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Luke 7:36-50

Context
Jesus’ Anointing

7:36 Now one of the Pharisees 1  asked Jesus 2  to have dinner with him, so 3  he went into the Pharisee’s house and took his place at the table. 4  7:37 Then 5  when a woman of that town, who was a sinner, learned that Jesus 6  was dining 7  at the Pharisee’s house, she brought an alabaster jar 8  of perfumed oil. 9  7:38 As 10  she stood 11  behind him at his feet, weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears. She 12  wiped them with her hair, 13  kissed 14  them, 15  and anointed 16  them with the perfumed oil. 7:39 Now when the Pharisee who had invited him saw this, 17  he said to himself, “If this man were a prophet, 18  he would know who and what kind of woman 19  this is who is touching him, that she is a sinner.” 7:40 So 20  Jesus answered him, 21  “Simon, I have something to say to you.” He replied, 22  “Say it, Teacher.” 7:41 “A certain creditor 23  had two debtors; one owed him 24  five hundred silver coins, 25  and the other fifty. 7:42 When they could not pay, he canceled 26  the debts of both. Now which of them will love him more?” 7:43 Simon answered, 27  “I suppose the one who had the bigger debt canceled.” 28  Jesus 29  said to him, “You have judged rightly.” 7:44 Then, 30  turning toward the woman, he said to Simon, “Do you see this woman? I entered your house. You gave me no water for my feet, 31  but she has wet my feet with her tears and wiped them with her hair. 7:45 You gave me no kiss of greeting, 32  but from the time I entered she has not stopped kissing my feet. 7:46 You did not anoint my head with oil, but she has anointed my feet 33  with perfumed oil. 7:47 Therefore I tell you, her sins, which were many, are forgiven, thus she loved much; 34  but the one who is forgiven little loves little.” 7:48 Then 35  Jesus 36  said to her, “Your sins are forgiven.” 37  7:49 But 38  those who were at the table 39  with him began to say among themselves, “Who is this, who even forgives sins?” 7:50 He 40  said to the woman, “Your faith 41  has saved you; 42  go in peace.”

Luke 9:12-17

Context
9:12 Now the day began to draw to a close, 43  so 44  the twelve came and said to Jesus, 45  “Send the crowd away, so they can go into the surrounding villages and countryside and find lodging 46  and food, because we are in an isolated place.” 47  9:13 But he said to them, “You 48  give them something to eat.” They 49  replied, 50  “We have no more than five loaves and two fish – unless 51  we go 52  and buy food 53  for all these people.” 9:14 (Now about five thousand men 54  were there.) 55  Then 56  he said to his disciples, “Have 57  them sit down in groups of about fifty each.” 9:15 So they did as Jesus directed, 58  and the people 59  all sat down.

9:16 Then 60  he took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven he gave thanks 61  and broke them. He gave them to the disciples to set before the crowd. 9:17 They all ate and were satisfied, and what was left over 62  was picked up – twelve baskets of broken pieces.

Luke 10:38-42

Context
Jesus and Martha

10:38 Now as they went on their way, Jesus 63  entered a certain village where a woman named Martha welcomed him as a guest. 64  10:39 She 65  had a sister named Mary, who sat 66  at the Lord’s feet 67  and listened to what he said. 10:40 But Martha was distracted 68  with all the preparations she had to make, 69  so 70  she came up to him and said, “Lord, don’t you care 71  that my sister has left me to do all the work 72  alone? Tell 73  her to help me.” 10:41 But the Lord 74  answered her, 75  “Martha, Martha, 76  you are worried and troubled 77  about many things, 10:42 but one thing 78  is needed. Mary has chosen the best 79  part; it will not be taken away from her.”

Luke 11:37-54

Context
Rebuking the Pharisees and Experts in the Law

11:37 As he spoke, 80  a Pharisee 81  invited Jesus 82  to have a meal with him, so he went in and took his place at the table. 83  11:38 The 84  Pharisee was astonished when he saw that Jesus 85  did not first wash his hands 86  before the meal. 11:39 But the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees clean 87  the outside of the cup and the plate, but inside you are full of greed and wickedness. 88  11:40 You fools! 89  Didn’t the one who made the outside make the inside as well? 90  11:41 But give from your heart to those in need, 91  and 92  then everything will be clean for you. 93 

11:42 “But woe to you Pharisees! 94  You give a tenth 95  of your mint, 96  rue, 97  and every herb, yet you neglect justice 98  and love for God! But you should have done these things without neglecting the others. 99  11:43 Woe to you Pharisees! You love the best seats 100  in the synagogues 101  and elaborate greetings 102  in the marketplaces! 11:44 Woe to you! 103  You are like unmarked graves, and people 104  walk over them without realizing it!” 105 

11:45 One of the experts in religious law 106  answered him, “Teacher, when you say these things you insult 107  us too.” 11:46 But Jesus 108  replied, 109  “Woe to you experts in religious law as well! 110  You load people 111  down with burdens difficult to bear, yet you yourselves refuse to touch 112  the burdens with even one of your fingers! 11:47 Woe to you! You build 113  the tombs of the prophets whom your ancestors 114  killed. 11:48 So you testify that you approve of 115  the deeds of your ancestors, 116  because they killed the prophets 117  and you build their 118  tombs! 119  11:49 For this reason also the wisdom 120  of God said, ‘I will send them prophets and apostles, some of whom they will kill and persecute,’ 11:50 so that this generation may be held accountable 121  for the blood of all the prophets that has been shed since the beginning 122  of the world, 123  11:51 from the blood of Abel 124  to the blood of Zechariah, 125  who was killed 126  between the altar and the sanctuary. 127  Yes, I tell you, it will be charged against 128  this generation. 11:52 Woe to you experts in religious law! You have taken away 129  the key to knowledge! You did not go in yourselves, and you hindered 130  those who were going in.”

11:53 When he went out from there, the experts in the law 131  and the Pharisees began to oppose him bitterly, 132  and to ask him hostile questions 133  about many things, 11:54 plotting against 134  him, to catch 135  him in something he might say.

Luke 14:1-24

Context
Healing Again on the Sabbath

14:1 Now 136  one Sabbath when Jesus went to dine 137  at the house of a leader 138  of the Pharisees, 139  they were watching 140  him closely. 14:2 There 141  right 142  in front of him was a man suffering from dropsy. 143  14:3 So 144  Jesus asked 145  the experts in religious law 146  and the Pharisees, “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath 147  or not?” 14:4 But they remained silent. So 148  Jesus 149  took hold of the man, 150  healed him, and sent him away. 151  14:5 Then 152  he said to them, “Which of you, if you have a son 153  or an ox that has fallen into a well on a Sabbath day, will not immediately pull him out?” 14:6 But 154  they could not reply 155  to this.

On Seeking Seats of Honor

14:7 Then 156  when Jesus 157  noticed how the guests 158  chose the places of honor, 159  he told them a parable. He said to them, 14:8 “When you are invited by someone to a wedding feast, 160  do not take 161  the place of honor, because a person more distinguished than you may have been invited by your host. 162  14:9 So 163  the host who invited both of you will come and say to you, ‘Give this man your place.’ Then, ashamed, 164  you will begin to move to the least important 165  place. 14:10 But when you are invited, go and take the least important place, so that when your host 166  approaches he will say to you, ‘Friend, move up here to a better place.’ 167  Then you will be honored in the presence of all who share the meal with you. 14:11 For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but 168  the one who humbles 169  himself will be exalted.”

14:12 He 170  said also to the man 171  who had invited him, “When you host a dinner or a banquet, 172  don’t invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors so you can be invited by them in return and get repaid. 14:13 But when you host an elaborate meal, 173  invite the poor, the crippled, 174  the lame, and 175  the blind. 176  14:14 Then 177  you will be blessed, 178  because they cannot repay you, for you will be repaid 179  at the resurrection of the righteous.”

The Parable of the Great Banquet

14:15 When 180  one of those at the meal with Jesus 181  heard this, he said to him, “Blessed is everyone 182  who will feast 183  in the kingdom of God!” 184  14:16 But Jesus 185  said to him, “A man once gave a great banquet 186  and invited 187  many guests. 188  14:17 At 189  the time for the banquet 190  he sent his slave 191  to tell those who had been invited, ‘Come, because everything is now ready.’ 14:18 But one after another they all 192  began to make excuses. 193  The first said to him, ‘I have bought a field, 194  and I must go out and see it. Please excuse me.’ 195  14:19 Another 196  said, ‘I have bought five yoke of oxen, 197  and I am going out 198  to examine them. Please excuse me.’ 14:20 Another 199  said, ‘I just got married, and I cannot come.’ 200  14:21 So 201  the slave came back and reported this to his master. Then the master of the household was furious 202  and said to his slave, ‘Go out quickly 203  to the streets and alleys of the city, 204  and bring in the poor, 205  the crippled, 206  the blind, and the lame.’ 14:22 Then 207  the slave said, ‘Sir, what you instructed has been done, and there is still room.’ 208  14:23 So 209  the master said to his 210  slave, ‘Go out to the highways 211  and country roads 212  and urge 213  people 214  to come in, so that my house will be filled. 215  14:24 For I tell you, not one of those individuals 216  who were invited 217  will taste my banquet!’” 218 

Luke 22:7-38

Context
The Passover

22:7 Then the day for the feast 219  of Unleavened Bread came, on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. 220  22:8 Jesus 221  sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare the Passover 222  for us to eat.” 223  22:9 They 224  said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare 225  it?” 22:10 He said to them, “Listen, 226  when you have entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water 227  will meet you. 228  Follow him into the house that he enters, 22:11 and tell the owner of the house, 229  ‘The Teacher says to you, “Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 22:12 Then he will show you a large furnished room upstairs. Make preparations there.” 22:13 So 230  they went and found things 231  just as he had told them, 232  and they prepared the Passover.

The Lord’s Supper

22:14 Now 233  when the hour came, Jesus 234  took his place at the table 235  and the apostles joined 236  him. 22:15 And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired 237  to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 22:16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again 238  until it is fulfilled 239  in the kingdom of God.” 240  22:17 Then 241  he took a cup, 242  and after giving thanks he said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves. 22:18 For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit 243  of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” 244  22:19 Then 245  he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body 246  which is given for you. 247  Do this in remembrance of me.” 22:20 And in the same way he took 248  the cup after they had eaten, 249  saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant 250  in my blood.

A Final Discourse

22:21 “But look, the hand of the one who betrays 251  me is with me on the table. 252  22:22 For the Son of Man is to go just as it has been determined, 253  but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!” 22:23 So 254  they began to question one another as to which of them it could possibly be who would do this.

22:24 A dispute also started 255  among them over which of them was to be regarded as the greatest. 256  22:25 So 257  Jesus 258  said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those in authority over them are called ‘benefactors.’ 259  22:26 Not so with you; 260  instead the one who is greatest among you must become like the youngest, and the leader 261  like the one who serves. 262  22:27 For who is greater, the one who is seated at the table, 263  or the one who serves? Is it not 264  the one who is seated at the table? But I am among you as one 265  who serves.

22:28 “You are the ones who have remained 266  with me in my trials. 22:29 Thus 267  I grant 268  to you a kingdom, 269  just as my Father granted to me, 22:30 that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and you will sit 270  on thrones judging 271  the twelve tribes of Israel.

22:31 “Simon, 272  Simon, pay attention! 273  Satan has demanded to have you all, 274  to sift you like wheat, 275  22:32 but I have prayed for you, Simon, 276  that your faith may not fail. 277  When 278  you have turned back, 279  strengthen 280  your brothers.” 22:33 But Peter 281  said to him, “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!” 282  22:34 Jesus replied, 283  “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow 284  today until you have denied 285  three times that you know me.”

22:35 Then 286  Jesus 287  said to them, “When I sent you out with no money bag, 288  or traveler’s bag, 289  or sandals, you didn’t lack 290  anything, did you?” They replied, 291  “Nothing.” 22:36 He said to them, “But now, the one who 292  has a money bag must take it, and likewise a traveler’s bag 293  too. And the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one. 22:37 For I tell you that this scripture must be 294  fulfilled in me, ‘And he was counted with the transgressors.’ 295  For what is written about me is being fulfilled.” 296  22:38 So 297  they said, “Look, Lord, here are two swords.” 298  Then he told them, “It is enough.” 299 

Luke 24:29-32

Context
24:29 but they urged him, 300  “Stay with us, because it is getting toward evening and the day is almost done.” So 301  he went in to stay with them.

24:30 When 302  he had taken his place at the table 303  with them, he took the bread, blessed and broke it, 304  and gave it to them. 24:31 At this point 305  their eyes were opened and they recognized 306  him. 307  Then 308  he vanished out of their sight. 24:32 They 309  said to each other, “Didn’t 310  our hearts 311  burn within us 312  while he was speaking with us on the road, while he was explaining 313  the scriptures to us?”

Luke 24:41-43

Context
24:41 And while they still could not believe it 314  (because of their joy) and were amazed, 315  he said to them, “Do you have anything here to eat?” 316  24:42 So 317  they gave him a piece of broiled fish, 24:43 and he took it and ate it in front of them.

1 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

2 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ action was the result of the Pharisee’s invitation.

4 tn Grk “and reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

5 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

6 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

7 tn Grk “was reclining at table.”

8 sn A jar made of alabaster stone was normally used for very precious substances like perfumes. It normally had a long neck which was sealed and had to be broken off so the contents could be used.

9 tn Μύρον (muron) was usually made of myrrh (from which the English word is derived) but here it is used in the sense of ointment or perfumed oil (L&N 6.205). The same phrase occurs at the end of v. 38 and in v. 46.

sn Nard or spikenard is a fragrant oil from the root and spike of the nard plant of northern India. This perfumed oil, if made of something like nard, would have been extremely expensive, costing up to a year’s pay for an average laborer.

10 tn Grk “And standing.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

11 tn Grk “standing”; the participle στᾶσα (stasa) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

12 tn Grk “tears, and she.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

13 tn Grk “with the hair of her head.”

14 tn Grk “and kissed,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

15 tn Grk “kissed his feet,” but this has been replaced by the pronoun “them” in keeping with contemporary English style.

16 sn The series of verbs in this verse detail the woman’s every move, much as if the onlookers were watching her every step. That she attended the meal is not so surprising, as teachers often ate an open meal where listeners were welcome, but for her to approach Jesus was unusual and took great nerve, especially given her reputation.

17 tn The word “this” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

18 tn This is a good example of a second class (contrary to fact) Greek conditional sentence. The Pharisee said, in effect, “If this man were a prophet (but he is not)…”

19 sn The Pharisees believed in a form of separationism that would have prevented them from any kind of association with such a sinful woman.

20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the connection with the preceding statement recording the Pharisee’s thoughts.

21 tn Grk “answering, said to him.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “answered him.”

sn Jesus answered him. Note that as the Pharisee is denying to himself that Jesus is a prophet, Jesus is reading his thoughts.

22 tn Grk “he said.”

23 sn A creditor was a moneylender, whose business was to lend money to others at a fixed rate of interest.

24 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

25 tn Grk “five hundred denarii.”

sn The silver coins were denarii. The denarius was worth about a day’s wage for a laborer; this would be an amount worth not quite two years’ pay. The debts were significant: They represented two months’ pay and one and three quarter years’ pay (20 months) based on a six day work week.

26 tn The verb ἐχαρίσατο (ecarisato) could be translated as “forgave.” Of course this pictures the forgiveness of God’s grace, which is not earned but bestowed with faith (see v. 49).

27 tn Grk “answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “answered.”

28 tn Grk “the one to whom he forgave more” (see v. 42).

29 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

30 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

31 sn It is discussed whether these acts in vv. 44-46 were required by the host. Most think they were not, but this makes the woman’s acts of respect all the more amazing.

32 tn Grk “no kiss.” This refers to a formalized kiss of greeting, standard in that culture. To convey this to the modern reader, the words “of greeting” have been supplied to qualify what kind of kiss is meant.

33 sn This event is not equivalent to the anointing of Jesus that takes place in the last week of his life (Matt 26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9; John 12:1-8). That woman was not a sinner, and Jesus was eating in the home of Simon the leper, who, as a leper, could never be a Pharisee.

34 tn Grk “for she loved much.” The connection between this statement and the preceding probably involves an ellipsis, to the effect that the ὅτι clause gives the evidence of forgiveness, not the ground. For similar examples of an “evidentiary” ὅτι, cf. Luke 1:22; 6:21; 13:2. See discussion in D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 1:703-5. Further evidence that this is the case here is the final statement: “the one who is forgiven little loves little” means that the one who is forgiven little is thus not able to love much. The REB renders this verse: “her great love proves that her many sins have been forgiven; where little has been forgiven, little love is shown.”

sn She loved much. Jesus’ point is that the person who realizes how great a gift forgiveness is (because they have a deep sense of sin) has a great love for the one who forgives, that is, God. The woman’s acts of reverence to Jesus honored him as the one who brought God’s message of grace.

35 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

36 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

37 sn Jesus showed his authority to forgive sins, something that was quite controversial. See Luke 5:17-26 and the next verse.

38 tn Grk “And”; here καί (kai) has been translated as an adversative (contrastive).

39 tn Grk “were reclining at table.”

40 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

41 sn On faith see Luke 5:20; 7:9; 8:25; 12:28; 17:6; 18:8; 22:32.

42 sn The questioning did not stop Jesus. He declared authoritatively that the woman was forgiven by God (your faith has saved you). This event is a concrete example of Luke 5:31-32.

43 tn Grk “the day began to decline,” looking to the approach of sunset.

44 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the disciples’ request was related to the approach of sunset.

45 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

46 tn That is, find someone to show them hospitality. L&N 34.61 has “find lodging,” using this verse as an example.

47 tn Or “in a desert” (meaning a deserted or desolate area with sparse vegetation). Here ὧδε (Jwde) has not been translated.

48 tn Here the pronoun ὑμεῖς (Jumeis) is used, making “you” in the translation emphatic.

49 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

50 tn Grk “said.”

51 tn This possibility is introduced through a conditional clause, but it is expressed with some skepticism (BDF §376).

52 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.

53 sn Not only would going and buying food have been expensive and awkward at this late time of day, it would have taken quite a logistical effort to get the food back out to this isolated location.

54 tn The Greek text reads here ἄνδρες (andres) – that is, adult males. The actual count would be larger, since the use of this Greek term suggests that women and children were not included in this number (see the parallel in Matt 14:21).

55 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

56 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

57 tn Or “Make” (depending on how the force of the imperative verb is understood). Grk “cause them to recline” (the verb has causative force here).

58 tn Grk “And they did thus.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the disciples’ action was a result of Jesus’ instructions. The adverb οὕτως ({outw", “thus”) has been expanded in the translation to “as Jesus directed” to clarify what was done.

59 tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

60 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

61 sn Gave thanks adds a note of gratitude to the setting. The scene is like two other later meals: Luke 22:19 and 24:30. Jesus gives thanks to God “with respect to” the provision of food. The disciples learn how Jesus is the mediator of blessing. John 6 speaks of him in this scene as picturing the “Bread of Life.”

62 sn There was more than enough for everybody, as indicated by the gathering of what was left over.

63 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

64 tc Most mss have “into the house” (Ì3vid א C L Ξ 33 579 pc) or “into her house” (א1 A C2 D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 Ï lat) at the end of the sentence. But the English translation masks the multitude of variants: Different forms of “house” (οἰκίαν [oikian], οἶκον [oikon]) and “her” occur (see TCGNT 129). These variations argue against authenticity; they no doubt arose because of the abrupt ending of the sentence (the Greek is more literally translated simply as “Martha received him”), prompting copyists to add the location. The shorter reading is found in Ì45,75 B sa.

tn For the meaning “to welcome, to have as a guest” see L&N 34.53.

65 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

66 tn This reflexive makes it clear that Mary took the initiative in sitting by Jesus.

67 sn The description of Mary sitting at the Lord’s feet and listening to him makes her sound like a disciple (compare Luke 8:35).

68 sn The term distracted means “to be pulled away” by something (L&N 25.238). It is a narrative comment that makes clear who is right in the account.

69 tn Grk “with much serving.”

70 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the following was a result of Martha’s distraction.

71 tn The negative οὐ (ou) used with the verb expects a positive reply. Martha expected Jesus to respond and rebuke Mary.

72 tn Grk “has left me to serve alone.”

73 tn The conjunction οὖν (oun, “then, therefore”) has not been translated here.

74 tc Most mss (A B* C D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï it) read “Jesus” instead of “the Lord” here, but κύριος (kurios, “Lord”) has the support of some weighty papyri, uncials, and other witnesses (Ì3,[45],75 א B2 L 579 892 pc lat sa).

75 tn Grk “answering, said to her.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “answered her.”

76 sn The double vocative Martha, Martha communicates emotion.

77 tn Or “upset.” Here the meanings of μεριμνάω (merimnaw) and θορυβάζομαι (qorubazomai) reinforce each other (L&N 25.234).

78 tc Or, with some mss (Ì3 [א] B C2 L 070vid Ë1 33 [579] pc), “few things are needed – or only one” (as well as other variants). The textual problem here is a difficult one to decide. The shorter reading is normally preferred, but it is not altogether clear how the variants would arise from it. However, the reading followed in the translation has good support (with some internal variations) from a number of witnesses (Ì45,75 A C* W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï lat sa).

79 tn Or “better”; Grk “good.” This is an instance of the positive adjective used in place of the superlative adjective. According to ExSyn 298, this could also be treated as a positive for comparative (“better”).

80 tn The use of the aorist infinitive here should probably be translated “as he spoke” rather than “while he was speaking” (see ExSyn 595). The Pharisee did not necessarily interrupt Jesus to issue the invitation.

81 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

82 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

83 tn Grk “and reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

84 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

85 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

86 tn The words “his hands” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.

sn Washing before meals was a cultural practice that was described in the OT, but not prescribed there (Gen 18:4; Judg 19:21). It was apparently related to concern about contracting ceremonial uncleanness (Lev 11:31-38; t. Demai 2.11-12).

87 sn The allusion to washing (clean the outside of the cup) shows Jesus knew what they were thinking and deliberately set up a contrast that charged them with hypocrisy and majoring on minors.

88 tn Or “and evil.”

89 sn You fools is a rebuke which in the OT refers to someone who is blind to God (Ps 14:1, 53:1; 92:6; Prov 6:12).

90 tn The question includes a Greek particle, οὐ (ou), that expects a positive reply. God, the maker of both, is concerned for what is both inside and outside.

91 tn Grk “Give the things inside as alms.” Three different approaches have been taken to the syntax and meaning of this phrase: (1) τὰ ἐνόντα (ta enonta, “the things inside”) is an accusative of respect (“give alms with respect to the things inside”); (2) τὰ ἐνόντα is an adverbial accusative (“give alms inwardly,” i.e., from the heart); (3) the word translated “alms” represents a mistranslation of the original Aramaic term “cleanse,” so the statement urges the hearers to “cleanse the things inside.” According to D. L. Bock (Luke [BECNT], 2:1115) the latter meaning is unlikely because the present verse is independent of Matt 23:26, not parallel to it, and makes good sense as it stands.

sn In Jewish culture giving alms to the poor was a very important religious observance; it was meant to be an act of mercy, kindness, and love (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1114). The implication from the text is that the Pharisees gave alms, but without any of the spiritual concern which should have motivated those generous actions. Here Jesus commands the Pharisees to give from within themselves to those in need instead of just giving of their possessions. In so doing they would show true inner purity acceptable to God. This is in keeping with the author’s social concerns elsewhere in the Gospel (cf., e.g., 1:52-53, 4:18-19, 6:20-21, 14:13).

92 tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this clause has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

93 sn The expression everything will be clean for you refers to the agreement that should exist between the overt practice of one’s religious duties, such as almsgiving, and the inner condition of one’s heart, including true love for God and the poor; one is not only to wash the outside of the cup and plate, but the inside as well, since as Jesus said, God created the inside too. Religious duties are not to be performed hypocritically, i.e., for the applause and esteem of people, but rather they are to be done out of a deep love for God and a sensitivity to and concern for the needs of others. Then, everything will be clean, both hearts and lives.

94 tn Grk “Woe to you…because you…” The causal particle ὅτι (Joti) has not been translated here for rhetorical effect (and so to the end of this chapter).

95 tn Or “you tithe mint.”

96 sn These small herbs were tithed with great care (Mishnah, m. Demai 2:1).

97 tn Grk “and rue.” Καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

sn Rue was an evergreen herb used for seasoning.

98 sn Justice was a major theme of OT ethics (Mic 6:8; Zech 7:8-10).

99 tn Grk “those”; but this has been translated as “the others” to clarify which are meant.

100 tn Or “seats of honor.” The term here is plural and is not a reference only to the lead “seat of Moses” in the synagogue, but includes the front seats near the ark.

101 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

102 tn Grk “and the greetings.”

sn The later Jewish summary of oral tradition, the Talmud, notes elaborate greetings for rabbis. The rebuke here is for pride.

103 tc Most mss (A [D] W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï it) have “experts in the law and Pharisees, hypocrites” after “you,” but this looks like an assimilation to the parallel in Matt 23:25, 27, 29. The shorter reading has earlier attestation from a variety of reliable mss (Ì45,75 א B C L Ë1 33 1241 2542 lat sa).

104 tn Grk “men.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

105 sn In Judaism to come into contact with the dead or what is associated with them, even without knowing it, makes one unclean (Num 19:11-22; Lev 21:1-3; Mishnah, m. Demai 2:3). To Pharisees, who would have been so sensitive about contracting ceremonial uncleanness, it would have been quite a stinging rebuke to be told they caused it.

106 sn That is, an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law. They worked closely with the Pharisees.

107 tn For this term, see Matt 22;6; Luke 18:32; Acts 14:5; 1 Thess 2:2.

108 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

109 tn Grk “said.”

110 tn Here “as well” is used to translate καί (kai) at the beginning of the statement.

111 tn Grk “men.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

112 tn Grk “you yourselves do not touch.” This could mean one of two things: (1) Either they make others do what they themselves do not (through various technical exceptions) or (2) they make no effort to help the others fulfill what they are required to do. Considering the care these religious figures are said to have given to the law, the second option is more likely (see L&N 18.11).

113 sn The effect of what the experts in the law were doing was to deny the message of the prophets and thus honor their death by supporting those who had sought their removal. The charge that this is what previous generations did shows the problem is chronic. As T. W. Manson said, the charge here is “The only prophet you honor is a dead prophet!” (The Sayings of Jesus, 101).

114 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

115 tn Grk “you are witnesses and approve of.”

116 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

117 tn Grk “them”; the referent (the prophets) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

118 tn “Their,” i.e., the prophets.

119 tc The majority of mss list a specific object (“their tombs”), filling out the sentence (although there are two different words for “tombs” among the mss, as well as different word orders: αὐτῶν τὰ μνημεῖα (autwn ta mnhmeia; found in A C W Θ Ψ 33 Ï) and τοὺς τάφους αὐτῶν (tou" tafou" autwn; found in Ë1,[13] 2542 pc). This suggests that early copyists had no term in front of them but felt the verb needed an object. But since a wide distribution of early Alexandrian and Western mss lack these words (Ì75 א B D L 579 1241 it sa), it is likely that they were not part of the original text of Luke. Nevertheless, the words “their tombs” are inserted in the translation because of requirements of English style.

120 sn The expression the wisdom of God is a personification of an attribute of God that refers to his wise will.

121 tn Or “that this generation may be charged with”; or “the blood of all the prophets… may be required from this generation.” This is a warning of judgment. These people are responsible for the shedding of prophetic blood.

122 tn Or “foundation.” However, this does not suggest a time to the modern reader.

123 tn The order of the clauses in this complicated sentence has been rearranged to simplify it for the modern reader.

124 sn Gen 4:10 indicates that Abel’s blood cried out for justice.

125 sn It is not clear which Zechariah is meant here. It is probably the person mentioned in 2 Chr 24:20-25.

126 tn Or “who perished.”

127 tn Or “and the temple”; Grk “and the house,” but in this context a reference to the house of God as a place of sanctuary.

128 tn Or “required from.”

129 sn You have taken away the key to knowledge is another stinging rebuke. They had done the opposite of what they were trying to do.

130 tn Or “you tried to prevent.”

131 tn Or “the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

132 tn Or “terribly.”

133 tn For this term see L&N 33.183.

134 tn Grk “lying in ambush against,” but this is a figurative extension of that meaning.

135 tn This term was often used in a hunting context (BDAG 455 s.v. θηρεύω; L&N 27.30). Later examples of this appear in Luke 20.

136 tn Grk “Now it happened that one.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

137 tn Grk “to eat bread,” an idiom for participating in a meal.

138 tn Grk “a ruler of the Pharisees.” He was probably a synagogue official.

139 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

140 sn Watching…closely is a graphic term meaning to lurk and watch; see Luke 11:53-54.

141 tn Grk “And there.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

142 tn Grk “behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). Here it has been translated as “right” in the phrase “right in front of him,” giving a similar effect of vividness in the translation.

143 sn The condition called dropsy involves swollen limbs resulting from the accumulation of fluid in the body’s tissues, especially the legs.

144 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the sequence of events (Jesus’ question was prompted by the man’s appearance).

145 tn Grk “Jesus, answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English. In addition, since the context does not describe a previous question to Jesus (although one may well be implied), the phrase has been translated here as “Jesus asked.”

146 tn That is, experts in the interpretation of the Mosaic law (traditionally, “lawyers”).

147 snIs it lawful to heal on the Sabbath or not?” Will the Pharisees and experts in religious law defend tradition and speak out against doing good on the Sabbath? Has anything at all been learned since Luke 13:10-17? Has repentance come (13:6-9)?

148 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the sequence of events (Jesus’ healing the man was in response to their refusal to answer).

149 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

150 tn Grk “taking hold [of the man].” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενος (epilabomeno") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.

151 tn Or “and let him go.”

152 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

153 tc Here “son,” found in Ì45,75 (A) B W Ï, is the preferred reading. The other reading, “donkey” (found in א K L Ψ Ë1,13 33 579 892 1241 2542 al lat bo), looks like an assimilation to Luke 13:15 and Deut 22:4; Isa 32:20, and was perhaps motivated by an attempt to soften the unusual collocation of “son” and “ox.” The Western ms D differs from all others and reads “sheep.”

154 tn καί (kai) has been translated here as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. The experts, who should be expected to know the law, are unable to respond to Jesus’ question.

155 sn They could not reply. Twice in the scene, the experts remain silent (see v. 4). That, along with the presence of power working through Jesus, serves to indicate endorsement of his work and message.

156 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

157 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

158 tn Grk “those who were invited.”

159 tn Or “the best places.” The “places of honor” at the meal would be those closest to the host.

160 tn Or “banquet.” This may not refer only to a wedding feast, because this term can have broader sense (note the usage in Esth 2:18; 9:22 LXX). However, this difference does not affect the point of the parable.

161 tn Grk “do not recline in the place of honor.” 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

162 tn Grk “by him”; the referent (the host) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

163 tn Grk “host, and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate this action is a result of the situation described in the previous verse. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

164 tn Or “then in disgrace”; Grk “with shame.” In this culture avoiding shame was important.

165 tn Grk “lowest place” (also in the repetition of the phrase in the next verse).

166 tn Grk “the one who invited you.”

167 tn Grk “Go up higher.” This means to move to a more important place.

168 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context, which involves the reversal of expected roles.

169 sn The point of the statement the one who humbles himself will be exalted is humility and the reversal imagery used to underline it is common: Luke 1:52-53; 6:21; 10:15; 18:14.

170 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

171 sn That is, the leader of the Pharisees (v. 1).

172 tn The meaning of the two terms for meals here, ἄριστον (ariston) and δεῖπνον (deipnon), essentially overlap (L&N 23.22). Translators usually try to find two terms for a meal to use as equivalents (e.g., lunch and dinner, dinner and supper, etc.). In this translation “dinner” and “banquet” have been used, since the expected presence of rich neighbors later in the verse suggests a rather more elaborate occasion than an ordinary meal.

173 tn This term, δοχή (doch), is a third term for a meal (see v. 12) that could also be translated “banquet, feast.”

174 sn Normally the term means crippled as a result of being maimed or mutilated (L&N 23.177).

175 tn Here “and” has been supplied between the last two elements in the series in keeping with English style.

176 sn This list of needy is like Luke 7:22. See Deut 14:28-29; 16:11-14; 26:11-13.

177 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate that this follows from the preceding action. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

178 sn You will be blessed. God notes and approves of such generosity.

179 sn The passive verb will be repaid looks at God’s commendation.

180 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

181 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

182 tn Grk “whoever” (the indefinite relative pronoun). This has been translated as “everyone who” to conform to contemporary English style.

183 tn Or “will dine”; Grk “eat bread.” This refers to those who enjoy the endless fellowship of God’s coming rule.

184 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

185 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

186 tn Or “dinner.”

187 sn Presumably those invited would have sent a reply with the invitation stating their desire to attend, much like a modern R.S.V.P. Then they waited for the servant to announce the beginning of the celebration (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1272).

188 tn The word “guests” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

189 tn Grk “And at.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

190 tn Or “dinner.”

191 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

192 tn Or “all unanimously” (BDAG 107 s.v. ἀπό 6). "One after another" is suggested by L&N 61.2.

193 sn To make excuses and cancel at this point was an insult in the culture of the time. Regardless of customs concerning responses to invitations, refusal at this point was rude.

194 sn I have bought a field. An examination of newly bought land was a common practice. It was this person’s priority.

195 sn The expression Please excuse me is probably a polite way of refusing, given the dynamics of the situation, although it is important to note that an initial acceptance had probably been indicated and it was now a bit late for a refusal. The semantic equivalent of the phrase may well be “please accept my apologies.”

196 tn Grk “And another.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

197 sn Five yoke of oxen. This was a wealthy man, because the normal farmer had one or two yoke of oxen.

198 tn The translation “going out” for πορεύομαι (poreuomai) is used because “going” in this context could be understood to mean “I am about to” rather than the correct nuance, “I am on my way to.”

199 tn Grk “And another.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

200 sn I just got married, and I cannot come. There is no request to be excused here; just a refusal. Why this disqualifies attendance is not clear. The OT freed a newly married man from certain responsibilities such as serving in the army (Deut 20:7; 24:5), but that would hardly apply to a banquet. The invitation is not respected in any of the three cases.

201 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the preceding responses.

202 tn Grk “being furious, said.” The participle ὀργισθείς (orgisqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

203 sn It was necessary to go out quickly because the banquet was already prepared. All the food would spoil if not eaten immediately.

204 tn Or “town.”

205 sn The poor, the crippled, the blind and the lame. Note how the list matches v. 13, illustrating that point. Note also how the party goes on; it is not postponed until a later date. Instead new guests are invited.

206 tn Grk “and the crippled.” Normally crippled as a result of being maimed or mutilated (L&N 23.177). Καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following category (Grk “and the blind and the lame”) since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

207 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the order of events within the parable.

208 sn And still there is room. This comment suggests the celebration was quite a big one, picturing the openness of God’s grace.

209 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the master’s response to the slave’s report.

210 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

211 sn Go out to the highways and country roads. This suggests the inclusion of people outside the town, even beyond the needy (poor, crippled, blind, and lame) in the town, and so is an allusion to the inclusion of the Gentiles.

212 tn The Greek word φραγμός (fragmo") refers to a fence, wall, or hedge surrounding a vineyard (BDAG 1064 s.v. 1). “Highways” and “country roads” probably refer not to separate places, but to the situation outside the town where the rural roads run right alongside the hedges or fences surrounding the fields (cf. J. A. Fitzmyer, Luke [AB], 1057).

213 tn Traditionally “force” or “compel,” but according to BDAG 60 s.v. ἀναγκάζω 2 this is a weakened nuance: “strongly urge/invite.” The meaning in this context is more like “persuade.”

214 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

215 sn So that my house will be filled. God will bless many people.

216 tn The Greek word here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which frequently stresses males or husbands (in contrast to women or wives). However, the emphasis in the present context is on identifying these individuals as the ones previously invited, examples of which were given in vv. 18-20. Cf. also BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 2.

217 sn None of those individuals who were invited. This is both the point and the warning. To be a part of the original invitation does not mean one automatically has access to blessing. One must respond when the summons comes in order to participate. The summons came in the person of Jesus and his proclamation of the kingdom. The statement here refers to the fact that many in Israel will not be blessed with participation, for they have ignored the summons when it came.

218 tn Or “dinner.”

219 tn The words “for the feast” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.

220 sn Generally the feast of Unleavened Bread would refer to Nisan 15 (Friday), but the following reference to the sacrifice of the Passover lamb indicates that Nisan 14 (Thursday) was what Luke had in mind (Nisan = March 27 to April 25). The celebration of the Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted eight days, beginning with the Passover meal. The celebrations were so close together that at times the names of both were used interchangeably.

221 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

222 sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 22:14). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.

223 tn Grk “for us, so that we may eat.”

224 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

225 tn In the Greek text this a deliberative subjunctive.

226 tn Grk “behold.”

227 sn Since women usually carried these jars, it would have been no problem for Peter and John to recognize the man Jesus was referring to.

228 sn Jesus is portrayed throughout Luke 22-23 as very aware of what will happen, almost directing events. Here this is indicated by his prediction that a man carrying a jar of water will meet you.

229 tn Grk “to the master of the household,” referring to one who owns and manages the household, including family, servants, and slaves (L&N 57.14).

230 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ instructions.

231 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

232 sn The author’s note that the disciples found things just as he had told them shows that Jesus’ word could be trusted.

233 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

234 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

235 tn Grk “reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

236 tn Grk “the apostles with him.”

237 tn This phrase parallels a Hebrew infinitive absolute and serves to underline Jesus’ enthusiasm for holding this meal (BDF §198.6).

238 tn Although the word “again” is not in the Greek text, it is supplied to indicate that Jesus did indeed partake of this Passover meal, as statements in v. 18 suggest (“from now on”). For more complete discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1720.

239 sn Jesus looked to a celebration in the kingdom to come when the Passover is fulfilled. This reference could well suggest that some type of commemorative sacrifice and meal will be celebrated then, as the antecedent is the Passover sacrifice. The reference is not to the Lord’s supper as some argue, but the Passover.

240 sn The kingdom of God here refers to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37.

241 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

242 sn Then he took a cup. Only Luke mentions two cups at this meal; the other synoptic gospels (Matt, Mark) mention only one. This is the first of the two. It probably refers to the first cup in the traditional Passover meal, which today has four cups (although it is debated whether the fourth cup was used in the 1st century).

243 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

244 sn Until the kingdom of God comes is a reference to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37. Jesus awaits celebration with the arrival of full kingdom blessing.

245 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

246 tc Some important Western mss (D it) lack the words from this point to the end of v. 20. However, the authenticity of these verses is very likely. The inclusion of the second cup is the harder reading, since it differs from Matt 26:26-29 and Mark 14:22-25, and it has much better ms support. It is thus easier to explain the shorter reading as a scribal accident or misunderstanding. Further discussion of this complicated problem (the most difficult in Luke) can be found in TCGNT 148-50.

247 sn The language of the phrase given for you alludes to Christ’s death in our place. It is a powerful substitutionary image of what he did for us.

248 tn The words “he took” are not in the Greek text at this point, but are an understood repetition from v. 19.

249 tn The phrase “after they had eaten” translates the temporal infinitive construction μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι (meta to deipnhsai), where the verb δειπνέω (deipnew) means “to eat a meal” or “to have a meal.”

250 sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.

251 sn The one who betrays me. Jesus knows about Judas and what he has done.

252 sn The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

253 sn Jesus’ death has been determined as a part of God’s plan (Acts 2:22-24).

254 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments: The disciples begin wondering who would betray him.

255 tn Or “happened.”

256 tn Though the term μείζων (meizwn) here is comparative in form, it is superlative in sense (BDF §244).

257 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the dispute among the apostles.

258 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

259 sn The title ‘benefactor,’ highlighting grace and meaning something like “helper of the people,” was even given to tyrants (2 Macc 4:2; 3 Macc 3:19; Josephus, J. W. 3.9.8 [3.459]).

260 tn Grk “But you are not thus.”

261 tn Or “the ruler.”

262 sn And the leader like the one who serves. Leadership was not to be a matter of privilege and special status, but of service. All social status is leveled out by these remarks. Jesus himself is the prime example of the servant-leader.

263 tn Grk “who reclines at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

264 tn The interrogative particle used here in the Greek text (οὐχί, ouci) expects a positive reply.

265 sn Jesus’ example of humble service, as one who serves, shows that the standard for a disciple is different from that of the world. For an example see John 13:1-17.

266 tn Or “continued” (L&N 34.3). Jesus acknowledges the disciples’ faithfulness.

267 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the disciples’ perseverance with Jesus.

268 sn With the statement “I grant to you a kingdom” Jesus gave the disciples authority over the kingdom, as God had given him such authority. The present tense looks at authority given presently, though the major manifestation of its presence is yet to come as the next verse shows.

269 tn Or “I give you the right to rule” (cf. CEV). For this translation of διατίθεμαι βασιλείαν (diatiqemai basileian) see L&N 37.105.

270 tn This verb is future indicative, and thus not subordinate to “grant” (διατίθεμαι, diatiqemai) as part of the result clause beginning with ἵνα ἔσθητε ({ina esqhte) at the beginning of v. 30. It is better understood as a predictive future.

271 sn The statement you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel looks at the future authority the Twelve will have when Jesus returns. They will share in Israel’s judgment.

272 tc The majority of mss (א A D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï as well as several versional witnesses) begin this verse with an introductory comment, “and the Lord said,” indicating a change in the subject of discussion. But this is apparently a reading motivated by the need for clarity. Some of the best witnesses, along with a few others (Ì75 B L T 1241 2542c sys co), do not contain these words. The abrupt shift is the more difficult reading and thus more likely to be original.

273 tn Grk “behold” (for “pay attention” see L&N 91.13).

274 sn This pronoun is plural in the Greek text, so it refers to all the disciples of which Peter is the representative.

275 sn Satan has demanded permission to put them to the test. The idiom “sift (someone) like wheat” is similar to the English idiom “to pick (someone) apart.” The pronoun you is implied.

276 sn Here and in the remainder of the verse the second person pronouns are singular, so only Peter is in view. The name “Simon” has been supplied as a form of direct address to make this clear in English.

277 sn That your faith may not fail. Note that Peter’s denials are pictured here as lapses, not as a total absence of faith.

278 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

279 tn Or “turned around.”

280 sn Strengthen your brothers refers to Peter helping to strengthen their faith. Jesus quite graciously restores Peter “in advance,” even with the knowledge of his approaching denials.

281 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

282 sn The confidence Peter has in private (Lord, I am ready…) will wilt under the pressure of the public eye.

283 tn Grk “he said”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

284 sn That is, Peter’s denials will happen before the sun rises.

285 sn Once again, Jesus is quite aware that Peter will deny him. Peter, however, is too nonchalant about the possibility of stumbling.

286 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

287 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

288 tn Traditionally, “purse” (likewise in v. 36).

289 tn Or possibly “beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145).

290 sn This refers back to 9:3 and 10:3-4. The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ at the end, “did you?” Nothing was lacking.

291 tn Grk “said.”

292 tn The syntax of this verse is disputed, resulting in various translations. The major options are either (1) that reflected in the translation or (2) that those who have a money bag and traveler’s bag should get a sword, just as those who do not have these items should sell their cloak to buy a sword. The point of all the options is that things have changed and one now needs full provisions. Opposition will come. But “sword” is a figure for preparing to fight. See Luke 22:50-51.

293 tn Or possibly “beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145).

294 sn This scripture must be fulfilled in me. The statement again reflects the divine necessity of God’s plan. See 4:43-44.

295 tn Or “with the lawless.”

sn This is a quotation from Isa 53:12. It highlights a theme of Luke 22-23. Though completely innocent, Jesus dies as if he were a criminal.

296 tn Grk “is having its fulfillment.”

297 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments about obtaining swords.

298 sn Here are two swords. The disciples mistakenly took Jesus to mean that they should prepare for armed resistance, something he will have to correct in 22:50-51.

299 sn It is enough. The disciples’ misunderstanding caused Jesus to terminate the discussion.

300 tn Grk “urged him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes, “saying”) has not been translated because it is redundant in contemporary English.

301 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the disciples’ request.

302 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

303 tn Grk “had reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

304 tn The pronoun “it” is not in the Greek text here or in the following clause, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

305 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “At this point” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. “Then,” which is normally used to indicate this, would be redundant with the following clause.

306 sn They recognized him. Other than this cryptic remark, it is not told how the two disciples were now able to recognize Jesus.

307 tn This pronoun is somewhat emphatic.

308 tn This translates a καί (kai, “and”) that has clear sequential force.

309 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

310 tn This question uses a Greek particle (οὐχί, ouci) that expects a positive reply.

311 tn This is a collective singular use of the term καρδία (kardia), so each of their hearts were burning, a reference itself to the intense emotion of their response.

312 tc ‡ Most mss have the phrase ἐν ἡμῖν (en Jhmin, “within us”) after οὐχὶ ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν καιομένη ἦν (ouci Jh kardia Jhmwn kaiomenh hn, “Didn’t our hearts burn”). The phrase “within us” is lacking in some early mss (Ì75 B D c e sys,c). These early witnesses could have overlooked the words, since there are several occurrences of ἡμῖν in the context. But it seems likely that other scribes wanted to clarify the abrupt expression “Didn’t our hearts burn,” even as the translation has done here. NA27 includes the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.

sn Even though it is most likely not original (see tc note above), the phrase within us has been included in the translation for clarity.

313 tn Grk “opening” (cf. Acts 17:3).

314 sn They still could not believe it. Is this a continued statement of unbelief? Or is it a rhetorical expression of their amazement? They are being moved to faith, so a rhetorical force is more likely here.

315 sn Amazement is the common response to unusual activity: 1:63; 2:18; 4:22; 7:9; 8:25; 9:43; 11:14; 20:26.

316 sn Do you have anything here to eat? Eating would remove the idea that a phantom was present. Angelic spirits refused a meal in Jdt 13:16 and Tob 12:19, but accepted it in Gen 18:8; 19:3 and Tob 6:6.

317 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ request for food.



TIP #07: Use the Discovery Box to further explore word(s) and verse(s). [ALL]
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