warning that includes a broad audience, though it is quality of service that is addressed. This means the parable focuses on those who are associated with Jesus.

617 tn Grk “And the Lord said.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

618 tn Or “administrator,” “steward” (L&N 37.39).

619 tn This term, θεραπεία (qerapeia), describes the group of servants working in a particular household (L&N 46.6).

620 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

621 tn That is, doing his job, doing what he is supposed to be doing.

622 tn Grk “Truly (ἀληθῶς, alhqw"), I say to you.”

623 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the master) has been specified in the translation for clarity. See also Luke 19:11-27.

624 tn In the Greek text this is a third class condition that for all practical purposes is a hypothetical condition (note the translation of the following verb “should say”).

625 tn The term “that” (ἐκεῖνος, ekeino") is used as a catchword to list out, in the form of a number of hypothetical circumstances, what the possible responses of “that” servant could be. He could be faithful (vv. 43-44) or totally unfaithful (vv. 45-46). He does not complete his master’s will with knowledge (v. 47) or from ignorance (v 48). These differences are indicated by the different levels of punishment in vv. 46-48.

626 tn Grk “should say in his heart.”

627 tn Or “is taking a long time.”

628 sn The slave’s action in beginning to beat the other slaves was not only a failure to carry out what was commanded but involved doing the exact reverse.

629 tn The word “other” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

630 tn Grk “the menservants and the maidservants.” The term here, used in both masculine and feminine grammatical forms, is παῖς (pais), which can refer to a slave, but also to a slave who is a personal servant, and thus regarded kindly (L&N 87.77).

631 tn The verb διχοτομέω (dicotomew) means to cut an object into two parts (L&N 19.19). This is an extremely severe punishment compared to the other two later punishments. To translate it simply as “punish” is too mild. If taken literally this servant is dismembered, although it is possible to view the stated punishment as hyperbole (L&N 38.12).

632 tn Or “unbelieving.” Here the translation employs the slightly more ambiguous “unfaithful,” which creates a link with the point of the parable – faithfulness versus unfaithfulness in servants. The example of this verse must be taken together with the examples of vv. 47-48 as part of a scale of reactions with the most disobedient response coming here. The fact that this servant is placed in a distinct group, unlike the one in vv. 47-48, also suggests ultimate exclusion. This is the hypocrite of Matt 24:51.

633 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

634 tn Grk “or do according to his will”; the referent (the master) has been specified in the translation for clarity. This example deals with the slave who knew what the command was and yet failed to complete it.

635 tn Grk “did not know”; the phrase “his master’s will” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the contemporary English reader.

636 tn Grk “blows.”

637 tn Grk “will receive few (blows).”

638 tn Grk “required from him”; but the words “from him” are redundant in English and have not been translated.

639 sn Entrusted with much. To be gifted with precious responsibility is something that requires faithfulness.

640 tn Grk “they will ask even more.”

641 sn This mission statement, “I have come to bring fire on the earth,” looks to the purging and division Jesus causes: See Luke 3:9, 17; 9:54; 17:29 for fire, 5:32; 7:34; 9:58; 12:51 for the topic of mission.

642 tn Grk “cast.” For βάλλω (ballw) in the sense of causing a state or condition, see L&N 13.14.

643 sn The figure of the baptism is variously interpreted, as some see a reference (1) to martyrdom or (2) to inundation with God’s judgment. The OT background, however, suggests the latter sense: Jesus is about to be uniquely inundated with God’s judgment as he is rejected, persecuted, and killed (Ps 18:4, 16; 42:7; 69:1-2; Isa 8:7-8; 30:27-28; Jonah 2:3-6).

644 tn Grk “to be baptized with.”

645 tn Or “hostility.” This term pictures dissension and hostility (BDAG 234 s.v. διαμερισμός).

646 sn From now on is a popular phrase in Luke: 1:48; 5:10; 22:18, 69; see Mic 7:6.

647 tn There is dispute whether this phrase belongs to the end of v. 52 or begins v. 53. Given the shift of object, a connection to v. 53 is slightly preferred.

648 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “also” and δέ (de) has not been translated.

649 sn A cloud rising in the west refers to moisture coming from the Mediterranean Sea.

650 tn The term ὄμβρος (ombro") refers to heavy rain, such as in a thunderstorm (L&N 14.12).

651 sn The south wind comes from the desert, and thus brings scorching heat.

652 sn In Luke, the term hypocrites occurs here, in 6:42, and in 13:15.

653 tc Most mss (Ì45 A W Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat) have a syntax here that reflects a slightly different rhetorical question: “but how do you not interpret the present time?” The reading behind the translation, however, has overall superior support: Ì75 א B L Θ 33 892 1241 pc.

654 tn Jesus calls for some personal reflection. However, this unit probably does connect to the previous one – thus the translation of δέ (de) here as “And” – to make a good spiritual assessment, thus calling for application to the spiritual, rather than personal, realm.

655 sn The term magistrate (ἄρχων, arcwn) refers to an official who, under the authority of the government, serves as judge in legal cases (see L&N 56.29).

656 sn The officer (πράκτωρ, praktwr) was a civil official who functioned like a bailiff and was in charge of debtor’s prison. The use of the term, however, does not automatically demand a Hellenistic setting (BDAG 859 s.v.; K. H. Rengstorf, TDNT 8:539; C. Maurer, TDNT 6:642).

657 tn Here the English word “cent” is used as opposed to the parallel in Matt 5:26 where “penny” appears, since the Greek word there is different and refers to a different but similar coin.

sn This cent was a lepton, the smallest coin available. It was copper or bronze, worth one-half of a quadrans or 1/128 of a denarius. The parallel in Matt 5:26 mentions the quadrans instead of the lepton. The illustration refers to the debt one owes God and being sure to settle with him in the right time, before it is too late. Some interpreters, however, consider it to be like Matt 5:26, which has similar imagery but a completely different context.

658 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

659 sn This is an event that otherwise is unattested, though several events similar to it are noted in Josephus (J. W. 2.9.2-4 [2.169-177]; Ant. 13.13.5 [13.372-73], 18.3.1-2 [18.55-62]; 18.4.1 [18.85-87]). It would have caused a major furor.

660 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

661 sn Jesus did not want his hearers to think that tragedy was necessarily a judgment on these people because they were worse sinners.

662 sn Jesus was stressing that all stand at risk of death, if they do not repent and receive life.

663 tn Or “you will all likewise perish,” but this could be misunderstood to mean that they would perish by the same means as the Galileans. Jesus’ point is that apart from repentance all will perish.

664 tn Grk “on whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them.” This relative clause embedded in a prepositional phrase is complex in English and has been simplified to an adjectival and a temporal clause in the translation.

665 sn Unlike the previous event, when the tower in Siloam fell on them, it was an accident of fate. It raised the question, however, “Was this a judgment?”

666 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

667 sn Jesus’ point repeats v. 3. The circumstances make no difference. All must deal with the reality of what death means.

668 tn Grk “similarly.”

669 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

670 tn Grk “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

671 sn The fig tree is a variation on the picture of a vine as representing the nation; see Isa 5:1-7.

672 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the man’s response as a result of the lack of figs in the preceding clause.

673 tn Grk “Behold, for.”

674 sn The elapsed time could be six years total since planting, since often a fig was given three years before one even started to look for fruit. The point in any case is that enough time had been given to expect fruit.

675 tn The phrase “each time I inspect it” is not in the Greek text but has been supplied to indicate the customary nature of the man’s search for fruit.

676 tc ‡ Several witnesses (Ì75 A L Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33 579 892 al lat co) have “therefore” (οὖν, oun) here. This conjunction has the effect of strengthening the logical connection with the preceding statement but also of reducing the rhetorical power and urgency of the imperative. In light of the slightly greater internal probability of adding a conjunction to an otherwise asyndetic sentence, as well as significant external support for the omission (א B D W Ë1 Ï), the shorter reading appears to be more likely as the original wording here. NA27 puts the conjunction in brackets, indicating some doubts as to its authenticity.

677 tn Grk “Why indeed.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

678 sn Such fig trees would deplete the soil, robbing it of nutrients needed by other trees and plants.

679 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the worker who tended the vineyard) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

680 tn Grk “toss manure [on it].” This is a reference to manure used as fertilizer.

681 tn This is a third class condition in the Greek text. The conjunction καί (kai, a component of κάν [kan]) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

682 tn Grk “the coming [season].”

683 tn The phrase “very well” is supplied in the translation to complete the elided idea, but its absence is telling.

684 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text, showing which of the options is assumed.

685 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

686 tn Grk “and behold, a woman.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

687 tn Grk “a woman having a spirit of weakness” (or “a spirit of infirmity”).

688 tn Grk “years, and.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

689 tn Or “and could not straighten herself up at all.” If εἰς τὸ παντελές (ei" to pantele") is understood to modify δυναμένη (dunamenh), the meaning is “she was not able at all to straighten herself up”; but the phrase may be taken with ἀνακύψαι (anakuyai) and understood to mean the same as the adverb παντελῶς (pantelws), with the meaning “she was not able to straighten herself up completely.” See BDAG 754 s.v. παντελής 1 for further discussion. The second option is preferred in the translation because of proximity: The phrase in question follows ἀνακύψαι in the Greek text.

690 tn The participle ἰδών (idwn) has been taken temporally. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

691 tn The verb προσεφώνησεν (prosefwnhsen) has been translated as “called (her) to (him),” with the direct object (“her”) and the indirect object (“him”) both understood.

692 sn Woman was a polite form of address (see BDAG 208-9 s.v. γυνή), similar to “Madam” or “Ma’am” used in English in different regions.

693 tn Or “released.”

694 tn Or “sickness.”

695 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

696 sn The healing took place immediately.

697 sn The irony is that Jesus’ “work” consisted of merely touching the woman. There is no sense of joy that eighteen years of suffering was reversed with his touch.

698 tn Grk “on which it is necessary to work.” This has been simplified in the translation.

699 tn The participle ἐρχόμενοι (ercomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

700 tn Grk “answered him and said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been shortened to “answered him.”

701 tn Grk “from the manger [feeding trough],” but by metonymy of part for whole this can be rendered “stall.”

702 sn The charge here is hypocrisy, but it is only part one of the response. Various ancient laws detail what was allowed with cattle; see Mishnah, m. Shabbat 5; CD 11:5-6.

703 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to show the connection with Jesus’ previous statement.

704 tn Grk “is it not necessary that.” Jesus argues that no other day is more appropriate to heal a descendant of Abraham than the Sabbath, the exact opposite view of the synagogue leader.

705 sn Note that this is again a battle between Satan and God; see 11:18-23.

706 tn The word “long” reflects the emphasis added in the Greek text by ἰδού (idou). See BDAG 468 s.v. 1.

707 tn Or “bondage”; Grk “bond.”

708 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

709 tn Or “were put to shame.”

710 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

711 sn Concerning all the wonderful things see Luke 7:16; 19:37.

712 tn Grk “that were being done by him.” The passive has been converted to an active construction in the translation.

713 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

714 tn Grk “said,” but what follows is a question.

715 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

716 sn What is the kingdom of God like? Unlike Mark 4 or Matt 13, where the kingdom parables tend to be all in one location in the narrative, Luke scatters his examples throughout the Gospel.

717 tn Grk “And to.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

718 sn The mustard seed was noted for its tiny size.

719 tn Grk “threw.”

720 tn Grk “garden, and it.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

721 sn Calling the mustard plant a tree is rhetorical hyperbole, since technically it is not one. This plant could be one of two types of mustard popular in Palestine and would be either 10 or 25 ft (3 or 7.5 m) tall.

722 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

723 sn The point of the parable seems to be that while the kingdom of God may appear to have insignificant and unnoticeable beginnings (i.e., in the ministry of Jesus), it will someday (i.e., at the second advent) be great and quite expansive. The kingdom, however, is not to be equated with the church, but rather the church is an expression of the kingdom. Also, there is important OT background in the image of the mustard seed that grew and became a tree: Ezek 17:22-24 pictures the reemergence of the Davidic house where people can find calm and shelter. Like the mustard seed, it would start out small but grow to significant size.

724 tn Grk “And again.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

725 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

726 tn Grk “hid in.”

727 sn This measure was a saton, the Greek name for the Hebrew term “seah.” Three of these was a very large quantity of flour, since a saton is a little over 16 lbs (7 kg) of dry measure (or 13.13 liters). So this was over 47 lbs (21 kg) of flour total, enough to feed over a hundred people.

728 tn Grk “it was all leavened.”

sn The parable of the yeast and the dough teaches that the kingdom of God will start small but eventually grow to permeate everything. Jesus’ point was not to be deceived by its seemingly small start, the same point made in the parable of the mustard seed, which preceded this one.

729 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

730 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

731 tn This is a distributive use of κατά (kata); see L&N 83:12.

732 tn Or “cities.”

733 tn Grk “making his journey toward.” This is the first of several travel notes in Luke’s Jerusalem journey section of Luke 9-19; other notes appear at 17:11; 18:31; 19:28, 41.

734 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

735 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

736 tn Grk “said to.”

737 sn The warnings earlier in Jesus’ teaching have led to the question whether only a few will be saved.

738 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ reply was triggered by the preceding question.

739 tn Or “Make every effort” (L&N 68.74; cf. NIV); “Do your best” (TEV); “Work hard” (NLT); Grk “Struggle.” The idea is to exert one’s maximum effort (cf. BDAG 17 s.v. ἀγωνίζομαι 2.b, “strain every nerve to enter”) because of the supreme importance of attaining entry into the kingdom of God.

740 tn The syntactical relationship between vv. 24-25 is disputed. The question turns on whether v. 25 is connected to v. 24 or not. A lack of a clear connective makes an independent idea more likely. However, one must then determine what the beginning of the sentence connects to. Though it makes for slightly awkward English, the translation has opted to connect it to “he will answer” so that this functions, in effect, as an apodosis. One could end the sentence after “us” and begin a new sentence with “He will answer” to make simpler sentences, although the connection between the two sentences is thereby less clear. The point of the passage, however, is clear. Once the door is shut, because one failed to come in through the narrow way, it is closed permanently. The moral: Do not be too late in deciding to respond.

741 tn Or “the master of the household.”

742 tn Or “rises,” or “stands up.”

743 tn Or “Sir.”

744 tn Grk “Open to us.”

745 tn Grk “and answering, he will say to you.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “he will answer you.”

746 sn For the imagery behind the statement “I do not know where you come from,” see Ps 138:6; Isa 63:16; Jer 1:5; Hos 5:3.

747 sn This term refers to wide streets, and thus suggests the major streets of a city.

748 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

749 tc Most mss (Ì75* A D L W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 Ï) have ἐρεῖ λέγω ὑμῖν (erei legw Jumin; “he will say, ‘I say to you’”) here, while some have only ἐρεῖ ὑμῖν (“he will say to you” in א 579 pc lat sa) or simply ἐρεῖ (“he will say” in 1195 pc). The variety of readings seems to have arisen from the somewhat unusual wording of the original, ἐρεῖ λέγων ὑμῖν (erei legwn Jumin; “he will say, saying to you” found in Ì75c B 892 pc). Given the indicative λέγω, it is difficult to explain how the other readings would have arisen. But if the participle λέγων were original, the other readings can more easily be explained as arising from it. Although the external evidence is significantly stronger in support of the indicative reading, the internal evidence is on the side of the participle.

tn Grk “he will say, saying to you.” The participle λέγων (legwn) and its indirect object ὑμῖν (Jumin) are redundant in contemporary English and have not been translated.

750 sn The issue is not familiarity (with Jesus’ teaching) or even shared activity (eating and drinking with him), but knowing Jesus. Those who do not know him, he will not know where they come from (i.e., will not acknowledge) at the judgment.

751 tn Grk “all you workers of iniquity.” The phrase resembles Ps 6:8.

752 sn Weeping and gnashing of teeth is a figure for remorse and trauma, which occurs here because of exclusion from God’s promise.

753 tn Grk “and Isaac and Jacob,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

754 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

755 tn Or “being thrown out.” The present accusative participle, ἐκβαλλομένους (ekballomenous), related to the object ὑμᾶς (Jumas), seems to suggest that these evildoers will witness their own expulsion from the kingdom.

756 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the discourse.

757 tn Grk “they”; the referent (people who will come to participate in the kingdom) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

758 tn Grk “and recline at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away. The word “banquet” has been supplied to clarify for the modern reader the festive nature of the imagery The banquet imagery is a way to describe the fellowship and celebration of accompanying those who are included as the people of God at the end.

759 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

760 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

761 tn Grk “behold.”

762 sn Some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last. Jesus’ answer is that some who are expected to be there (many from Israel) will not be there, while others not expected to be present (from other nations) will be present. The question is not, “Will the saved be few?” (see v. 23), but “Will it be you?”

763 tn Grk “At that very hour.”

764 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

765 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

766 tn Grk “Go away and leave from here,” which is redundant in English and has been shortened to “Get away from here.”

767 sn Herod refers here to Herod Antipas. See the note on Herod Antipas in 3:1.

768 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

769 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.

770 sn That fox. This is not fundamentally a figure for cleverness as in modern western culture, but could indicate (1) an insignificant person (Neh 4:3; 2 Esd 13:35 LXX); (2) a deceiver (Song Rabbah 2.15.1 on 2:15); or someone destructive, a destroyer (Ezek 13:4; Lam 5:18; 1 En. 89:10, 42-49, 55). Luke’s emphasis seems to be on destructiveness, since Herod killed John the Baptist, whom Luke calls “the greatest born of women” (Luke 7:28) and later stands opposed to Jesus (Acts 4:26-28). In addition, “a person who is designated a fox is an insignificant or base person. He lacks real power and dignity, using cunning deceit to achieve his aims” (H. W. Hoehner, Herod Antipas [SNTSMS], 347).

771 sn The third day is a figurative reference to being further on in time, not a reference to three days from now. Jesus is not even in Jerusalem yet, and the events of the last days in Jerusalem take a good week.

772 tn Or “I reach my goal.” The verb τελειόω (teleiow) is a key NT term for the completion of God’s plan: See Luke 12:50; 22:37; John 19:30; and (where it has the additional component of meaning “to perfect”) Heb 2:10; 5:8-9; 7:28.

773 tn This is the frequent expression δεῖ (dei, “it is necessary”) that notes something that is a part of God’s plan.

774 tn Or “unthinkable.” See L&N 71.4 for both possible meanings.

775 tn Or “should perish away from.”

776 sn Death in Jerusalem is another key theme in Luke’s material: 7:16, 34; 24:19; Acts 3:22-23. Notice that Jesus sees himself in the role of a prophet here. Jesus’ statement, it is impossible that a prophet should be killed outside Jerusalem, is filled with irony; Jesus, traveling about in Galilee (most likely), has nothing to fear from Herod; it is his own people living in the very center of Jewish religion and worship who present the greatest danger to his life. The underlying idea is that Jerusalem, though she stands at the very heart of the worship of God, often kills the prophets God sends to her (v. 34). In the end, Herod will be much less a threat than Jerusalem.

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

777 sn The double use of the city’s name betrays intense emotion.

778 tn Although the opening address (“Jerusalem, Jerusalem”) is direct (second person), the remainder of this sentence in the Greek text is third person (“who kills the prophets and stones those sent to her”). The following sentences then revert to second person (“your… you”), so to keep all this consistent in English, the third person pronouns in the present verse were translated as second person (“you who kill… sent to you”).

779 sn How often I have longed to gather your children. Jesus, like a lamenting prophet, speaks for God here, who longed to care tenderly for Israel and protect her.

780 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

781 tn Grk “you were not willing.”

782 sn Your house is forsaken. The language here is from Jer 12:7 and 22:5. It recalls exilic judgment.

783 sn A quotation from Ps 118:26. The judgment to come will not be lifted until the Lord returns. See Luke 19:41-44.

784 tn Grk “Now it happened that one.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

785 tn Grk “to eat bread,” an idiom for participating in a meal.

786 tn Grk “a ruler of the Pharisees.” He was probably a synagogue official.

787 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

788 sn Watching…closely is a graphic term meaning to lurk and watch; see Luke 11:53-54.

789 tn Grk “And there.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

790 tn Grk “behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). Here it has been translated as “right” in the phrase “right in front of him,” giving a similar effect of vividness in the translation.

791 sn The condition called dropsy involves swollen limbs resulting from the accumulation of fluid in the body’s tissues, especially the legs.

792 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the sequence of events (Jesus’ question was prompted by the man’s appearance).

793 tn Grk “Jesus, answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English. In addition, since the context does not describe a previous question to Jesus (although one may well be implied), the phrase has been translated here as “Jesus asked.”

794 tn That is, experts in the interpretation of the Mosaic law (traditionally, “lawyers”).

795 snIs it lawful to heal on the Sabbath or not?” Will the Pharisees and experts in religious law defend tradition and speak out against doing good on the Sabbath? Has anything at all been learned since Luke 13:10-17? Has repentance come (13:6-9)?

796 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the sequence of events (Jesus’ healing the man was in response to their refusal to answer).

797 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

798 tn Grk “taking hold [of the man].” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενος (epilabomeno") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.

799 tn Or “and let him go.”

800 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

801 tc Here “son,” found in Ì45,75 (A) B W Ï, is the preferred reading. The other reading, “donkey” (found in א K L Ψ Ë1,13 33 579 892 1241 2542 al lat bo), looks like an assimilation to Luke 13:15 and Deut 22:4; Isa 32:20, and was perhaps motivated by an attempt to soften the unusual collocation of “son” and “ox.” The Western ms D differs from all others and reads “sheep.”

802 tn καί (kai) has been translated here as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. The experts, who should be expected to know the law, are unable to respond to Jesus’ question.

803 sn They could not reply. Twice in the scene, the experts remain silent (see v. 4). That, along with the presence of power working through Jesus, serves to indicate endorsement of his work and message.

804 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

805 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

806 tn Grk “those who were invited.”

807 tn Or “the best places.” The “places of honor” at the meal would be those closest to the host.

808 tn Or “banquet.” This may not refer only to a wedding feast, because this term can have broader sense (note the usage in Esth 2:18; 9:22 LXX). However, this difference does not affect the point of the parable.

809 tn Grk “do not recline in the place of honor.” 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

810 tn Grk “by him”; the referent (the host) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

811 tn Grk “host, and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate this action is a result of the situation described in the previous verse. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

812 tn Or “then in disgrace”; Grk “with shame.” In this culture avoiding shame was important.

813 tn Grk “lowest place” (also in the repetition of the phrase in the next verse).

814 tn Grk “the one who invited you.”

815 tn Grk “Go up higher.” This means to move to a more important place.

816 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context, which involves the reversal of expected roles.

817 sn The point of the statement the one who humbles himself will be exalted is humility and the reversal imagery used to underline it is common: Luke 1:52-53; 6:21; 10:15; 18:14.

818 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

819 sn That is, the leader of the Pharisees (v. 1).

820 tn The meaning of the two terms for meals here, ἄριστον (ariston) and δεῖπνον (deipnon), essentially overlap (L&N 23.22). Translators usually try to find two terms for a meal to use as equivalents (e.g., lunch and dinner, dinner and supper, etc.). In this translation “dinner” and “banquet” have been used, since the expected presence of rich neighbors later in the verse suggests a rather more elaborate occasion than an ordinary meal.

821 tn This term, δοχή (doch), is a third term for a meal (see v. 12) that could also be translated “banquet, feast.”

822 sn Normally the term means crippled as a result of being maimed or mutilated (L&N 23.177).

823 tn Here “and” has been supplied between the last two elements in the series in keeping with English style.

824 sn This list of needy is like Luke 7:22. See Deut 14:28-29; 16:11-14; 26:11-13.

825 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate that this follows from the preceding action. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

826 sn You will be blessed. God notes and approves of such generosity.

827 sn The passive verb will be repaid looks at God’s commendation.

828 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

829 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

830 tn Grk “whoever” (the indefinite relative pronoun). This has been translated as “everyone who” to conform to contemporary English style.

831 tn Or “will dine”; Grk “eat bread.” This refers to those who enjoy the endless fellowship of God’s coming rule.

832 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

833 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

834 tn Or “dinner.”

835 sn Presumably those invited would have sent a reply with the invitation stating their desire to attend, much like a modern R.S.V.P. Then they waited for the servant to announce the beginning of the celebration (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1272).

836 tn The word “guests” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

837 tn Grk “And at.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

838 tn Or “dinner.”

839 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

840 tn Or “all unanimously” (BDAG 107 s.v. ἀπό 6). "One after another" is suggested by L&N 61.2.

841 sn To make excuses and cancel at this point was an insult in the culture of the time. Regardless of customs concerning responses to invitations, refusal at this point was rude.

842 sn I have bought a field. An examination of newly bought land was a common practice. It was this person’s priority.

843 sn The expression Please excuse me is probably a polite way of refusing, given the dynamics of the situation, although it is important to note that an initial acceptance had probably been indicated and it was now a bit late for a refusal. The semantic equivalent of the phrase may well be “please accept my apologies.”

844 tn Grk “And another.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

845 sn Five yoke of oxen. This was a wealthy man, because the normal farmer had one or two yoke of oxen.

846 tn The translation “going out” for πορεύομαι (poreuomai) is used because “going” in this context could be understood to mean “I am about to” rather than the correct nuance, “I am on my way to.”

847 tn Grk “And another.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

848 sn I just got married, and I cannot come. There is no request to be excused here; just a refusal. Why this disqualifies attendance is not clear. The OT freed a newly married man from certain responsibilities such as serving in the army (Deut 20:7; 24:5), but that would hardly apply to a banquet. The invitation is not respected in any of the three cases.

849 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the preceding responses.

850 tn Grk “being furious, said.” The participle ὀργισθείς (orgisqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

851 sn It was necessary to go out quickly because the banquet was already prepared. All the food would spoil if not eaten immediately.

852 tn Or “town.”

853 sn The poor, the crippled, the blind and the lame. Note how the list matches v. 13, illustrating that point. Note also how the party goes on; it is not postponed until a later date. Instead new guests are invited.

854 tn Grk “and the crippled.” Normally crippled as a result of being maimed or mutilated (L&N 23.177). Καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following category (Grk “and the blind and the lame”) since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

855 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the order of events within the parable.

856 sn And still there is room. This comment suggests the celebration was quite a big one, picturing the openness of God’s grace.

857 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the master’s response to the slave’s report.

858 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

859 sn Go out to the highways and country roads. This suggests the inclusion of people outside the town, even beyond the needy (poor, crippled, blind, and lame) in the town, and so is an allusion to the inclusion of the Gentiles.

860 tn The Greek word φραγμός (fragmo") refers to a fence, wall, or hedge surrounding a vineyard (BDAG 1064 s.v. 1). “Highways” and “country roads” probably refer not to separate places, but to the situation outside the town where the rural roads run right alongside the hedges or fences surrounding the fields (cf. J. A. Fitzmyer, Luke [AB], 1057).

861 tn Traditionally “force” or “compel,” but according to BDAG 60 s.v. ἀναγκάζω 2 this is a weakened nuance: “strongly urge/invite.” The meaning in this context is more like “persuade.”

862 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

863 sn So that my house will be filled. God will bless many people.

864 tn The Greek word here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which frequently stresses males or husbands (in contrast to women or wives). However, the emphasis in the present context is on identifying these individuals as the ones previously invited, examples of which were given in vv. 18-20. Cf. also BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 2.

865 sn None of those individuals who were invited. This is both the point and the warning. To be a part of the original invitation does not mean one automatically has access to blessing. One must respond when the summons comes in order to participate. The summons came in the person of Jesus and his proclamation of the kingdom. The statement here refers to the fact that many in Israel will not be blessed with participation, for they have ignored the summons when it came.

866 tn Or “dinner.”

867 sn It is important to note that the following remarks are not just to disciples, but to the large crowds who were following Jesus.

868 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

869 tn This figurative use operates on a relative scale. God is to be loved more than family or self.

870 tn Grk “his own soul,” but ψυχή (yuch) is frequently used of one’s physical life. It clearly has that meaning in this context.

871 sn It was customary practice in a Roman crucifixion for the prisoner to be made to carry his own cross. Jesus is speaking figuratively here in the context of rejection. If the priority is not one’s allegiance to Jesus, then one will not follow him in the face of possible rejection; see Luke 9:23.

872 tn Grk “and come after.” In combination with the verb ἔρχομαι (ercomai) the improper preposition ὀπίσω (opisw) means “follow.”

873 tn The participle καθίσας (kaqisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

874 tn The first illustration involves checking to see if enough funds exist to build a watchtower. Both ψηφίζω (yhfizw, “compute”) and δαπάνη (dapanh, “cost”) are economic terms.

875 tn Grk “to complete it, lest.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation and ἵνα μήποτε ({ina mhpote, “lest”) has been translated as “Otherwise.”

876 tn The participle θέντος (qentos) has been taken temporally.

877 tn The words “the tower” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

878 tn The word “it” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

879 tn Or “mock,” “ridicule.” The person who did not plan ahead becomes an object of joking and ridicule.

880 tn Grk “make fun of him, saying.”

881 sn The phrase this man is often used in Luke in a derogatory sense; see “this one” and expressions like it in Luke 5:21; 7:39; 13:32; 23:4, 14, 22, 35.

882 sn The failure to finish the building project leads to embarrassment (in a culture where avoiding public shame was extremely important). The half completed tower testified to poor preparation and planning.

883 tn The participle καθίσας (kaqisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

884 tn On the meaning of this verb see also L&N 55.3, “to meet in battle, to face in battle.”

885 tn Grk “And if not.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated; “succeed” is implied and has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

886 tn Grk “a messenger.”

887 sn This image is slightly different from the former one about the tower (vv. 28-30). The first part of the illustration (sit down first and determine) deals with preparation. The second part of the illustration (ask for terms of peace) has to do with recognizing who is stronger. This could well suggest thinking about what refusing the “stronger one” (God) might mean, and thus constitutes a warning. Achieving peace with God, the more powerful king, is the point of the illustration.

888 tn Grk “Likewise therefore every one of you who does not renounce all his own possessions cannot be my disciple.” The complex double negation is potentially confusing to the modern reader and has been simplified in the translation. See L&N 57.70.

sn The application of the saying is this: Discipleship requires that God be in first place. The reference to renunciation of all his own possessions refers to all earthly attachments that have first place.

889 tn Grk “Now salt…”; here οὖν has not been translated.

sn Salt was used as seasoning or fertilizer (BDAG 41 s.v. ἅλας a), or as a preservative. If salt ceased to be useful, it was thrown away. With this illustration Jesus warned about a disciple who ceased to follow him.

890 sn The difficulty of this saying is understanding how salt could lose its flavor since its chemical properties cannot change. It is thus often assumed that Jesus was referring to chemically impure salt, perhaps a natural salt which, when exposed to the elements, had all the genuine salt leached out, leaving only the sediment or impurities behind. Others have suggested the background of the saying is the use of salt blocks by Arab bakers to line the floor of their ovens: Under the intense heat these blocks would eventually crystallize and undergo a change in chemical composition, finally being thrown out as unserviceable. A saying in the Talmud (b. Bekhorot 8b) attributed to R. Joshua ben Chananja (ca. a.d. 90), when asked the question “When salt loses its flavor, how can it be made salty again?” is said to have replied, “By salting it with the afterbirth of a mule.” He was then asked, “Then does the mule (being sterile) bear young?” to which he replied: “Can salt lose its flavor?” The point appears to be, both are impossible. The saying, while admittedly late, suggests that culturally the loss of flavor by salt was regarded as an impossibility. Genuine salt can never lose its flavor. In this case the saying by Jesus here may be similar to Matt 19:24, where it is likewise impossible for the camel to go through the eye of a sewing needle.

891 tn Or “It is not useful” (L&N 65.32).

892 tn Grk “they throw it out.” The third person plural with unspecified subject is a circumlocution for the passive here.

893 tn The translation “had better listen!” captures the force of the third person imperative more effectively than the traditional “let him hear,” which sounds more like a permissive than an imperative to the modern English reader. This was Jesus’ common expression to listen and heed carefully (cf. Matt 11:15; 13:9, 43; Mark 4:9, 23; Luke 8:8).

894 sn See the note on tax collectors in 3:12.

895 tn Grk “were drawing near.”

896 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

897 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

898 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

899 tn Or “grumbling”; Grk “were complaining, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

900 tn Or “accepts,” “receives.” This is not the first time this issue has been raised: Luke 5:27-32; 7:37-50.

901 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ telling of the parable is in response to the complaints of the Pharisees and experts in the law.

902 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

903 sn Them means at the minimum the parable is for the leadership, but probably also for those people Jesus accepted, but the leaders regarded as outcasts.

904 tn Grk “parable, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

905 tn Grk “What man.” The Greek word ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in a somewhat generic sense.

906 sn This individual with a hundred sheep is a shepherd of modest means, as flocks often had up to two hundred head of sheep.

907 tn Or “desert,” but here such a translation might suggest neglect of the 99 sheep left behind.

908 tn Grk “go after,” but in contemporary English the idiom “to look for” is used to express this.

909 sn Until he finds it. The parable pictures God’s pursuit of the sinner. On the image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd, see John 10:1-18.

910 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

911 tn Grk “And coming into his…” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

912 sn A touch of drama may be present, as the term calls together can mean a formal celebration (1 Kgs 1:9-10).

913 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215). It occurs before “neighbors” as well (“his friends and his neighbors”) but has not been translated the second time because of English style.

914 sn There will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents. The pursuit of the sinner is a priority in spite of the presence of others who are doing well (see also Luke 5:32; 19:10). The theme of repentance, a major Lukan theme, is again emphasized.

915 tn Here δικαίοις (dikaioi") is an adjective functioning substantivally and has been translated “righteous people.”

916 tn Or “who do not need to repent”; Grk “who do not have need of repentance.”

917 sn This silver coin is a drachma, equal to a denarius, that is, a day’s pay for the average laborer.

918 tn Grk “What woman who has ten silver coins, if she loses.” The initial participle ἔχουσα (ecousa) has been translated as a finite verb parallel to ἀπολέσῃ (apolesh) in the conditional clause to improve the English style.

919 tn Grk “one coin.”

920 tn Grk “and sweep,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

921 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

922 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

923 sn Rejoice. Besides the theme of pursuing the lost, the other theme of the parable is the joy of finding them.

924 tn Grk “drachma.”

925 sn The whole of heaven is said to rejoice. Joy in the presence of God’s angels is a way of referring to God’s joy as well without having to name him explicitly. Contemporary Judaism tended to refer to God indirectly where possible out of reverence or respect for the divine name.

926 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

927 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

928 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

929 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

930 tn L&N 57.19 notes that in nonbiblical contexts in which the word οὐσία (ousia) occurs, it refers to considerable possessions or wealth, thus “estate.”

931 tn L&N 57.3, “to belong to or come to belong to, with the possible implication of by right or by inheritance.”

932 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the father’s response to the younger son’s request.

933 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

934 sn He divided his assets between them. There was advice against doing this in the OT Apocrypha (Sir 33:20). The younger son would get half of what the older son received (Deut 21:17).

935 tn Grk “And after.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

936 tn Grk “after not many days.”

937 tn Or “wasted.” This verb is graphic; it means to scatter (L&N 57.151).

938 tn Or “estate” (the same word has been translated “estate” in v. 12).

939 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the sequence of events in the parable. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style generally does not.

940 tn Grk “joined himself to” (in this case an idiom for beginning to work for someone).

941 tn Grk “and he.” Here the conjunction καί (kai) and the personal pronoun have been translated by a relative pronoun to improve the English style.

942 sn To a Jew, being sent to the field to feed pigs would be an insult, since pigs were considered unclean animals (Lev 11:7).

943 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

944 tn Or “would gladly have eaten”; Grk “was longing to be filled with.”

945 tn This term refers to the edible pods from a carob tree (BDAG 540 s.v. κεράτιον). They were bean-like in nature and were commonly used for fattening pigs, although they were also used for food by poor people (L&N 3.46).

946 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

947 tn Grk “came to himself” (an idiom).

948 tn Grk “bread,” but used figuratively for food of any kind (L&N 5.1).

949 sn In the confession “I have sinned” there is a recognition of wrong that pictures the penitent coming home and “being found.”

950 sn The phrase against heaven is a circumlocution for God.

951 tn According to BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνωπιον 4.a, “in relation to ἁμαρτάνειν ἐ. τινος sin against someone Lk 15:18, 21 (cf. Jdth 5:17; 1 Km 7:6; 20:1).”

952 tn Or “make me.” Here is a sign of total humility.

953 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the son’s decision to return home. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style generally does not.

954 tn Grk “a long way off from [home].” The word “home” is implied (L&N 85.16).

955 tn Or “felt great affection for him,” “felt great pity for him.”

sn The major figure of the parable, the forgiving father, represents God the Father and his compassionate response. God is ready with open arms to welcome the sinner who comes back to him.

956 tn Grk “he fell on his neck,” an idiom for showing special affection for someone by throwing one’s arms around them. The picture is of the father hanging on the son’s neck in welcome.

957 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the son) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

958 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

959 sn The phrase against heaven is a circumlocution for God. 1st century Judaism tended to minimize use of the divine name out of reverence.

960 sn The younger son launches into his confession just as he had planned. See vv. 18-19.

961 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

962 sn With the instructions Hurry! Bring the best robe, there is a total acceptance of the younger son back into the home.

963 tn Grk “hand”; but χείρ (ceir) can refer to either the whole hand or any relevant part of it (L&N 8.30).

964 sn The need for sandals underlines the younger son’s previous destitution, because he was barefoot.

965 tn Grk “And bring.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

966 tn Or “the prize calf” (L&N 65.8). See also L&N 44.2, “grain-fattened.” Such a calf was usually reserved for religious celebrations.

967 tn The participle φαγόντες (fagontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

968 sn This statement links the parable to the theme of 15:6, 9.

969 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the father’s remarks in the preceding verses.

970 tn Grk “And as.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

971 sn This would have been primarily instrumental music, but might include singing as well.

972 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the older son hearing the noise of the celebration in progress.

973 tn The Greek term here, παῖς (pais), describes a slave, possibly a household servant regarded with some affection (L&N 87.77).

974 tn Grk “And he said to him.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated. The rest of the phrase has been simplified to “the slave replied,” with the referent (the slave) specified in the translation for clarity.

975 tn See note on the phrase “fattened calf” in v. 23.

976 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the younger son) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

977 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the older son, v. 25) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

978 tn The aorist verb ὠργίσθη (wrgisqh) has been translated as an ingressive aorist, reflecting entry into a state or condition.

979 sn Ironically the attitude of the older son has left him outside and without joy.

980 tn Grk “but answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “but he answered.”

981 tn Or simply, “have served,” but in the emotional context of the older son’s outburst the translation given is closer to the point.

982 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to bring out the contrast indicated by the context.

983 sn You never gave me even a goat. The older son’s complaint was that the generous treatment of the younger son was not fair: “I can’t get even a little celebration with a basic food staple like a goat!”

984 sn Note the younger son is not “my brother” but this son of yours (an expression with a distinctly pejorative nuance).

985 sn This is another graphic description. The younger son’s consumption had been like a glutton. He had both figuratively and literally devoured the assets which were given to him.

986 sn The charge concerning the prostitutes is unproven, but essentially the older brother accuses the father of committing an injustice by rewarding his younger son’s unrighteous behavior.

987 sn See note on the phrase “fattened calf” in v. 23.

988 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the parable.

989 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the father) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

990 tn Or “necessary.”

991 sn By referring to him as your brother, the father reminded the older brother that the younger brother was part of the family.

992 sn The theme he was lost and is found is repeated from v. 24. The conclusion is open-ended. The reader is left to ponder with the older son (who pictures the scribes and Pharisees) what the response will be. The parable does not reveal the ultimate response of the older brother. Jesus argued that sinners should be pursued and received back warmly when they returned.

993 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

994 tn These are not formal legal charges, but reports from friends, acquaintances, etc.; Grk “A certain man was rich who had a manager, and this one was reported to him as wasting his property.”

995 sn His manager was the steward in charge of managing the house. He could have been a slave trained for the role.

996 tn Or “squandering.” This verb is graphic; it means to scatter (L&N 57.151).

997 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the reports the man received about his manager.

998 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the manager) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

999 sn Although phrased as a question, the charges were believed by the owner, as his dismissal of the manager implies.

1000 tn Or “stewardship”; the Greek word οἰκονομία (oikonomia) is cognate with the noun for the manager (οἰκονόμος, oikonomo").

1001 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the parable.

1002 tn Grk “the stewardship,” “the management.”

1003 tn Here “dig” could refer (1) to excavation (“dig ditches,” L&N 19.55) or (2) to agricultural labor (“work the soil,” L&N 43.3). In either case this was labor performed by the uneducated, so it would be an insult as a job for a manager.

1004 tn Grk “I do not have strength to dig; I am ashamed to beg.”

sn To beg would represent a real lowering of status for the manager, because many of those whom he had formerly collected debts from, he would now be forced to beg from.

1005 tn This is a dramatic use of the aorist and the verse is left unconnected to the previous verse by asyndeton, giving the impression of a sudden realization.

1006 sn Thinking ahead, the manager develops a plan to make people think kindly of him (welcome me into their homes).

1007 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the manager’s decision.

1008 tn Grk “summoning.” The participle προσκαλεσάμενος (proskalesameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

1009 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the first debtor) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1010 sn A measure (sometimes translated “bath”) was just over 8 gallons (about 30 liters). This is a large debt – about 875 gallons (3000 liters) of olive oil, worth 1000 denarii, over three year’s pay for a daily worker.

1011 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the manager) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated for stylistic reasons.

1012 sn The bill was halved (sit down quickly, and write fifty). What was the steward doing? This is debated. 1) Did he simply lower the price? 2) Did he remove interest from the debt? 3) Did he remove his own commission? It is hard to be sure. Either of the latter two options is more likely. The goal was clear: The manager would be seen in a favorable light for bringing a deflationary trend to prices.

1013 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the second debtor) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated for stylistic reasons.

1014 sn The hundred measures here was a hundreds cors. A cor was a Hebrew dry measure for grain, flour, etc., of between 10-12 bushels (about 390 liters). This was a huge amount of wheat, representing the yield of about 100 acres, a debt of between 2500-3000 denarii.

1015 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the manager) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1016 sn The percentage of reduction may not be as great because of the change in material.

1017 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1018 sn Is the manager dishonest because of what he just did? Or is it a reference to what he had done earlier, described in v. 1? This is a difficult question, but it seems unlikely that the master, having fired the man for prior dishonesty, would now commend those same actions. It would also be unusual for Jesus to make that point of the story the example. Thus it is more likely the reference to dishonesty goes back to the earliest events, while the commendation is for the cleverness of the former manager reflected in vv. 5-7.

1019 sn Where this parable ends is debated: Does it conclude with v. 7, after v. 8a, after v. 8b, or after v. 9? Verse 8a looks as if it is still part of the story, with its clear reference to the manager, while 8b looks like Jesus’ application, since its remarks are more general. So it is most likely the parable stops after v. 8a.

1020 tn Grk “sons” (an idiom).

1021 tn Grk “with their own generation.”

1022 tn Grk “sons.” Here the phrase “sons of light” is a reference to the righteous. The point is that those of the world often think ahead about consequences better than the righteous do.

1023 tn Grk “unrighteous mammon.” Mammon is the Aramaic term for wealth or possessions. The point is not that money is inherently evil, but that it is often misused so that it is a means of evil; see 1 Tim 6:6-10, 17-19. The call is to be generous and kind in its use. Zacchaeus becomes the example of this in Luke’s Gospel (19:1-10).

1024 sn The passive refers to the welcome of heaven.

1025 tn Grk “eternal tents” (as dwelling places).

1026 sn The point of the statement faithful in a very little is that character is shown in how little things are treated.

1027 tn Or “faithful.”

1028 tn Grk “the unrighteous mammon.” See the note on the phrase “worldly wealth” in v. 9.

1029 sn Entrust you with the true riches is a reference to future service for God. The idea is like 1 Cor 9:11, except there the imagery is reversed.

1030 tn Or “faithful.”

1031 tn Grk “have not been faithful with what is another’s.”

1032 tn Grk “what is your own.”

1033 sn The contrast between hate and love here is rhetorical. The point is that one will choose the favorite if a choice has to be made.

1034 tn Or “and treat [the other] with contempt.”

1035 tn Grk “God and mammon.” This is the same word (μαμωνᾶς, mamwnas; often merely transliterated as “mammon”) translated “worldly wealth” in vv. 9, 11.

sn The term money is used to translate mammon, the Aramaic term for wealth or possessions. The point is not that money is inherently evil, but that it is often misused so that it is a means of evil; see 1 Tim 6:6-10, 17-19. God must be first, not money or possessions.

1036 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

1037 tn A figurative extension of the literal meaning “to turn one’s nose up at someone”; here “ridicule, sneer at, show contempt for” (L&N 33.409).

1038 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

1039 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1040 tn Grk “before men.” The contrast is between outward appearance (“in people’s eyes”) and inward reality (“God knows your hearts”). Here the Greek term ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used twice in a generic sense, referring to both men and women, but “men” has been retained in the text to provide a strong verbal contrast with “God” in the second half of the verse.

1041 tn Or “exalted.” This refers to the pride that often comes with money and position.

1042 tn Or “is an abomination,” “is abhorrent” (L&N 25.187).

1043 tn There is no verb in the Greek text; one must be supplied. Some translations (NASB, NIV) supply “proclaimed” based on the parallelism with the proclamation of the kingdom. The transitional nature of this verse, however, seems to call for something more like “in effect” (NRSV) or, as used here, “in force.” Further, Greek generally can omit one of two kinds of verbs – either the equative verb or one that is already mentioned in the preceding context (ExSyn 39).

1044 sn John refers to John the Baptist.

1045 sn Until John; since then. This verse indicates a shift in era, from law to kingdom.

1046 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

1047 tn Many translations have “entereth violently into it” (ASV) or “is forcing his way into it” (NASB, NIV). This is not true of everyone. It is better to read the verb here as passive rather than middle, and in a softened sense of “be urged.” See Gen 33:11; Judg 13:15-16; 19:7; 2 Sam 3:25, 27 in the LXX. This fits the context well because it agrees with Jesus’ attempt to persuade his opponents to respond morally. For further discussion and details, see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1352-53.

1048 tn Or “one small part of a letter” (L&N 33.37).

1049 tn Grk “to fall”; that is, “to drop out of the text.” Jesus’ point may be that the law is going to reach its goal without fail, in that the era of the promised kingdom comes.

1050 sn The examples of marriage and divorce show that the ethical standards of the new era are still faithful to promises made in the presence of God. To contribute to the breakup of a marriage, which involved a vow before God, is to commit adultery. This works whether one gets a divorce or marries a person who is divorced, thus finalizing the breakup of the marriage. Jesus’ point concerns the need for fidelity and ethical integrity in the new era.

1051 sn Purple describes a fine, expensive dye used on luxurious clothing, and by metonymy, refers to clothing colored with that dye. It pictures someone of great wealth.

1052 tn Or “celebrated with ostentation” (L&N 88.255), that is, with showing off. Here was the original conspicuous consumer.

1053 tn The passive verb ἐβέβλητο (ebeblhto) does not indicate how Lazarus got there. Cf. BDAG 163 s.v. βάλλω 1.b, “he lay before the door”; Josephus, Ant. 9.10.2 (9.209).

1054 sn This is the one time in all the gospels that a figure in a parable is mentioned by name. It will become important later in the account.

1055 tn Or “was covered with ulcers.” The words “whose body” are implied in the context (L&N 23.180).

1056 tn Grk “to eat his fill,” but this phrase has been simplified as “to eat” for stylistic reasons.

1057 tn The term κύνες (kunes) refers to “wild” dogs (either “street” dogs or watchdogs), not house pets (L&N 4.34).

1058 sn When the dogs came and licked his sores it meant that he was unclean. See the negative image of Rev 22:15 that draws on this picture.

1059 tn Grk “Now it happened that the.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1060 tn Grk “to Abraham’s bosom.” The phrase “carried by the angels to Abraham’s bosom” describes being gathered to the fathers and is a way to refer to heaven (Gen 15:15; 47:30; Deut 31:16).

1061 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1062 sn The shorter description suggests a different fate, which is confirmed in the following verses.

1063 sn The Greek term Hades stands for the Hebrew concept of Sheol. It is what is called hell today. This is where the dead were gathered (Ps 16:10; 86:13). In the NT Hades has an additional negative force of awaiting judgment (Rev 20:13).

1064 sn Hades is a place of torment, especially as one knows that he is separated from God.

1065 tn Grk “he lifted up his eyes” (an idiom).

1066 tn Grk “in his bosom,” the same phrase used in 16:22. This idiom refers to heaven and/or participation in the eschatological banquet. An appropriate modern equivalent is “at Abraham’s side.”

1067 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous actions in the narrative.

1068 tn Grk “calling out he said”; this is redundant in contemporary English style and has been simplified to “he called out.”

1069 sn The rich man had not helped Lazarus before, when he lay outside his gate (v. 2), but he knew him well enough to know his name. This is why the use of the name Lazarus in the parable is significant. (The rich man’s name, on the other hand, is not mentioned, because it is not significant for the point of the story.)

1070 sn The dipping of the tip of his finger in water is evocative of thirst. The thirsty are in need of God’s presence (Ps 42:1-2; Isa 5:13). The imagery suggests the rich man is now separated from the presence of God.

1071 tn Or “in terrible pain” (L&N 24.92).

1072 sn Fire in this context is OT imagery; see Isa 66:24.

1073 tn The Greek term here is τέκνον (teknon), which could be understood as a term of endearment.

1074 tn Or “in terrible pain” (L&N 24.92). Here is the reversal Jesus mentioned in Luke 6:20-26.

1075 tn Grk “And in all these things.” There is no way Lazarus could carry out this request even if divine justice were not involved.

1076 sn The great chasm between heaven and hell is impassable forever. The rich man’s former status meant nothing now.

1077 tn Grk “between us and you.”

1078 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the rich man’s response to Abraham’s words.

1079 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the rich man, v. 19) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1080 tn Grk “Then I beg you, father, that you send him”; the referent (Lazarus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1081 sn To warn them. The warning would consist of a call to act differently than their dead brother had, or else meet his current terrible fate.

1082 tn Grk “lest they also come.”

1083 tn Grk “says.” This is one of the few times Luke uses the historical present.

1084 tn Or “obey”; Grk “hear.” This recalls the many OT texts calling for a righteous heart to respond to people in need (Deut 14:28-29; Isa 3:14-15; Amos 2:6-8; Mic 2:1-2; Zech 7:9-10).

1085 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1086 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the rich man, v. 19) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1087 sn If someone from the dead goes to them. The irony and joy of the story is that what is denied the rich man’s brothers, a word of warning from beyond the grave, is given to the reader of the Gospel in this exchange.

1088 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

1089 tn Or “obey”; Grk “hear.” See the note on the phrase “respond to” in v. 29.

1090 sn The concluding statement of the parable, they will not be convinced even if someone rises from the dead, provides a hint that even Jesus’ resurrection will not help some to respond. The message of God should be good enough. Scripture is the sign to be heeded.

1091 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

1092 sn See Luke 6:24-26.

1093 tn This term refers to the heavy upper stone of a grinding mill (L&N 7.70; BDAG 660 s.v. μυλικός).

sn The punishment of drowning with a heavy weight attached is extremely gruesome and reflects Jesus’ views concerning those who cause others who believe in him to sin.

1094 tn Grk “if a millstone were tied…and he were thrown.” The conditional construction in Greek has been translated by English infinitives: “to have… and be thrown.”

1095 tn Or “to stumble.” This verb, σκανδαλίσῃ (skandalish), has the same root as the noun σκάνδαλον (skandalon) in 17:1, translated “stumbling blocks”; this wordplay is difficult to reproduce in English. It is possible that the primary cause of offense here would be leading disciples (“little ones”) astray in a similar fashion.

1096 tn It is difficult to know if this looks back or forward or both. The warning suggests it looks back. For this verb, see Luke 8:18; 12:1, 15; 20:46; 21:8, 34. The present imperative reflects an ongoing spirit of watchfulness.

1097 tn Both the “if” clause in this verse and the “if” clause in v. 4 are third class conditions in Greek.

1098 tn Here the term “brother” means “fellow believer” or “fellow Christian” (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.a, contra BDAG 19 s.v. 2.c), but with a familial connotation. It refers equally to men, women, or children. However, because of the familial connotations, “brother” has been retained in the translation here in preference to the more generic “fellow believer” (“fellow Christian” would be anachronistic in this context).

1099 tn Grk “And if.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1100 sn You must forgive him. Forgiveness is to be readily given and not withheld. In a community that is to have restored relationships, grudges are not beneficial.

1101 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1102 sn The request of the apostles, “Increase our faith,” is not a request for a gift of faith, but a request to increase the depth of their faith.

1103 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

1104 tn Grk “said.”

1105 tn This is a mixed condition, with ἄν (an) in the apodosis.

1106 tn Grk “faith as,” “faith like.”

1107 sn A black mulberry tree is a deciduous fruit tree that grows about 20 ft (6 m) tall and has black juicy berries. This tree has an extensive root system, so to pull it up would be a major operation.

1108 tn The passives here (ἐκριζώθητι and φυτεύθητι, ekrizwqhti and futeuqhti) are probably a circumlocution for God performing the action (the so-called divine passive, see ExSyn 437-38). The issue is not the amount of faith (which in the example is only very tiny), but its presence, which can accomplish impossible things. To cause a tree to be uprooted and planted in the sea is impossible. The expression is a rhetorical idiom. It is like saying a camel can go through the eye of a needle (Luke 18:25).

1109 tn The verb is aorist, though it looks at a future event, another rhetorical touch to communicate certainty of the effect of faith.

1110 tn Grk “Who among you, having a slave… would say to him.”

1111 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

1112 tn Grk “and recline at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away. See BDAG 70 s.v. ἀναπίπτω 1.

1113 tn The question includes a Greek particle, οὐχί (ouci), that expects a positive reply. The slave is expected to prepare a meal before eating himself.

1114 tn Grk “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1115 tn Grk “and gird yourself” (with an apron or towel, in preparation for service).

1116 tn BDAG 423 s.v. ἕως 2.b, “to denote contemporaneousness as long as, while… w. subjunctive… Lk 17:8.”

1117 tn Grk “after these things.”

1118 tn Grk “did what was commanded.”

1119 tn The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ at the end, “will he?” Thanks are not required.

1120 tn Some translations describe the slaves as “worthless” (NRSV) or “unworthy” (NASB, NIV) but that is not Jesus’ point. These disciples have not done anything deserving special commendation or praise (L&N 33.361), but only what would normally be expected of a slave in such a situation (thus the translation “we have only done what was our duty”).

1121 tn Or “we have only done what we were supposed to do.”

1122 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1123 sn This is another travel note about Jesus going to Jerusalem in Luke 9:51-19:48, the so-called “Jerusalem journey” section of Luke’s Gospel. It is not a straight line journey, because to travel along the Galilean and Samaritan border is to go east or west, not south to Jerusalem.

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

1124 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1125 tn Or “was traveling about.”

1126 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1127 tn The participle εἰσερχομένου (eisercomenou) is taken temporally.

1128 sn The ten men with leprosy would have been unable to approach Jesus (Lev 13:45-46; Num 5:2-3). The ancient term for leprosy covered a wider array of conditions than what is called leprosy today. A leper was totally ostracized from society until he was declared cured (Lev 13:45-46).

1129 tn Grk “leprosy, who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun was replaced with a personal pronoun and a new sentence started at this point in the translation.

1130 snHave mercy on us” is a request to heal them (Luke 18:38-39; 16:24; Matt 9:27; 15:22; 17:15; 20:31-32; Mark 10:47-49).

1131 tn Καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1132 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") is a good example of an adverbial participle of attendant circumstance. As such, it picks up the force of an imperative from the verb to which it is related (ExSyn 640-45).

1133 sn These are the instructions of what to do with a healing (Lev 13:19; 14:1-11; Luke 5:14).

1134 tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1135 tn Grk “glorifying God.”

1136 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1137 tn Grk “he fell on his face” (an idiom for complete prostration).

1138 sn And thanked him. This action recognized God’s healing work through Jesus.

1139 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a parenthetical comment.

1140 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. The comment that the man was a Samaritan means that to most Jews of Jesus’ day he would have been despised as a half-breed and a heretic. The note adds a touch of irony to the account (v. 18).

1141 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1142 tn Grk “Jesus answering said”; this is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.

1143 tn The Greek construction used here (οὐχί, ouci) expects a positive reply.

1144 tn The word “other” is implied in the context.

1145 sn Jesus’ point in calling the man a foreigner is that none of the other nine, who were presumably Israelites, responded with gratitude. Only the “outsiders” were listening and responding.

1146 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1147 tn Grk “to him”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1148 tn Or “has delivered you”; Grk “has saved you.” The remark about faith suggests the benefit of trusting in Jesus’ ability to deliver. Apparently the Samaritan benefited from the healing in a way the other nine did not.

1149 tn The words “at one point” are supplied to indicate that the following incident is not necessarily in chronological sequence with the preceding event.

1150 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

1151 tn Grk “having been asked by the Pharisees.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style, and the direct object, Jesus, has been supplied from the context.

1152 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

1153 tn Or “is not coming in a way that it can be closely watched” (L&N 24.48). Although there are differing interpretations of what this means, it probably refers to the cosmic signs often associated with the kingdom’s coming in the Jewish view (1 En. 91, 93; 2 Bar. 53—74). See D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1412-14, also H. Riesenfeld, TDNT 8:150.

1154 tn This is a present tense in the Greek text. In contrast to waiting and looking for the kingdom, it is now available.

1155 tn This is a far better translation than “in you.” Jesus would never tell the hostile Pharisees that the kingdom was inside them. The reference is to Jesus present in their midst. He brings the kingdom. Another possible translation would be “in your grasp.” For further discussion and options, see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1414-19.

1156 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1157 sn This is a reference to the days of the full manifestation of Jesus’ power in a fully established kingdom. The reference to “days” instead of “day” is unusual, appearing only here and in v. 26, but it may be motivated merely by parallelism with the “days” of Noah there and the “days of Lot” in v. 28.

1158 tn Grk “And they will say.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1159 tn The words “he is” here and in the following clause are understood and have been supplied from the context.

1160 sn Do not go out or chase after them. There will be no need to search for the Son of Man at his coming, though many will falsely claim its arrival.

1161 sn The Son of Man’s coming in power will be sudden and obvious like lightning. No one will need to point it out.

1162 tc Some very important mss (Ì75 B D it sa) lack the words ἐν τῇ ἡμέρα αὐτοῦ (en th Jhmera autou, “in his day”), but the words are included in א A L W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat sy bo. On the one hand, the shorter reading is impressive because it has some of the best Alexandrian and Western witnesses in support; on the other hand, the expression ἐν τῇ ἡμέρα αὐτοῦ is unusual (found nowhere else in the NT), and may be considered the harder reading. A decision is difficult, but it is probably best to retain the words. NA27 rightly has the words in brackets, expressing doubt as to their authenticity.

1163 sn The Son of Man’s suffering and rejection by this generation is another “it is necessary” type of event in God’s plan (Luke 4:43; 24:7, 26, 44) and the fifth passion prediction in Luke’s account (9:22, 44; 12:50; 13:32-33; for the last, see 18:32-33).

1164 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1165 tn Or “as it happened.”

1166 sn Like the days of Noah, the time of the flood in Gen 6:5-8:22, the judgment will come as a surprise as people live their day to day lives.

1167 tn Grk “They.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general.

1168 tn These verbs (“eating… drinking… marrying… being given in marriage”) are all progressive imperfects, describing action in progress at that time.

1169 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1170 sn Like that flood came and destroyed them all, the coming judgment associated with the Son of Man will condemn many.

1171 tn Or “as it happened.”

1172 tn Grk “they.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general.

1173 sn And destroyed them all. The coming of the Son of Man will be like the judgment on Sodom, one of the most immoral places of the OT (Gen 19:16-17; Deut 32:32-33; Isa 1:10).

1174 sn Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.

1175 sn The swiftness and devastation of the judgment will require a swift escape. There is no time to come down from one’s roof and pick up anything from inside one’s home.

1176 sn An allusion to Gen 19:26. The warning about Lot’s wife is not to look back and long to be where one used to be. The world is being judged, and the person who delays or turns back will be destroyed.

1177 tn Or “tries to preserve”; Grk “seeks to gain.”

sn If there is no willingness to suffer the world’s rejection at this point, then one will not respond to Jesus (which is trying to keep his life) and then will be subject to this judgment (which is losing it).

1178 sn Whoever loses his life. Suffering and persecution caused by the world, even to death, cannot stop God from saving (Luke 12:4-6).

1179 sn There is debate among commentators and scholars over the phrase one will be taken and the other left about whether one is taken for judgment or for salvation. If the imagery is patterned after the rescue of Noah from the flood and Lot from Sodom, as some suggest, the ones taken are the saved (as Noah and Lot were) andthose left behind are judged. The imagery, however, is not directly tied to theidentification of the two groups. Its primary purposein context is topicture the sudden, surprisingseparation of the righteous and the judged (i.e., condemned) at the return of the Son of Man.

1180 tn Grk “at the same place.” According to L&N 46.16, this refers to a hand mill normally operated by two women.

1181 tc Several mss (D Ë13 [579] 700 al lat sy) add (with several variations among these witnesses) 17:36 “There will be two in the field; one will be taken and the other left.” It is not well enough attested to be original. Further, it is an assimilation to the parallel in Matt 24:40, which marks the addition as secondary. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

1182 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1183 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the disciples, v. 22) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1184 tn Grk “answering, they said to him.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.

1185 sn The question “Where, Lord?” means, “Where will the judgment take place?”

1186 tn Or “corpse.”

1187 tn The same Greek term can refer to “eagles” or “vultures” (L&N 4.42; BDAG 22 s.v. ἀετός), but in this context it must mean vultures, because the gruesome image is one of dead bodies being consumed by scavengers.

sn Jesus’ answer is that when the judgment comes, the scenes of death will be obvious and so will the location of the judgment.

1188 tn Grk “will be gathered.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in English.

1189 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1190 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1191 tn Or “should pray at all times” (L&N 67.88).

1192 sn This is one of the few parables that comes with an explanation at the start: …they should always pray and not lose heart. It is part of Luke’s goal in encouraging Theophilus (1:4).

1193 tn Grk “lose heart, saying.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in the Greek text, but a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronominal subject “He.”

1194 tn Or “town.”

1195 sn The judge here is apparently portrayed as a civil judge who often handled financial cases.

1196 tn Grk “man,” but the singular ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used as a generic in comparison to God.

1197 sn This widow was not necessarily old, since many people lived only into their thirties in the 1st century.

1198 tn Or “town.”

1199 tn This is an iterative imperfect; the widow did this on numerous occasions.

1200 tn Grk “And for.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1201 tn Grk “after these things.”

1202 tn Grk “man,” but the singular ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used as a generic in comparison to God.

1203 tn The term ὑπωπιάζω (Jupwpiazw) in this context means “to wear someone out by continual annoying” (L&N 25.245).

1204 tn Grk “by her continual coming,” but the point of annoyance to the judge is her constant pleas for justice (v. 3).

1205 sn Listen to what the unrighteous judge says! The point of the parable is that the judge’s lack of compassion was overcome by the widow’s persistence.

1206 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

1207 sn The prayers have to do with the righteous who cry out to him to receive justice. The context assumes the righteous are persecuted.

1208 tn The emphatic particles in this sentence indicate that God will indeed give justice to the righteous.

1209 sn The issue of delay has produced a whole host of views for this verse. (1) Does this assume provision to endure in the meantime? Or (2) does it mean God restricts the level of persecution until he comes? Either view is possible.

1210 tn Some argue this should be translated “suddenly.” When vindication comes it will be quick. But the more natural meaning is “soon.” God will not forget his elect and will respond to them. It may be that this verse has a prophetic perspective. In light of the eternity that comes, vindication is soon.

1211 sn Will he find faith on earth? The Son of Man is looking for those who continue to believe in him, despite the wait.

1212 tn Grk “He”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1213 tn Grk “and despised.” This is a second parable with an explanatory introduction.

1214 sn The temple is on a hill in Jerusalem, so one would go up to enter its precincts.

1215 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

1216 sn See the note on tax collectors in 3:12.

1217 tn Or “stood by himself and prayed like this.” The prepositional phrase πρὸς ἑαυτόν (pros eauton, “to/about himself”) could go with either the aorist participle σταθείς (staqeis, “stood”) or with the imperfect verb προσηύχετο (proshuceto, “he prayed”). If taken with the participle, then the meaning would seem at first glance to be: “stood ‘by himself’,” or “stood ‘alone’.” Now it is true that πρός can mean “by” or “with” when used with intransitive verbs such as ἵστημι ({isthmi, “I stand”; cf. BDAG 874 s.v. πρός 2.a), but πρὸς ἑαυτόν together never means “by himself” or “alone” in biblical Greek. On the other hand, if πρὸς ἑαυτόν is taken with the verb, then two different nuances emerge, both of which highlight in different ways the principal point Jesus seems to be making about the arrogance of this religious leader: (1) “prayed to himself,” but not necessarily silently, or (2) “prayed about himself,” with the connotation that he prayed out loud, for all to hear. Since his prayer is really a review of his moral résumé, directed both at advertising his own righteousness and exposing the perversion of the tax collector, whom he actually mentions in his prayer, the latter option seems preferable. If this is the case, then the Pharisee’s mention of God is really nothing more than a formality.

1218 sn The Pharisee’s prayer started out as a thanksgiving psalm to God, but the praise ended up not being about God.

1219 tn Here the plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrwpwn) is used as a generic and can refer to both men and women (NASB, NRSV, “people”; NLT, “everyone else”; NAB, “the rest of humanity”).

1220 tn Or “swindlers” (BDAG 134 s.v. ἅρπαξ 2); see also Isa 10:2; Josephus, J. W. 6.3.4 [6.203].

1221 sn A general category for “sinners” (1 Cor 6:9; Lev 19:3).

1222 sn Note what the Pharisee assumes about the righteousness of this tax collector by grouping him with extortionists, unrighteous people, and adulterers.

1223 sn The law only required fasting on the Day of Atonement. Such voluntary fasting as this practiced twice a week by the Pharisee normally took place on Monday and Thursday.

1224 tn Or “I tithe.”

1225 tn Grk “standing”; the Greek participle has been translated as a finite verb.

1226 tn Grk “even lift up his eyes” (an idiom).

1227 tn The prayer is a humble call for forgiveness. The term for mercy (ἱλάσκομαι, Jilaskomai) is associated with the concept of a request for atonement (BDAG 473-74 s.v. 1; Ps 51:1, 3; 25:11; 34:6, 18).

1228 tn Grk “the sinner.” The tax collector views himself not just as any sinner but as the worst of all sinners. See ExSyn 222-23.

1229 sn The prayer that was heard and honored was the one given with humility; in a surprising reversal it was the tax collector who went down to his home justified.

1230 tn Grk “the other”; the referent (the Pharisee, v. 10) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1231 sn Everyone who exalts himself. See Luke 14:11. Jesus often called for humility and condemned those who sought honor.

1232 tn Grk “they.”

1233 tn The term βρέφος (brefos) here can refer to babies or to toddlers (2:12, 16; Acts 7:19; 2 Tim 3:15; 1 Pet 2:2).

1234 tn Grk “so that he would touch them.” Here the touch is connected with (or conveys) a blessing (cf. Mark 10:16; also BDAG 126 s.v. ἅπτω 2.c).

1235 tn Grk “the disciples began to scold them.” In the translation the referent has been specified as “those who brought them,” since otherwise the statement could be understood to mean that the disciples began scolding the children rather than their parents who brought them.

1236 tn Grk “summoned them”; the referent (the children) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1237 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

1238 sn The kingdom of God belongs to such as these. Children are a picture of those whose simple trust illustrates what faith is all about. The remark illustrates how everyone is important to God, even those whom others regard as insignificant.

1239 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

1240 sn On receive see John 1:12.

1241 sn The point of the comparison receive the kingdom of God like a child has more to do with a child’s trusting spirit and willingness to be dependent and receive from others than any inherent humility the child might possess.

1242 tn The negation in Greek used here (οὐ μή, ou mh) is very strong.

1243 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

1244 sn Only Luke states this man is a ruler (cf. the parallels in Matt 19:16-22 and Mark 10:17-22, where the questioner is described only as “someone”). He is probably a civic leader of some kind, a leader in the society.

1245 sn The rich man wanted to know what he must do to inherit eternal life, but Jesus had just finished teaching that eternal life was not earned but simply received (18:17). See the similar question about inheriting eternal life in Luke 10:25.

1246 tn Grk “And Jesus.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1247 sn Jesus’ response, Why do you call me good?, was designed to cause the ruler to stop and think for a moment about who Jesus really was. The following statement No one is good except God alone seems to point the man in the direction of Jesus’ essential nature and the demands which logically follow on the man for having said it.

1248 sn A quotation from Exod 20:12-16 and Deut 5:16-20. Jesus cited the parts of the ten commandments that relate to how others should be treated.

1249 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the ruler mentioned in v. 18) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1250 tn Grk “kept.” The implication of this verb is that the man has obeyed the commandments without fail throughout his life, so the adverb “wholeheartedly” has been added to the translation to bring out this nuance.

1251 tn Grk “these things.” The referent of the pronoun (the laws mentioned by Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn While the rich man was probably being sincere when he insisted I have wholeheartedly obeyed all these laws, he had confined his righteousness to external obedience. The rich man’s response to Jesus’ command to give away all he had revealed that internally he loved money more than God.

1252 sn Since my youth. Judaism regarded the age of thirteen as the age when a man would have become responsible to live by God’s commands.

1253 sn See Luke 14:33.

1254 tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

1255 sn See Luke 1:50-53; 6:20-23; 14:12-14.

1256 sn The call for sacrifice comes with a promise of eternal reward: …you will have treasure in heaven. Jesus’ call is a test to see how responsive the man is to God’s direction through him. Will he walk the path God’s agent calls him to walk? For a rich person who got it right, see Zacchaeus in Luke 19:1-10.

1257 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the conversation.

1258 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1259 tn Or “very distressed” (L&N 25.277).

1260 tc ‡ The phrase περίλυπον γενόμενον (perilupon genomenon, “[When Jesus saw him] becoming sad”) is found in the majority of mss (A [D] W Θ Ψ 078 Ë13 33vid Ï latt sy), and it is not unknown in Lukan style to repeat a word or phrase in adjacent passages (TCGNT 143). However, the phrase is lacking in some significant mss (א B L Ë1 579 1241 2542 co). The shorter reading is nevertheless difficult to explain if it is not original: It is possible that these witnesses omitted this phrase out of perceived redundancy from the preceding verse, although intentional omissions, especially by several and varied witnesses, are generally unlikely. NA27 places the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.

tn Grk “him.”

1261 sn For the rich it is hard for wealth not to be the point of focus, as the contrast in vv. 28-30 will show, and for rich people to trust God. Wealth was not an automatic sign of blessing as far as Jesus was concerned.

1262 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

1263 sn The eye of a needle refers to a sewing needle, one of the smallest items one might deal with on a regular basis, in contrast to the biggest animal of the region. (The gate in Jerusalem known as “The Needle’s Eye” was built during the middle ages and was not in existence in Jesus’ day.) Jesus is saying rhetorically that this is impossible, unless God (v. 27) intervenes.

1264 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of thought.

1265 sn The assumption is that the rich are blessed, so if they risk exclusion, who is left to be saved?

1266 sn The term impossible is in the emphatic position in the Greek text. God makes the impossible possible.

1267 tn The plural Greek term ἄνθρωποις (anqrwpois) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NASB 1995 update, “people”). Because of the contrast here between mere mortals and God (“impossible for men…possible for God”) the phrase “mere humans” has been used in the translation.

1268 tn Or “left our homes,” “left our possessions”; Grk “left our own things.” The word ἴδιος (idios) can refer to one’s home (including the people and possessions in it) or to one’s property or possessions. Both options are mentioned in BDAG 467 s.v. 4.b. See also I. H. Marshall, Luke (NIGTC), 688; D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1488.

1269 tn Grk “We have left everything we own and followed you.” Koine Greek often used paratactic structure when hypotactic was implied.

1270 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1271 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1272 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

1273 tn The term “brothers” could be understood as generic here, referring to either male or female siblings. However, it is noteworthy that in the parallel passages in both Matt 19:29 and Mark 10:29, “sisters” are explicitly mentioned in the Greek text.

1274 sn Jesus reassures his disciples with a promise that (1) much benefit in this life (many times more) and (2) eternal life in the age to come will be given.

1275 tn Grk “this time” (καιρός, kairos), but for stylistic reasons this has been translated “this age” here.

1276 sn Note that Luke (see also Matt 19:29; Mark 10:30; Luke 10:25) portrays eternal life as something one receives in the age to come, unlike John, who emphasizes the possibility of receiving eternal life in the present (John 5:24).

1277 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1278 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1279 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

1280 tn Or “fulfilled.” Jesus goes to Jerusalem by divine plan as the scripture records (Luke 2:39; 12:50; 22:37; Acts 13:29). See Luke 9:22, 44.

1281 sn The passive voice verb be handed over does not indicate by whom, but other passages note the Jewish leadership and betrayal (9:22, 44).

1282 sn See Luke 22:63; 23:11, 36.

1283 tn Or “and insulted.” L&N 33.390 and 88.130 note ὑβρίζω (Jubrizw) can mean either “insult” or “mistreat with insolence.”

1284 sn And spat on. Later Luke does not note this detail in the passion narrative in chaps. 22-23, but see Mark 14:65; 15:19; Matt 26:67; 27:30 where Jesus’ prediction is fulfilled.

1285 tn Traditionally, “scourge” (the term means to beat severely with a whip, L&N 19.9). BDAG 620 s.v. μαστιγόω 1. states, “Of the beating (Lat. verberatio) given those condemned to death…J 19:1; cf. Mt 20:19; Mk 10:34; Lk 18:33.” Here the term has been translated “flog…severely” to distinguish it from the term φραγελλόω (fragellow) used in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15.

1286 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

1287 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast.

1288 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the twelve, v. 31) has been specified in the context for clarity.

1289 tn Grk “And this.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

1290 sn This failure of the Twelve to grasp what Jesus meant probably does not mean that they did not understand linguistically what Jesus said, but that they could not comprehend how this could happen to him, if he was really God’s agent. The saying being hidden probably refers to God’s sovereign timing.

1291 tn Grk “the things having been said.” The active agent, Jesus, has been specified for clarity, and “said” has been translated as “meant” to indicate that comprehension of the significance is really in view here.

1292 tn Grk “Now it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1293 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

1294 tn The phrase is “he drew near to” (19:29; 24:28). It is also possible the term merely means “is in the vicinity of.” Also possible is a reversal in the timing of the healing and Zacchaeus events for literary reasons as the blind man “sees” where the rich man with everything did not.

1295 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

1296 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. “They” could refer to bystanders or people in the crowd.

1297 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the blind man learning that Jesus was nearby.

1298 tn Grk “called out, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1299 sn Jesus was more than a Nazarene to this blind person, who saw quite well that Jesus was Son of David. He understood what Luke 7:22-23 affirms. There was a tradition in Judaism that the Son of David (Solomon) had great powers of healing (Josephus, Ant. 8.2.5 [8.42-49]).

1300 sn Have mercy on me is a request for healing (cf. 17:13). It is not owed the man. He simply asks for God’s kind grace.

1301 sn That is, those who were at the front of the procession.

1302 tn Or “rebuked.” The crowd’s view was that surely Jesus would not be bothered with someone as unimportant as a blind beggar.

1303 sn Public opinion would not sway the blind man from getting Jesus’ attention. The term shouted is strong as it can be used of animal cries.

1304 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the beggar’s cries.

1305 tn Grk “ordered him”; the referent (the blind beggar, v. 35) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1306 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the beggar) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1307 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1308 tn Grk “said.”

1309 tn Grk “Lord, that I may see [again].” The phrase can be rendered as an imperative of request, “Please, give me sight.” Since the man is not noted as having been blind from birth (as the man in John 9 was) it is likely the request is to receive back the sight he once had.

1310 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1311 tn Or “Regain” (see the note on the phrase “let me see again” in the previous verse).

1312 tn Grk “has saved you,” but in a nonsoteriological sense; the man has been delivered from his disability.

1313 tn Or “received” (see the note on the phrase “let me see again” in v. 41).

1314 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1315 sn The presence of God’s work leads again to joy, with both the beggar and the people praising God (1:64; 2:20; 5:25-26; 7:16; 13:13; 17:15; 19:37).

1316 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1317 tn The word “too” has been supplied for stylistic reasons.

1318 tn Grk “And entering, he passed through”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1319 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

1320 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new character. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

1321 sn This is the one place in the NT the office of chief tax collector is noted. He would organize the other tax collectors and collect healthy commissions (see also the note on the word tax collector in 3:12).

1322 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1323 tn Grk “He was trying to see who Jesus was.”

1324 tn Grk “and he was not able to because of the crowd, for he was short in stature.”

1325 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Zacchaeus not being able to see over the crowd.

1326 sn A sycamore tree would have large branches near the ground like an oak tree and would be fairly easy to climb. These trees reach a height of some 50 ft (about 15 m).

1327 tn Grk “that one”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1328 tc Most mss (A [D] W [Ψ] Ë13 33vid Ï latt) read “Jesus looking up, saw him and said.” The words “saw him and” are not in א B L T Θ Ë1 579 1241 2542 pc co. Both the testimony for the omission and the natural tendency toward scribal expansion argue for the shorter reading here.

1329 tn Grk “hastening, come down.” σπεύσας (speusa") has been translated as a participle of manner.

1330 sn I must stay. Jesus revealed the necessity of his associating with people like Zacchaeus (5:31-32). This act of fellowship indicated acceptance.

1331 sn On today here and in v. 9, see the note on today in 2:11.

1332 tn Grk “hastening, he came down.” σπεύσας (speusas) has been translated as a participle of manner.

1333 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1334 tn The participle χαίρων (cairwn) has been taken as indicating manner.

sn Zacchaeus responded joyfully. Luke likes to mention joy as a response to what God was doing (1:14; 2:10; 10:20; 13:17; 15:5, 32; 19:37; 24:41, 52).

1335 tn Grk “they”; the referent is unspecified but is probably the crowd in general, who would have no great love for a man like Zacchaeus who had enriched himself many times over at their expense.

1336 tn This term is used only twice in the NT, both times in Luke (here and 15:2) and has negative connotations both times (BDAG 227 s.v. διαγογγύζω). The participle λέγοντες (legonte") is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1337 sn Being the guest of a man who is a sinner was a common complaint about Jesus: Luke 5:31-32; 7:37-50; 15:1-2.

1338 sn Zacchaeus was a penitent man who resolved on the spot to act differently in the face of Jesus’ acceptance of him. In resolving to give half his possessions to the poor, Zacchaeus was not defending himself against the crowd’s charges and claiming to be righteous. Rather as a result of this meeting with Jesus, he was a changed individual. So Jesus could speak of salvation coming that day (v. 9) and of the lost being saved (v. 10).

1339 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text. It virtually confesses fraud.

1340 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative

1341 sn This is one of the few uses of the specific term salvation in Luke (1:69, 71, 77), though the concept runs throughout the Gospel.

1342 sn The household is not a reference to the building, but to the people who lived within it (L&N 10.8).

1343 sn Zacchaeus was personally affirmed by Jesus as a descendant (son) of Abraham and a member of God’s family.

1344 sn The Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost is Jesus’ mission succinctly defined. See Luke 15:1-32.

1345 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1346 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

1347 tn The present active infinitive δοκεῖν (dokein) has been translated as causal.

1348 sn Luke means here the appearance of the full kingdom of God in power with the Son of Man as judge as Luke 17:22-37 describes.

1349 tn Or perhaps, “the kingdom of God must appear immediately (see L&N 71.36).

1350 tn Grk “a man of noble birth” or “a man of noble status” (L&N 87.27).

1351 sn Note that the receiving of the kingdom takes place in the far country. This suggests that those in the far country recognize and acknowledge the king when his own citizens did not want him as king (v. 14; cf. John 1:11-12).

1352 sn The background to this story about the nobleman who wentto receive for himself a kingdom had some parallels in the area’s recent history: Archelaus was appointed ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea in 4 b.c., but the people did not like him. Herod the Great also made a similar journey to Rome where he was crowned King of Judea in 40 b.c., although he was not able to claim his kingdom until 37 b.c.

1353 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

1354 sn That is, one for each. A mina was a Greek monetary unit worth one hundred denarii or about four months’ wages for an average worker based on a six-day work week.

1355 tn Or “subjects.” Technically these people were not his subjects yet, but would be upon his return. They were citizens of his country who opposed his appointment as their king; later the newly-appointed king will refer to them as his “enemies” (v. 27).

1356 tn The imperfect is intense in this context, suggesting an ongoing attitude.

1357 tn Grk “this one” (somewhat derogatory in this context).

1358 tn Or “to rule.”

1359 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1360 tn Grk “he said for these slaves to be called to him.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one and simplified to “he summoned.”

1361 tn Grk “in order that he might know” (a continuation of the preceding sentence). Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he” as subject and the verb “wanted” to convey the idea of purpose.

1362 sn The Greek verb earned refers to profit from engaging in commerce and trade (L&N 57.195). This is an examination of stewardship.

1363 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the royal summons.

1364 tn Or “Lord”; or “Master.” (and so throughout this paragraph).

1365 tn See the note on the word “minas” in v. 13.

1366 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1367 tn See Luke 16:10.

1368 sn The faithful slave received expanded responsibility (authority over ten cities) as a result of his faithfulness; this in turn is an exhortation to faithfulness for the reader.

1369 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1370 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the second slave’s report.

1371 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1372 sn Though ten were given minas, the story stops to focus on the one who did nothing with the opportunity given to him. Here is the parable’s warning about the one who does not trust the master. This figure is called “another,” marking him out as different than the first two.

1373 tn The word “slave” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for stylistic reasons.

1374 tn Grk “behold.”

1375 tn Or “that I stored away.” L&N 85.53 defines ἀπόκειμαι (apokeimai) here as “to put something away for safekeeping – ‘to store, to put away in a safe place.’”

1376 tn The piece of cloth, called a σουδάριον (soudarion), could have been a towel, napkin, handkerchief, or face cloth (L&N 6.159).

1377 tn Or “exacting,” “harsh,” “hard.”

1378 tn Grk “man, taking out.” The Greek word can refer to withdrawing money from a bank (L&N 57.218), and in this context of financial accountability that is the most probable meaning. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “you” as subject and translating the participle αἴρεις (airei") as a finite verb.

1379 tn The Greek verb τίθημι (tiqhmi) can be used of depositing money with a banker to earn interest (L&N 57.217). In effect the slave charges that the master takes what he has not earned.

1380 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1381 tn Grk “out of your own mouth” (an idiom).

1382 tn Note the contrast between this slave, described as “wicked,” and the slave in v. 17, described as “good.”

1383 tn Or “exacting,” “harsh,” “hard.”

1384 tn That is, “If you really feared me why did you not do a minimum to get what I asked for?”

1385 tn Grk “on the table”; the idiom refers to a place where money is kept or managed, or credit is established, thus “bank” (L&N 57.215).

1386 tn Grk “to those standing by,” but in this context involving an audience before the king to give an accounting, these would not be casual bystanders but courtiers or attendants.

1387 tn Grk “the ten minas.”

1388 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Those watching the evaluation are shocked, as the one with the most gets even more. The word “already” is supplied at the end of the statement to indicate this surprise and shock.

1389 tc A few mss (D W 69 pc and a few versional witnesses) omit this verse either to harmonize it with Matt 25:28-29 or to keep the king’s speech seamless.

1390 tn Grk “to everyone who has, he will be given more.”

sn Everyone who has will be given more. Again, faithfulness yields great reward (see Luke 8:18; also Matt 13:12; Mark 4:25).

1391 sn The one who has nothing has even what he seems to have taken away from him, ending up with no reward at all (see also Luke 8:18). The exact force of this is left ambiguous, but there is no comfort here for those who are pictured by the third slave as being totally unmoved by the master. Though not an outright enemy, there is no relationship to the master either. Three groups are represented in the parable: the faithful of various sorts (vv. 16, 18); the unfaithful who associate with Jesus but do not trust him (v. 21); and the enemies (v. 27).

1392 tn Grk “to rule over them.”

1393 tn This term, when used of people rather than animals, has some connotations of violence and mercilessness (L&N 20.72).

1394 sn Slaughter them. To reject the king is to face certain judgment from him.

1395 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

1396 tn This could mean “before [his disciples],” but that is slightly more awkward, requiring an elided element (the disciples) to be supplied.

1397 sn This is yet another travel note on the journey to Jerusalem. See also Luke 18:31; 19:11. Jesus does not actually enter Jerusalem until 19:45.

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

1398 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

1399 sn The exact location of the village of Bethphage is not known. Most locate it on the southeast side of the Mount of Olives and northwest of Bethany, about 1.5 miles (3 km) east of Jerusalem.

1400 tn Grk “at the mountain called ‘of Olives.’” This form of reference is awkward in contemporary English, so the more familiar “Mount of Olives” has been used in the translation.

sn “Mountain” in English generally denotes a higher elevation than it often does in reference to places in Palestine. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 1.8 mi (3 km) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.

1401 tn Grk “saying.”

1402 tn Grk “the village lying before [you]” (BDAG 530 s.v. κατέναντι 2.a).

1403 tn Grk “in which entering.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek, but because of the length and complexity of the construction a new sentence was started here in the translation.

1404 tn Grk “a colt tied there on which no one of men has ever sat.”

1405 sn The custom called angaria allowed the impressment of animals for service to a significant figure.

1406 tn Grk “sent ahead and went and found.”

1407 sn Exactly as he had told them. Nothing in Luke 19-23 catches Jesus by surprise. Often he directs the action.

1408 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1409 tn Grk “said to them.”

1410 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1411 tn Grk “garments”; but this refers in context to their outer cloaks. The action is like 2 Kgs 9:13.

1412 sn See Zech 9:9.

1413 tn Although ἐπεβίβασαν (epebibasan) is frequently translated “set [Jesus] on it” or “put [Jesus] on it,” when used of a riding animal the verb can mean “to cause to mount” (L&N 15.98); thus here “had Jesus get on it.” The degree of assistance is not specified.

1414 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1415 tn The disciples initiated this action (since in 19:35 and 37 they are the subject) but the other gospels indicate the crowds also became involved. Thus it is difficult to specify the referent here as “the disciples” or “people.”

1416 tn Grk “the descent of”; this could refer to either the slope of the hillside itself or the path leading down from it (the second option has been adopted for the translation, see L&N 15.109).

1417 sn See the note on the name Mount of Olives in v. 29.

1418 tn Grk “the”; the Greek article has been translated here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

1419 tn Here the participle χαίροντες (caironte") has been translated as a finite verb in English; it could also be translated adverbially as a participle of manner: “began to praise God joyfully.”

1420 sn See 2:13, 20; Acts 2:47; 3:8-9.

1421 tn Or “works of power,” “miracles.” Jesus’ ministry of miracles is what has drawn attention. See Luke 7:22.

1422 tn Grk “they had seen, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

1423 sn Luke adds the title king to the citation from Ps 118:26 to make clear who was meant (see Luke 18:38). The psalm was used in looking for the deliverance of the end, thus leading to the Pharisees’ reaction.

1424 sn A quotation from Ps 118:26.

1425 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Not all present are willing to join in the acclamation.

1426 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

1427 sn Teacher, rebuke your disciples. The Pharisees were complaining that the claims were too great.

1428 tn Grk “and answering, he said.” This has been simplified in the translation to “He answered.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1429 tn Grk “these.”

1430 sn This statement amounts to a rebuke. The idiom of creation speaking means that even creation knows what is taking place, yet the Pharisees miss it. On this idiom, see Gen 4:10 and Hab 2:11.

1431 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

1432 tn Grk “he.”

1433 sn When Jesus approached and saw the city. This is the last travel note in Luke’s account (the so-called Jerusalem journey), as Jesus approached and saw the city before entering it.

1434 sn On this day. They had missed the time of Messiah’s coming; see v. 44.

1435 tn Grk “the things toward peace.” This expression seems to mean “the things that would ‘lead to,’ ‘bring about,’ or ‘make for’ peace.”

1436 sn But now they are hidden from your eyes. This becomes an oracle of doom in the classic OT sense; see Luke 13:31-35; 11:49-51; Jer 9:2; 13:7; 14:7. They are now blind and under judgment (Jer 15:5; Ps 122:6).

1437 sn Jesus now predicted the events that would be fulfilled in the fall of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. The details of the siege have led some to see Luke writing this after Jerusalem’s fall, but the language of the verse is like God’s exilic judgment for covenant unfaithfulness (Hab 2:8; Jer 6:6, 14; 8:13-22; 9:1; Ezek 4:2; 26:8; Isa 29:1-4). Specific details are lacking and the procedures described (build an embankment against you) were standard Roman military tactics.

1438 sn An embankment refers to either wooden barricades or earthworks, or a combination of the two.

1439 tn Grk “They will raze you to the ground.”

sn The singular pronoun you refers to the city of Jerusalem personified.

1440 tn Grk “your children within you.” The phrase “[your] walls” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the city of Jerusalem, metaphorically pictured as an individual, is spoken of here.

1441 sn (Not) one stone on top of another is an idiom for total destruction.

1442 tn Grk “leave stone on stone.”

1443 tn Grk “the time of your visitation.” To clarify what this refers to, the words “from God” are supplied at the end of the verse, although they do not occur in the Greek text.

sn You did not recognize the time of your visitation refers to the time God came to visit them. They had missed the Messiah; see Luke 1:68-79.

1444 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

1445 tn Grk “he.”

1446 tn Grk “the temple” (also in v. 47).

sn The merchants (those who were selling things there) would have been located in the Court of the Gentiles.

1447 sn Matthew (21:12-27), Mark (11:15-19) and Luke (here, 19:45-46) record this incident of the temple cleansing at the end of Jesus’ ministry. John (2:13-16) records a cleansing of the temple at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry. See the note on the word temple courts in John 2:14 for a discussion of the relationship of these accounts to one another.

1448 sn A quotation from Isa 56:7.

1449 tn Or “a hideout” (see L&N 1.57).

1450 sn A quotation from Jer 7:11. The meaning of Jesus’ statement about making the temple courts a den of robbers probably operates here at two levels. Not only were the religious leaders robbing the people financially, but because of this they had also robbed them spiritually by stealing from them the opportunity to come to know God genuinely. It is possible that these merchants had recently been moved to this location for convenience.

1451 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

1452 tn Grk “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

1453 tn Grk “to destroy.”

sn The action at the temple was the last straw. In their view, if Jesus could cause trouble in the holy place, then he must be stopped, so the leaders were seeking to assassinate him.

1454 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

1455 tn Grk “they did not find the thing that they might do.”

1456 sn All the people hung on his words is an idiom for intent, eager listening. Jesus’ popularity and support made it unwise for the leadership to seize him.



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