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Luke 24:35-49

Context
24:35 Then they told what had happened on the road, 1  and how they recognized him 2  when he broke the bread.

Jesus Makes a Final Appearance

24:36 While they were saying these things, Jesus 3  himself stood among them and said to them, “Peace be with you.” 4  24:37 But they were startled and terrified, thinking 5  they saw a ghost. 6  24:38 Then 7  he said to them, “Why are you frightened, 8  and why do doubts 9  arise in your hearts? 24:39 Look at my hands and my feet; it’s me! 10  Touch me and see; a ghost 11  does not have flesh and bones like you see I have.” 24:40 When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. 12  24:41 And while they still could not believe it 13  (because of their joy) and were amazed, 14  he said to them, “Do you have anything here to eat?” 15  24:42 So 16  they gave him a piece of broiled fish, 24:43 and he took it and ate it in front of them.

Jesus’ Final Commission

24:44 Then 17  he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me 18  in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms 19  must be fulfilled.” 24:45 Then he opened their minds so they could understand the scriptures, 20  24:46 and said to them, “Thus it stands written that the Christ 21  would suffer 22  and would rise from the dead on the third day, 24:47 and repentance 23  for the forgiveness of sins would be proclaimed 24  in his name to all nations, 25  beginning from Jerusalem. 26  24:48 You are witnesses 27  of these things. 24:49 And look, I am sending you 28  what my Father promised. 29  But stay in the city 30  until you have been clothed with power 31  from on high.”

1 sn Now with the recounting of what had happened on the road two sets of witnesses corroborate the women’s report.

2 tn Grk “how he was made known to them”; or “how he was recognized by them.” Here the passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation in keeping with contemporary English style.

3 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

4 tc The words “and said to them, ‘Peace be with you’” are lacking in some Western mss (D it). But the clause is otherwise well attested, being found in Ì75 and the rest of the ms tradition, and should be considered an original part of Luke.

5 sn The disciples were still not comfortable at this point thinking that this could be Jesus raised from the dead. Instead they thought they saw a spirit.

6 tc This is not a reference to “a phantom” as read by the Western ms D. For πνεῦμα (pneuma) having the force of “ghost,” or “an independent noncorporeal being, in contrast to a being that can be perceived by the physical senses,” see BDAG 833-34 s.v. πνεῦμα 4.

7 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

8 tn Or “disturbed,” “troubled.”

9 tn The expression here is an idiom; see BDAG 58 s.v. ἀναβαίνω 2. Here καρδία (kardia) is a collective singular; the expression has been translated as plural in English.

sn Jesus calls the disciples to faith with a gentle rebuke about doubts and a gracious invitation to see for themselves the evidence of his resurrection.

10 tn Grk “that it is I myself.”

11 tn See tc note on “ghost” in v. 37.

12 tc Some Western mss (D it) lack 24:40. However, it is present in all other mss, including Ì75, and should thus be regarded as an original part of Luke’s Gospel.

13 sn They still could not believe it. Is this a continued statement of unbelief? Or is it a rhetorical expression of their amazement? They are being moved to faith, so a rhetorical force is more likely here.

14 sn Amazement is the common response to unusual activity: 1:63; 2:18; 4:22; 7:9; 8:25; 9:43; 11:14; 20:26.

15 sn Do you have anything here to eat? Eating would remove the idea that a phantom was present. Angelic spirits refused a meal in Jdt 13:16 and Tob 12:19, but accepted it in Gen 18:8; 19:3 and Tob 6:6.

16 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ request for food.

17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

18 sn Everything written about me. The divine plan, events, and scripture itself are seen here as being one.

19 sn For a similar threefold division of the OT scriptures, see the prologue to Sirach, lines 8-10, and from Qumran, the epilogue to 4QMMT, line 10.

20 sn Luke does not mention specific texts here, but it is likely that many of the scriptures he mentioned elsewhere in Luke-Acts would have been among those he had in mind.

21 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

22 tn Three Greek infinitives are the key to this summary: (1) to suffer, (2) to rise, and (3) to be preached. The Christ (Messiah) would be slain, would be raised, and a message about repentance would go out into all the world as a result. All of this was recorded in the scripture. The remark shows the continuity between Jesus’ ministry, the scripture, and what disciples would be doing as they declared the Lord risen.

23 sn This repentance has its roots in declarations of the Old Testament. It is the Hebrew concept of a turning of direction.

24 tn Or “preached,” “announced.”

25 sn To all nations. The same Greek term (τὰ ἔθνη, ta eqnh) may be translated “the Gentiles” or “the nations.” The hope of God in Christ was for all the nations from the beginning.

26 sn Beginning from Jerusalem. See Acts 2, which is where it all starts.

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

27 sn You are witnesses. This becomes a key concept of testimony in Acts. See Acts 1:8.

28 tn Grk “sending on you.”

29 tn Grk “the promise of my Father,” with τοῦ πατρός (tou patros) translated as a subjective genitive. This is a reference to the Holy Spirit and looks back to how one could see Messiah had come with the promise of old (Luke 3:15-18). The promise is rooted in Jer 31:31 and Ezek 36:26.

30 sn The city refers to Jerusalem.

31 sn Until you have been clothed with power refers to the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. What the Spirit supplies is enablement. See Luke 12:11-12; 21:12-15. The difference the Spirit makes can be seen in Peter (compare Luke 22:54-62 with Acts 2:14-41).



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