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Luke 4:25-27

Context
4:25 But in truth I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in Elijah’s days, 1  when the sky 2  was shut up three and a half years, and 3  there was a great famine over all the land. 4:26 Yet 4  Elijah was sent to none of them, but only to a woman who was a widow at Zarephath in Sidon. 5  4:27 And there were many lepers in Israel in the time of the prophet Elisha, 6  yet 7  none of them was cleansed except Naaman the Syrian.” 8 

Luke 9:35

Context
9:35 Then 9  a voice came from the cloud, saying, “This is my Son, my Chosen One. 10  Listen to him!” 11 

Luke 13:31-35

Context
Going to Jerusalem

13:31 At that time, 12  some Pharisees 13  came up and said to Jesus, 14  “Get away from here, 15  because Herod 16  wants to kill you.” 13:32 But 17  he said to them, “Go 18  and tell that fox, 19  ‘Look, I am casting out demons and performing healings today and tomorrow, and on the third day 20  I will complete my work. 21  13:33 Nevertheless I must 22  go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, because it is impossible 23  that a prophet should be killed 24  outside Jerusalem.’ 25  13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 26  you who kill the prophets and stone those who are sent to you! 27  How often I have longed 28  to gather your children together as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but 29  you would have none of it! 30  13:35 Look, your house is forsaken! 31  And I tell you, you will not see me until you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’” 32 

1 sn Elijahs days. Jesus, by discussing Elijah and Elisha, pictures one of the lowest periods in Israel’s history. These examples, along with v. 24, also show that Jesus is making prophetic claims as well as messianic ones. See 1 Kgs 17-18.

2 tn Or “the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. Since the context here refers to a drought (which produced the famine), “sky” is preferable.

3 tn Grk “as.” The particle ὡς can also function temporally (see BDAG 1105-6 s.v. 8).

4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast.

5 sn Zarephath in Sidon was Gentile territory (see 1 Kgs 17:9-24). Jesus’ point was that he would be forced to minister elsewhere, and the implication is that this ministry would ultimately extend (through the work of his followers) to those outside the nation.

map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

6 sn On Elisha see 2 Kgs 5:1-14.

7 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast.

8 sn The reference to Naaman the Syrian (see 2 Kgs 5:1-24) is another example where an outsider and Gentile was blessed. The stress in the example is the missed opportunity of the people to experience God’s work, but it will still go on without them.

9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

10 tc Most mss, especially the later ones, have ἀγαπητός (agaphto", “the one I love”; A C* W Ë13 33 Ï it), or ἀγαπητὸς ἐν ᾧ ()υδόκησα (agaphto" en |w (h)udokhsa, “the one I love, in whom I am well pleased”; C3 D Ψ pc) here, instead of ἐκλελεγμένος (eklelegmeno", “the Chosen One”), but these variants are probably assimilations to Matt 17:5 and Mark 9:7. The text behind the translation also enjoys excellent support from Ì45,75 א B L Ξ (579) 892 1241 pc co.

tn The participle ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος (Jo eklelegmeno"), which could be translated “the One who has been chosen,” is best understood as a title rather than a descriptive phrase, probably deriving from Isa 42:1 (LXX) which uses the similar ὁ ἐκλεκτός (Jo eklekto") which also appears in Luke 23:35.

sn This divine endorsement is like Luke 3:22 at Jesus’ baptism. One difference here is the mention of the Chosen One, a reference to the unique and beloved role of the regal, messianic Son.

11 sn The expression listen to him comes from Deut 18:15 and makes two points: 1) Jesus is a prophet like Moses, a leader-prophet, and 2) they have much yet to learn from him.

12 tn Grk “At that very hour.”

13 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

14 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

15 tn Grk “Go away and leave from here,” which is redundant in English and has been shortened to “Get away from here.”

16 sn Herod refers here to Herod Antipas. See the note on Herod Antipas in 3:1.

17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

18 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.

19 sn That fox. This is not fundamentally a figure for cleverness as in modern western culture, but could indicate (1) an insignificant person (Neh 4:3; 2 Esd 13:35 LXX); (2) a deceiver (Song Rabbah 2.15.1 on 2:15); or someone destructive, a destroyer (Ezek 13:4; Lam 5:18; 1 En. 89:10, 42-49, 55). Luke’s emphasis seems to be on destructiveness, since Herod killed John the Baptist, whom Luke calls “the greatest born of women” (Luke 7:28) and later stands opposed to Jesus (Acts 4:26-28). In addition, “a person who is designated a fox is an insignificant or base person. He lacks real power and dignity, using cunning deceit to achieve his aims” (H. W. Hoehner, Herod Antipas [SNTSMS], 347).

20 sn The third day is a figurative reference to being further on in time, not a reference to three days from now. Jesus is not even in Jerusalem yet, and the events of the last days in Jerusalem take a good week.

21 tn Or “I reach my goal.” The verb τελειόω (teleiow) is a key NT term for the completion of God’s plan: See Luke 12:50; 22:37; John 19:30; and (where it has the additional component of meaning “to perfect”) Heb 2:10; 5:8-9; 7:28.

22 tn This is the frequent expression δεῖ (dei, “it is necessary”) that notes something that is a part of God’s plan.

23 tn Or “unthinkable.” See L&N 71.4 for both possible meanings.

24 tn Or “should perish away from.”

25 sn Death in Jerusalem is another key theme in Luke’s material: 7:16, 34; 24:19; Acts 3:22-23. Notice that Jesus sees himself in the role of a prophet here. Jesus’ statement, it is impossible that a prophet should be killed outside Jerusalem, is filled with irony; Jesus, traveling about in Galilee (most likely), has nothing to fear from Herod; it is his own people living in the very center of Jewish religion and worship who present the greatest danger to his life. The underlying idea is that Jerusalem, though she stands at the very heart of the worship of God, often kills the prophets God sends to her (v. 34). In the end, Herod will be much less a threat than Jerusalem.

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

26 sn The double use of the city’s name betrays intense emotion.

27 tn Although the opening address (“Jerusalem, Jerusalem”) is direct (second person), the remainder of this sentence in the Greek text is third person (“who kills the prophets and stones those sent to her”). The following sentences then revert to second person (“your… you”), so to keep all this consistent in English, the third person pronouns in the present verse were translated as second person (“you who kill… sent to you”).

28 sn How often I have longed to gather your children. Jesus, like a lamenting prophet, speaks for God here, who longed to care tenderly for Israel and protect her.

29 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

30 tn Grk “you were not willing.”

31 sn Your house is forsaken. The language here is from Jer 12:7 and 22:5. It recalls exilic judgment.

32 sn A quotation from Ps 118:26. The judgment to come will not be lifted until the Lord returns. See Luke 19:41-44.



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