2:8 Now 1 there were shepherds 2 nearby 3 living out in the field, keeping guard 4 over their flock at night. 2:9 An 5 angel of the Lord 6 appeared to 7 them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were absolutely terrified. 8 2:10 But the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid! Listen carefully, 9 for I proclaim to you good news 10 that brings great joy to all the people: 2:11 Today 11 your Savior is born in the city 12 of David. 13 He is Christ 14 the Lord. 2:12 This 15 will be a sign 16 for you: You will find a baby wrapped in strips of cloth and lying in a manger.” 17 2:13 Suddenly 18 a vast, heavenly army 19 appeared with the angel, praising God and saying,
1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
2 sn Some argue that shepherds were among the culturally despised, but the evidence for this view of shepherds is late, coming from 5th century Jewish materials. December 25 as the celebrated date of Jesus’ birth arose around the time of Constantine (ca.
3 tn Grk “in that region.”
4 tn Grk “living in the field (see BDAG 15 s.v. ἀγραυλέω) and guarding their flock.”
5 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
7 tn Or “stood in front of.”
8 tn Grk “they feared a great fear” (a Semitic idiom which intensifies the main idea, in this case their fear).
sn Terrified. See similar responses in Luke 1:12, 29.
9 tn Grk “behold.”
10 tn Grk “I evangelize to you great joy.”
11 sn The Greek word for today (σήμερον, shmeron) occurs eleven times in the Gospel of Luke (2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 12:28; 13:32-33; 19:5, 9; 22:34, 61; 23:43) and nine times in Acts. Its use, especially in passages such as 2:11, 4:21, 5:26; 19:5, 9, signifies the dawning of the era of messianic salvation and the fulfillment of the plan of God. Not only does it underscore the idea of present fulfillment in Jesus’ ministry, but it also indicates salvific fulfillment present in the church (cf. Acts 1:6; 3:18; D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 1:412; I. H. Marshall, Luke, [NIGTC], 873).
13 tn This is another indication of a royal, messianic connection.
14 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
15 tn Grk “And this.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
18 tn Grk “And suddenly.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
19 tn Grk “a multitude of the armies of heaven.”
20 sn Glory here refers to giving honor to God.
21 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") referring to both males and females.
22 tc Most witnesses (א2 B2 L Θ Ξ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï sy bo) have ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκία (en anqrwpoi" eudokia, “good will among people”) instead of ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκίας (en anqrwpoi" eudokia", “among people with whom he is pleased”), a reading attested by א* A B* D W pc (sa). Most of the Itala witnesses and some other versional witnesses reflect a Greek text which has the genitive εὐδοκίας but drops the preposition ἐν. Not only is the genitive reading better attested, but it is more difficult than the nominative. “The meaning seems to be, not that divine peace can be bestowed only where human good will is already present, but that at the birth of the Saviour God’s peace rests on those whom he has chosen in accord with his good pleasure” (TCGNT 111).