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Luke 2:10-14

Context
2:10 But the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid! Listen carefully, 1  for I proclaim to you good news 2  that brings great joy to all the people: 2:11 Today 3  your Savior is born in the city 4  of David. 5  He is Christ 6  the Lord. 2:12 This 7  will be a sign 8  for you: You will find a baby wrapped in strips of cloth and lying in a manger.” 9  2:13 Suddenly 10  a vast, heavenly army 11  appeared with the angel, praising God and saying,

2:14 “Glory 12  to God in the highest,

and on earth peace among people 13  with whom he is pleased!” 14 

1 tn Grk “behold.”

2 tn Grk “I evangelize to you great joy.”

3 sn The Greek word for today (σήμερον, shmeron) occurs eleven times in the Gospel of Luke (2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 12:28; 13:32-33; 19:5, 9; 22:34, 61; 23:43) and nine times in Acts. Its use, especially in passages such as 2:11, 4:21, 5:26; 19:5, 9, signifies the dawning of the era of messianic salvation and the fulfillment of the plan of God. Not only does it underscore the idea of present fulfillment in Jesus’ ministry, but it also indicates salvific fulfillment present in the church (cf. Acts 1:6; 3:18; D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 1:412; I. H. Marshall, Luke, [NIGTC], 873).

4 tn Or “town.” See the note on “city” in v. 4.

5 tn This is another indication of a royal, messianic connection.

6 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.

7 tn Grk “And this.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

8 sn The sign functions for the shepherds like Elizabeth’s conception served for Mary in 1:36.

9 tn Or “a feeding trough,” see Luke 2:7.

10 tn Grk “And suddenly.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

11 tn Grk “a multitude of the armies of heaven.”

12 sn Glory here refers to giving honor to God.

13 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") referring to both males and females.

14 tc Most witnesses (א2 B2 L Θ Ξ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï sy bo) have ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκία (en anqrwpoi" eudokia, “good will among people”) instead of ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκίας (en anqrwpoi" eudokia", “among people with whom he is pleased”), a reading attested by א* A B* D W pc (sa). Most of the Itala witnesses and some other versional witnesses reflect a Greek text which has the genitive εὐδοκίας but drops the preposition ἐν. Not only is the genitive reading better attested, but it is more difficult than the nominative. “The meaning seems to be, not that divine peace can be bestowed only where human good will is already present, but that at the birth of the Saviour God’s peace rests on those whom he has chosen in accord with his good pleasure” (TCGNT 111).



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