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Luke 23:32-33

Context

23:32 Two other criminals 1  were also led away to be executed with him. 23:33 So 2  when they came to the place that is called “The Skull,” 3  they crucified 4  him there, along with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left.

Luke 23:39-43

Context

23:39 One of the criminals who was hanging there railed at him, saying, “Aren’t 5  you the Christ? 6  Save yourself and us!” 23:40 But the other rebuked him, saying, 7  “Don’t 8  you fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation? 9  23:41 And we rightly so, for we are getting what we deserve for what we did, but this man has done nothing 10  wrong.” 23:42 Then 11  he said, “Jesus, remember me 12  when you come in 13  your kingdom.” 23:43 And Jesus 14  said to him, “I tell you the truth, 15  today 16  you will be with me in paradise.” 17 

1 tc The text reads either “two other criminals” or “others, two criminals.” The first reading (found in Ì75 א B) could be read as describing Jesus as a criminal, while the second (found in A C D L W Θ Ψ 070 0250 Ë1,13 33 Ï) looks like an attempt to prevent this identification. The first reading, more difficult to explain from the other, is likely original.

sn Jesus is numbered among the criminals (see Isa 53:12 and Luke 22:37).

2 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the preceding material.

3 sn The place that is calledThe Skull’ (known as Golgotha in Aramaic, cf. John 19:17) is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for Greek κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” derives (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).

4 sn See the note on crucify in 23:21.

5 tc Most mss (A C3 W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat) read εἰ σὺ εἶ (ei su ei, “If you are”) here, while οὐχὶ σὺ εἶ (ouci su ei, “Are you not”) is found in overall better and earlier witnesses (Ì75 א B C* L 070 1241 pc it). The “if” clause reading creates a parallel with the earlier taunts (vv. 35, 37), and thus is most likely a motivated reading.

sn The question in Greek expects a positive reply and is also phrased with irony.

6 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.

7 tn Grk “But answering, the other rebuking him, said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

8 tn The particle used here (οὐδέ, oude), which expects a positive reply, makes this a rebuke – “You should fear God and not speak!”

9 tn The words “of condemnation” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

10 sn This man has done nothing wrong is yet another declaration that Jesus was innocent of any crime.

11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

12 sn Jesus, remember me is a statement of faith from the cross, as Jesus saves another even while he himself is dying. This man’s faith had shown itself when he rebuked the other thief. He hoped to be with Jesus sometime in the future in the kingdom.

13 tc ‡ The alternate readings of some mss make the reference to Jesus’ coming clearer. “Into your kingdom” – with εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν (ei" thn basileian), read by Ì75 B L – is a reference to his entering into God’s presence at the right hand. “In your kingdom” – with ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ (en th basileia), read by א A C*,2 W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat sy – looks at his return. It could be argued that the reading with εἰς is more in keeping with Luke’s theology elsewhere, but the contrast with Jesus’ reply, “Today,” slightly favors the reading “in your kingdom.” Codex Bezae (D), in place of this short interchange between the criminal and Jesus, reads “Then he turned to the Lord and said to him, ‘Remember me in the day of your coming.’ Then the Lord said in reply to [him], ‘Take courage; today you will be with me in paradise.’” This reading emphasizes the future aspect of the coming of Christ; it has virtually no support in any other mss.

14 tn Grk “he.”

15 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

16 sn Jesus gives more than the criminal asked for, because the blessing will come today, not in the future. He will be among the righteous. See the note on today in 2:11.

17 sn In the NT, paradise is mentioned three times. Here it refers to the abode of the righteous dead. In Rev 2:7 it refers to the restoration of Edenic paradise predicted in Isa 51:3 and Ezek 36:35. In 2 Cor 12:4 it probably refers to the “third heaven” (2 Cor 12:2) as the place where God dwells.



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