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Luke 4:31-44

Context
Ministry in Capernaum

4:31 So 1  he went down to Capernaum, 2  a town 3  in Galilee, and on the Sabbath he began to teach the people. 4  4:32 They 5  were amazed 6  at his teaching, because he spoke 7  with authority. 8 

4:33 Now 9  in the synagogue 10  there was a man who had the spirit of an unclean 11  demon, and he cried out with a loud voice, 4:34 “Ha! Leave us alone, 12  Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 13  of God.” 4:35 But 14  Jesus rebuked him: 15  “Silence! Come out of him!” 16  Then, after the demon threw the man 17  down in their midst, he came out of him without hurting him. 18  4:36 They 19  were all amazed and began to say 20  to one another, “What’s happening here? 21  For with authority and power 22  he commands the unclean spirits, and they come out!” 4:37 So 23  the news 24  about him spread into all areas of the region. 25 

4:38 After Jesus left 26  the synagogue, he entered Simon’s house. Now Simon’s mother-in-law was suffering from a high fever, and they asked Jesus 27  to help her. 28  4:39 So 29  he stood over her, commanded 30  the fever, and it left her. Immediately 31  she got up and began to serve 32  them.

4:40 As the sun was setting, all those who had any relatives 33  sick with various diseases brought them to Jesus. 34  He placed 35  his hands on every one of them and healed them. 4:41 Demons also came out 36  of many, crying out, 37  “You are the Son of God!” 38  But he rebuked 39  them, and would not allow them to speak, 40  because they knew that he was the Christ. 41 

4:42 The next morning 42  Jesus 43  departed and went to a deserted place. Yet 44  the crowds were seeking him, and they came to him and tried to keep him from leaving them. 4:43 But Jesus 45  said to them, “I must 46  proclaim the good news of the kingdom 47  of God to the other towns 48  too, for that is what I was sent 49  to do.” 50  4:44 So 51  he continued to preach in the synagogues of Judea. 52 

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the continuation of the topic; in light of his rejection at Nazareth, Jesus went on to Capernaum.

2 sn Capernaum was a town on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region, and it became the hub of operations for Jesus’ Galilean ministry.

map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 C3; Map3 B2.

3 tn Or “city.”

4 tn Grk “them”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

5 tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

6 sn They were amazed. The astonishment shown here is like that in Luke 2:48.

7 tn Grk “because his word was.”

8 sn Jesus’ teaching impressed the hearers with the directness of its claim (with authority). A study of Jewish rabbinic interpretation shows that it was typical to cite a list of authorities to make one’s point. Apparently Jesus addressed the issues in terms of his own understanding.

9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a specific example of how Jesus spoke with authority (v. 32).

10 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

11 tn Grk “having an unclean, demonic spirit,” that is, an evil spirit. This is the only place Luke uses this lengthy phrase. Normally he simply says an “unclean spirit.”

12 tn Grk “What to us and to you?” This is an idiom meaning, “We have nothing to do with one another,” or “Why bother us!” The phrase τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί (ti Jhmin kai soi) is Semitic in origin, though it made its way into colloquial Greek (BDAG 275 s.v. ἐγώ). The equivalent Hebrew expression in the Old Testament had two basic meanings: (1) When one person was unjustly bothering another, the injured party could say “What to me and to you?” meaning, “What have I done to you that you should do this to me?” (Judg 11:12; 2 Chr 35:21; 1 Kgs 17:18). (2) When someone was asked to get involved in a matter he felt was no business of his, he could say to the one asking him, “What to me and to you?” meaning, “That is your business, how am I involved?” (2 Kgs 3:13; Hos 14:8). Option (1) implies hostility, while option (2) merely implies disengagement. BDAG suggests the following as glosses for this expression: What have I to do with you? What have we in common? Leave me alone! Never mind! Hostility between Jesus and the demons is certainly to be understood in this context, hence the translation: “Leave me alone….” For a very similar expression, see Luke 8:28 and (in a different context) John 2:4.

13 sn The confession of Jesus as the Holy One here is significant, coming from an unclean spirit. Jesus, as the Holy One of God, who bears God’s Spirit and is the expression of holiness, comes to deal with uncleanness and unholiness.

14 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast involved in Jesus’ reply.

15 tn Grk “rebuked him, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

16 sn The command Come out of him! is an example of Jesus’ authority (see v. 32). Unlike other exorcists, Jesus did not use magical incantations nor did he invoke anyone else’s name.

17 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

18 sn The departure of the evil spirit from the man without hurting him shows Jesus’ total deliverance and protection of this individual.

19 tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

20 tn This imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

21 tn Grk “What is this word?” The Greek term λόγος (logos) has a wide range of meaning. Here it seems to mean, “What is this matter?” More idiomatically it would be, “What’s going on here?!”

22 sn The phrase with authority and power is in an emphatic position in the Greek text. Once again the authority of Jesus is the point, but now it is not just his teaching that is emphasized, but his ministry. Jesus combined word and deed into a powerful testimony in Capernaum.

23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate resultative nature of the action.

24 tn That is, “information concerning a person or an event – ‘report, news, word, information’” (L&N 33.211).

25 sn Given Luke 4:31, the phrase the region is a reference to Galilee.

26 tn Grk “Arising from the synagogue, he entered.” The participle ἀναστάς (anastas) has been taken temporally here, and the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

27 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

28 tn Grk “they asked him about her.” It is clear from the context that they were concerned about her physical condition. The verb “to help” in the translation makes this explicit.

29 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the resultative nature of Jesus’ actions.

30 tn Or “rebuked,” but “rebuke” implies strong disapproval, while the usage here involves more of a command with perhaps the implication of a threat (L&N 33.331).

sn The language here (commanded) almost treats the illness as a personal force (see vv. 35, 41), but this is not the case. This healing shows Jesus’ power over sickness and should not be construed as an exorcism.

31 tn Grk “and immediately.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, δέ (de) has not been translated here. Instead a new sentence is started in the translation.

sn The note that this happened immediately shows the speed and totality of the recovery.

32 tn The imperfect verb has been translated ingressively.

33 tn Grk “everyone, as many as had those being sick.” The use of εἶχον (eicon, “had”) suggests that the subject of the accusative participle ἀσθενοῦντας (asqenountas, “those being sick”) is not simply acquaintances, but rather relatives, perhaps immediate family, and certainly close friends.

34 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

35 tn Or “laid.” The participle ἐπιτεθείς (epiteqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

36 sn Demons also came out. Note how Luke distinguishes healing from exorcism here, implying that the two are not identical.

37 tn Grk “crying out and saying.” The participle λέγοντα (legonta) is redundant in English and has not been translated here.

38 tc Most mss (A Q Θ Ψ 0102 Ë1,13 Ï) read “the Christ, the Son of God.” But the earliest and best mss, along with several other witnesses (א B C D L W Ξ 33 579 700 1241 2542 lat sa), lack “the Christ” here. It is likely that later scribes wished to bring the demons’ confession in line with what Luke says they knew later in the verse.

39 tn Or “commanded,” but “rebuke” implies strong disapproval, which seems to be more in keeping with the context here (L&N 33.419).

40 sn Jesus would not allow the demons to speak because the time for such disclosure was not yet at hand, and such a revelation would have certainly been misunderstood by the people. In all likelihood, if the people had understood him early on to be the Son of God, or Messiah, they would have reduced his mission to one of political deliverance from Roman oppression (cf. John 6:15). Jesus wanted to avoid, as much as possible, any premature misunderstanding about who he was and what he was doing. However, at the end of his ministry, he did not deny such a title when the high priest asked him (22:66-71).

41 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn Note how Luke associates Son of God with Messiah (Christ) in this context, a regal connection with OT roots (Ps 2:7). Also, see the note on Christ in 2:11.

42 tn Grk “When it became day.”

43 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

44 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate that the crowds still sought Jesus in spite of his withdrawal.

45 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

46 tn Here δεῖ (dei, “it is necessary”) indicates divine commission (cf. Luke 2:49).

47 sn The good news of the kingdom, the kingdom of the rule of God through the Messiah, is the topic of Jesus’ preaching.

48 tn Or “cities.”

49 sn Jesus was sent by God for this purpose. This is the language of divine commission.

50 tn Grk “because for this purpose I was sent.”

51 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the summarization.

52 tc Most mss (A D Θ Ψ Ë13 33 Ï latt) have “of Galilee”; others, “of the Jews” (W). “Judea” (read by Ì75 א B Q 579 892 pc sa, and [with minor variation] C L Ë1 1241) is probably the original reading since it is both the harder reading and supported by the best witnesses. “Galilee” is an assimilation to Mark 1:39 and Matt 4:23.



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