6:20 Then 1 he looked up 2 at his disciples and said:
“Blessed 3 are you who are poor, 4 for the kingdom of God belongs 5 to you.
6:21 “Blessed are you who hunger 6 now, for you will be satisfied. 7
“Blessed are you who weep now, for you will laugh. 8
6:22 “Blessed are you when people 9 hate you, and when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil 10 on account of the Son of Man! 6:23 Rejoice in that day, and jump for joy, because 11 your reward is great in heaven. For their ancestors 12 did the same things to the prophets. 13
6:24 “But woe 14 to you who are rich, for you have received 15 your comfort 16 already.
6:25 “Woe to you who are well satisfied with food 17 now, for you will be hungry.
“Woe to you 18 who laugh 19 now, for you will mourn and weep.
6:26 “Woe to you 20 when all people 21 speak well of you, for their ancestors 22 did the same things to the false prophets.
1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
2 tn Grk “lifting up his eyes” (an idiom). The participle ἐπάρας (epara") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
3 sn The term Blessed introduces the first of several beatitudes promising blessing to those whom God cares for. They serve as an invitation to come into the grace God offers.
4 sn You who are poor is a reference to the “pious poor” for whom God especially cares. See Ps 14:6; 22:24; 25:16; 34:6; 40:17; 69:29.
5 sn The present tense (belongs) here is significant. Jesus makes the kingdom and its blessings currently available. This phrase is unlike the others in the list with the possessive pronoun being emphasized. Jesus was saying, in effect, “the kingdom belongs even now to people like you.”
6 sn You who hunger are people like the poor Jesus has already mentioned. The term has OT roots both in conjunction with the poor (Isa 32:6-7; 58:6-7, 9-10; Ezek 18:7, 16) or by itself (Ps 37:16-19; 107:9).
7 sn The promise you will be satisfied is the first of several “reversals” noted in these promises. The beatitudes and the reversals that accompany them serve in the sermon as an invitation to enter into God’s care, because one can know God cares for those who turn to him.
8 sn You will laugh alludes to the joy that comes to God’s people in the salvation to come.
9 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.
10 tn Or “disdain you”; Grk “cast out your name as evil.” The word “name” is used here as a figure of speech to refer to the person as a whole.
sn The phrase when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil alludes to a person being ostracized and socially isolated because of association with the Son of Man, Jesus.
11 tn Grk “because behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this clause has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
12 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
13 sn Mistreatment of the prophets is something Luke often notes (Luke 11:47-51; Acts 7:51-52).
14 sn Jesus promises condemnation (woe) to those who are callous of others, looking only to their own comforts. On Luke and the rich see 1:53; 12:16; 14:12; 16:1, 21-22; 18:23; 19:2; 21:1. These woes are unique to Luke.
15 sn Ironically the language of reward shows that what the rich have received is all they will get. This result looks at a current situation, just as the start of the beatitudes did. The rest of the conclusions to the woes look to the future at the time of judgment.
16 tn Grk “your consolation.”
17 tn Grk “who are filled.” See L&N 23.18 for the translation “well satisfied with food.”
18 tc The wording “to you” (ὑμῖν, Jumin) is lacking in several witnesses (א B K L T W Θ Ξ 0147 Ë1,13 579 700 892 1241 2542 al), though found in most (Ì75 A D Q Ψ 33 Ï lat co). The longer reading looks to be a clarifying addition; nevertheless, “to you” is included in the translation because of English requirements.
19 sn That is, laugh with happiness and joy.
20 tc The wording “to you” (ὑμῖν, Jumin) is lacking throughout the ms tradition except for a few witnesses (D W* Δ 1424 pc co). The Western witnesses tend to add freely to the text. Supported by the vast majority of witnesses and the likelihood that “to you” is a clarifying addition, the shorter reading should be considered original; nevertheless, “to you” is included in the translation because of English requirements.
21 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.
22 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”