4:1 Then 1 Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan River 2 and was led by the Spirit 3 in 4 the wilderness, 5 4:2 where for forty days he endured temptations 6 from the devil. He 7 ate nothing 8 during those days, and when they were completed, 9 he was famished. 4:3 The devil said to him, “If 10 you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread.” 11 4:4 Jesus answered him, “It is written, ‘Man 12 does not live by bread alone.’” 13
4:5 Then 14 the devil 15 led him up 16 to a high place 17 and showed him in a flash all the kingdoms of the world. 4:6 And he 18 said to him, “To you 19 I will grant this whole realm 20 – and the glory that goes along with it, 21 for it has been relinquished 22 to me, and I can give it to anyone I wish. 4:7 So then, if 23 you will worship 24 me, all this will be 25 yours.” 4:8 Jesus 26 answered him, 27 “It is written, ‘You are to worship 28 the Lord 29 your God and serve only him.’” 30
4:9 Then 31 the devil 32 brought him to Jerusalem, 33 had him stand 34 on the highest point of the temple, 35 and said to him, “If 36 you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here, 4:10 for it is written, ‘He will command his angels concerning you, to protect you,’ 37 4:11 and ‘with their hands they will lift you up, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.’” 38 4:12 Jesus 39 answered him, 40 “It is said, ‘You are not to put the Lord your God to the test.’” 41 4:13 So 42 when the devil 43 had completed every temptation, he departed from him until a more opportune time. 44
11:14 Now 45 he was casting out a demon that was mute. 46 When 47 the demon had gone out, the man who had been mute began to speak, 48 and the crowds were amazed. 11:15 But some of them said, “By the power of Beelzebul, 49 the ruler 50 of demons, he casts out demons.” 11:16 Others, to test 51 him, 52 began asking for 53 a sign 54 from heaven. 11:17 But Jesus, 55 realizing their thoughts, said to them, 56 “Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, 57 and a divided household falls. 58 11:18 So 59 if 60 Satan too is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? I ask you this because 61 you claim that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 11:19 Now if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons 62 cast them 63 out? Therefore they will be your judges. 11:20 But if I cast out demons by the finger 64 of God, then the kingdom of God 65 has already overtaken 66 you. 11:21 When a strong man, 67 fully armed, guards his own palace, 68 his possessions are safe. 69 11:22 But 70 when a stronger man 71 attacks 72 and conquers him, he takes away the first man’s 73 armor on which the man relied 74 and divides up 75 his plunder. 76 11:23 Whoever is not with me is against me, 77 and whoever does not gather with me scatters. 78
1 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate continuity with the previous topic.
2 tn “River” is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity.
3 sn The double mention of the Spirit in this verse makes it clear that the temptation was neither the fault of Jesus nor an accident.
4 tc Most
5 tn Or “desert.”
6 tn Grk “in the desert, for forty days being tempted.” The participle πειραζόμενος (peirazomeno") has been translated as an adverbial clause in English to avoid a run-on sentence with a second “and.” Here the present participle suggests a period of forty days of testing. Three samples of the end of the testing are given in the following verses.
7 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
8 sn The reference to Jesus eating nothing could well be an idiom meaning that he ate only what the desert provided; see Exod 34:28. A desert fast simply meant eating only what one could obtain in the desert. The parallel in Matt 4:2 speaks only of Jesus fasting.
9 tn The Greek word here is συντελεσθείσων (suntelesqeiswn) from the verb συντελέω (suntelew).
sn This verb and its cognate noun, sunteleia, usually implies not just the end of an event, but its completion or fulfillment. The noun is always used in the NT in eschatological contexts; the verb is often so used (cf. Matt 13:39, 40; 24:3; 28:20; Mark 13:4; Rom 9:28; Heb 8:8; 9:26). The idea here may be that the forty-day period of temptation was designed for a particular purpose in the life of Christ (the same verb is used in v. 13). The cognate verb teleiow is a key NT term for the completion of God’s plan: See Luke 12:50; 22:37; John 19:30; and (where it has the additional component of meaning “to perfect”) Heb 2:10; 5:8-9; 7:28.
10 tn This is a first class condition: “If (and let’s assume that you are) the Son of God…”
11 tn Grk “say to this stone that it should become bread.”
12 tn Or “a person.” The Greek word ὁ ἄνθρωπος (Jo anqrwpo") is used generically for humanity. The translation “man” is used because the emphasis in Jesus’ response seems to be on his dependence on God as a man.
13 tc Most
sn A quotation from Deut 8:3. Jesus will live by doing God’s will, and will take no shortcuts.
14 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
sn The order of Luke’s temptations differs from Matthew’s at this point as numbers two and three are reversed. It is slightly more likely that Luke has made the change to put the Jerusalem temptation last, as Jerusalem is so important to Luke’s later account. The temporal markers in Matthew’s account are also slightly more specific.
15 tn Grk “he.”
16 tc Most
17 tn “A high place” is not in the Greek text but has been supplied for clarity.
18 tn Grk “And the devil.”
19 sn In Greek, this phrase is in an emphatic position. In effect, the devil is tempting Jesus by saying, “Look what you can have!”
20 tn Or “authority.” BDAG 353 s.v. ἐξουσία 6 suggests, concerning this passage, that the term means “the sphere in which the power is exercised, domain.” Cf. also Luke 22:53; 23:7; Acts 26:18; Eph 2:2.
21 tn The addendum referring to the glory of the kingdoms of the world forms something of an afterthought, as the following pronoun (“it”) makes clear, for the singular refers to the realm itself.
22 tn For the translation of παραδέδοται (paradedotai) see L&N 57.77. The devil is erroneously implying that God has given him such authority with the additional capability of sharing the honor.
23 tn This is a third class condition: “If you worship me (and I am not saying whether you will or will not)…”
24 tn Or “will prostrate yourself in worship before…” The verb προσκυνέω (proskunew) can allude not only to the act of worship but the position of the worshiper. See L&N 53.56.
25 tn One could translate this phrase “it will all be yours.” The sense is the same, but the translation given is a touch more emphatic and more likely to catch the force of the offer.
26 tn Grk “And Jesus.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
27 tc Most
28 tn Or “You will prostrate yourself in worship before…” The verb προσκυνέω (proskunew) can allude not only to the act of worship but the position of the worshiper. See L&N 53.56.
29 tc Most later
sn In the form of the quotation in the Greek text found in the best
31 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
32 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the devil) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
34 tn Grk “and stood him.”
35 sn The reference to the highest point of the temple probably refers to the one point on the temple’s southeast corner where the site looms directly over a cliff some 450 feet (135 m) high. However, some have suggested the reference could be to the temple’s high gate.
39 tn Grk “And Jesus.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
40 tn Grk “Jesus, answering, said to him.” This is redundant in English and has been simplified to “Jesus answered him.”
42 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate a summary.
43 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the devil) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
44 tn Grk “until a favorable time.”
sn Until a more opportune time. Though some have argued that the devil disappears until Luke 22:3, this is unlikely since the cosmic battle with Satan and all the evil angels is consistently mentioned throughout Luke (8:26-39; 11:14-23).
45 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
46 tn The phrase “a demon that was mute” should probably be understood to mean that the demon caused muteness or speechlessness in its victim, although it is sometimes taken to refer to the demon’s own inability to speak (cf. TEV, “a demon that could not talk”).
47 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here δέ (de) has not been translated either.
48 sn This miracle is different from others in Luke. The miracle is told entirely in one verse and with minimum detail, while the response covers several verses. The emphasis is on explaining what Jesus’ work means.
49 tn Grk “By Beelzebul.”
sn Beelzebul is another name for Satan. So some people recognized Jesus’ work as supernatural, but called it diabolical.
50 tn Or “prince.”
51 tn Grk “testing”; the participle is taken as indicating the purpose of the demand.
52 tn The pronoun “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
53 tn Grk “seeking from him.” The imperfect ἐζήτουν (ezhtoun) is taken ingressively. It is also possible to regard it as iterative (“kept on asking”).
54 sn What exactly this sign would have been, given what Jesus was already doing, is not clear. But here is where the fence-sitters reside, refusing to commit to him.
55 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
56 sn Jesus here demonstrated the absurdity of the thinking of those who maintained that he was in league with Satan and that he actually derived his power from the devil. He first teaches (vv. 17-20) that if he casts out demons by the ruler of the demons, then in reality Satan is fighting against himself, with the result that his kingdom has come to an end. He then teaches (v. 21-22) about defeating the strong man to prove that he does not need to align himself with the devil because he is more powerful. Jesus defeated Satan at his temptation (4:1-13) and by his exorcisms he clearly demonstrated himself to be stronger than the devil. The passage reveals the desperate condition of the religious leaders, who in their hatred for Jesus end up attributing the work of the Holy Spirit to Satan.
57 tn Or “is left in ruins.”
58 tn Grk “and house falls on house.” This phrase pictures one house collapsing on another, what is called today a “house of cards.”
59 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the clause that follows is a logical conclusion based on the preceding examples.
60 tn This first class condition, the first of three “if” clauses in the following verses, presents the example vividly as if it were so. In fact, all three conditions in these verses are first class. The examples are made totally parallel. The expected answer is that Satan’s kingdom will not stand, so the suggestion makes no sense. Satan would not seek to heal.
61 tn Grk “because.” “I ask you this” is supplied for the sake of English.
62 sn Most read your sons as a reference to Jewish exorcists (cf. “your followers,” L&N 9.4; for various views see D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1077-78), but more likely this is a reference to the disciples of Jesus themselves, who are also Jewish and have been healing as well (R. J. Shirock, “Whose Exorcists are they? The Referents of οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν at Matthew 12:27/Luke 11:19,” JSNT 46 : 41-51). If this is a reference to the disciples, then Jesus’ point is that it is not only him, but those associated with him whose power the hearers must assess. The following reference to judging also favors this reading.
63 tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
66 tn The phrase ἔφθασεν ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (efqasen ef’ Juma") is important. Does it mean merely “approach” (which would be reflected in a translation like “has come near to you”) or actually “come upon” (as in the translation given above, “has already overtaken you,” which has the added connotation of suddenness)? The issue here is like the one in 10:9 (see note there on the phrase “come on”). Is the arrival of the kingdom merely anticipated or already in process? Two factors favor arrival over anticipation here. First, the prepositional phrase “upon you” suggests arrival (Dan 4:24, 28 Theodotion). Second, the following illustration in vv. 21-23 looks at the healing as portraying Satan being overrun. So the presence of God’s authority has arrived. See also L&N 13.123 for the translation of φθάνω (fqanw) as “to happen to already, to come upon, to come upon already.”
67 tn The referent of the expression “a strong man” is Satan.
68 tn The word αὐλή (aulh) describes any building large and elaborate enough to have an interior courtyard, thus “dwelling, palace, mansion” (L&N 7.6).
69 tn Grk “his goods are in peace.”
70 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
71 tn The referent of the expression “a stronger man” is Jesus.
72 tn Grk “stronger man than he attacks.”
73 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the first man mentioned) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
74 tn Grk “on which he relied.”
75 tn Or “and distributes.”
76 sn Some see the imagery here as similar to Eph 4:7-10, although no opponents are explicitly named in that passage. Jesus has the victory over Satan. Jesus’ acts of healing mean that the war is being won and the kingdom is coming.
77 sn Whoever is not with me is against me. The call here is to join the victor. Failure to do so means that one is being destructive. Responding to Jesus is the issue.
78 sn For the image of scattering, see Pss. Sol. 17:18.