8:10 He 1 said, “You have been given 2 the opportunity to know 3 the secrets 4 of the kingdom of God, 5 but for others they are in parables, so that although they see they may not see, and although they hear they may not understand. 6
8:19 Now Jesus’ 7 mother and his brothers 8 came to him, but 9 they could not get near him because of the crowd. 8:20 So 10 he was told, “Your mother and your brothers are standing outside, wanting to see you.” 8:21 But he replied 11 to them, “My mother and my brothers are those 12 who hear the word of God and do it.” 13
1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
2 tn This is an example of a so-called “divine passive,” with God understood to be the source of the revelation (see ExSyn 437-38).
3 tn Grk “it has been given to you to know.” The dative pronoun occurs first, in emphatic position in the Greek text, although this position is awkward in contemporary English.
4 tn Grk “the mysteries.”
sn The key term secrets (μυστήριον, musthrion) can mean either (1) a new revelation or (2) a revealing interpretation of existing revelation as in Dan 2:17-23, 27-30. Jesus seems to be explaining how current events develop old promises, since the NT consistently links the events of Jesus’ ministry and message with old promises (Rom 1:1-4; Heb 1:1-2). The traditional translation of this word, “mystery,” is misleading to the modern English reader because this English word suggests a secret which people have tried to uncover but which they have failed to understand (L&N 28.77).
7 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
8 sn The issue of whether Jesus had brothers (siblings) has had a long history in the church. Epiphanius, in the 4th century, argued that Mary was a perpetual virgin and had no offspring other than Jesus. Others argued that these brothers were really cousins. Nothing in the text suggests any of this. See also John 7:3.
9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
10 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the sequence of events.
11 tn Grk “answering, he said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “he replied.”
12 tn There is some discussion about the grammar of this verse in Greek. If “these” is the subject, then it reads, “These are my mother and brothers, those who.” If “these” is a nominative absolute, which is slightly more likely, then the verse more literally reads, “So my mother and brothers, they are those who.” The sense in either case is the same.