2:11 Today 1 your Savior is born in the city 2 of David. 3 He is Christ 4 the Lord.
4:21 Then 5 he began to tell them, “Today 6 this scripture has been fulfilled even as you heard it being read.” 7
5:26 Then 8 astonishment 9 seized them all, and they glorified 10 God. They were filled with awe, 11 saying, “We have seen incredible 12 things 13 today.” 14
12:28 And if 15 this is how God clothes the wild grass, 16 which is here 17 today and tomorrow is tossed into the fire to heat the oven, 18 how much more 19 will he clothe you, you people of little faith!
13:32 But 20 he said to them, “Go 21 and tell that fox, 22 ‘Look, I am casting out demons and performing healings today and tomorrow, and on the third day 23 I will complete my work. 24 13:33 Nevertheless I must 25 go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, because it is impossible 26 that a prophet should be killed 27 outside Jerusalem.’ 28
19:5 And when Jesus came to that place, he looked up 29 and said to him, “Zacchaeus, come down quickly, 30 because I must 31 stay at your house today.” 32
19:9 Then 33 Jesus said to him, “Today salvation 34 has come to this household, 35 because he too is a son of Abraham! 36
22:34 Jesus replied, 37 “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow 38 today until you have denied 39 three times that you know me.”
22:61 Then 40 the Lord turned and looked straight at Peter, and Peter remembered the word of the Lord, 41 how he had said to him, “Before a rooster crows today, you will deny me three times.”
23:43 And Jesus 42 said to him, “I tell you the truth, 43 today 44 you will be with me in paradise.” 45
1 sn The Greek word for today (σήμερον, shmeron) occurs eleven times in the Gospel of Luke (2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 12:28; 13:32-33; 19:5, 9; 22:34, 61; 23:43) and nine times in Acts. Its use, especially in passages such as 2:11, 4:21, 5:26; 19:5, 9, signifies the dawning of the era of messianic salvation and the fulfillment of the plan of God. Not only does it underscore the idea of present fulfillment in Jesus’ ministry, but it also indicates salvific fulfillment present in the church (cf. Acts 1:6; 3:18; D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 1:412; I. H. Marshall, Luke, [NIGTC], 873).
3 tn This is another indication of a royal, messianic connection.
4 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
5 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
7 tn Grk “in your hearing.”
8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
9 tn Or “amazement.” See L&N 25.217, which translates this clause, “astonishment seized all of them.”
10 tn This imperfect verb could be translated as an ingressive (“they began to glorify God”), but this is somewhat awkward in English since the following verb is aorist and is normally translated as a simple past.
11 tn Grk “fear,” but the context and the following remark show that it is mixed with wonder; see L&N 53.59.
12 tn Or “remarkable.” The term παράδοξος (paradoxos) is hard to translate exactly; it suggests both the unusual and the awe inspiring in this context. For the alternatives see L&N 31.44 (“incredible”) and 58.56 (“remarkable”). It is often something beyond belief (G. Kittel, TDNT 2:255).
13 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied because the adjective παράδοξος (paradoxos) is substantival. Other translations sometimes supply alternate words like “miracles” or “signs,” but “things” is the most neutral translation.
15 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.
16 tn Grk “grass in the field.”
17 tn Grk “which is in the field today.”
18 tn Grk “into the oven.” The expanded translation “into the fire to heat the oven” has been used to avoid misunderstanding; most items put into modern ovens are put there to be baked, not burned.
sn The oven was most likely a rounded clay oven used for baking bread, which was heated by burning wood and dried grass.
19 sn The phrase how much more is a typical form of rabbinic argumentation, from the lesser to the greater. If God cares for the little things, surely he will care for the more important things.
20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
21 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.
22 sn That fox. This is not fundamentally a figure for cleverness as in modern western culture, but could indicate (1) an insignificant person (Neh 4:3; 2 Esd 13:35 LXX); (2) a deceiver (Song Rabbah 2.15.1 on 2:15); or someone destructive, a destroyer (Ezek 13:4; Lam 5:18; 1 En. 89:10, 42-49, 55). Luke’s emphasis seems to be on destructiveness, since Herod killed John the Baptist, whom Luke calls “the greatest born of women” (Luke 7:28) and later stands opposed to Jesus (Acts 4:26-28). In addition, “a person who is designated a fox is an insignificant or base person. He lacks real power and dignity, using cunning deceit to achieve his aims” (H. W. Hoehner, Herod Antipas [SNTSMS], 347).
23 sn The third day is a figurative reference to being further on in time, not a reference to three days from now. Jesus is not even in Jerusalem yet, and the events of the last days in Jerusalem take a good week.
24 tn Or “I reach my goal.” The verb τελειόω (teleiow) is a key NT term for the completion of God’s plan: See Luke 12:50; 22:37; John 19:30; and (where it has the additional component of meaning “to perfect”) Heb 2:10; 5:8-9; 7:28.
25 tn This is the frequent expression δεῖ (dei, “it is necessary”) that notes something that is a part of God’s plan.
26 tn Or “unthinkable.” See L&N 71.4 for both possible meanings.
27 tn Or “should perish away from.”
28 sn Death in Jerusalem is another key theme in Luke’s material: 7:16, 34; 24:19; Acts 3:22-23. Notice that Jesus sees himself in the role of a prophet here. Jesus’ statement, it is impossible that a prophet should be killed outside Jerusalem, is filled with irony; Jesus, traveling about in Galilee (most likely), has nothing to fear from Herod; it is his own people living in the very center of Jewish religion and worship who present the greatest danger to his life. The underlying idea is that Jerusalem, though she stands at the very heart of the worship of God, often kills the prophets God sends to her (v. 34). In the end, Herod will be much less a threat than Jerusalem.
29 tc Most
30 tn Grk “hastening, come down.” σπεύσας (speusa") has been translated as a participle of manner.
33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative
35 sn The household is not a reference to the building, but to the people who lived within it (L&N 10.8).
36 sn Zacchaeus was personally affirmed by Jesus as a descendant (son) of Abraham and a member of God’s family.
37 tn Grk “he said”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
38 sn That is, Peter’s denials will happen before the sun rises.
39 sn Once again, Jesus is quite aware that Peter will deny him. Peter, however, is too nonchalant about the possibility of stumbling.
40 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
41 tn “The word of the Lord” is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; here and in Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said. Because of its technical nature the expression has been retained in the translation in preference to a smoother rendering like “remembered what the Lord had said” (cf. TEV, NLT).
42 tn Grk “he.”
43 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”
45 sn In the NT, paradise is mentioned three times. Here it refers to the abode of the righteous dead. In Rev 2:7 it refers to the restoration of Edenic paradise predicted in Isa 51:3 and Ezek 36:35. In 2 Cor 12:4 it probably refers to the “third heaven” (2 Cor 12:2) as the place where God dwells.