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Luke 22:31-46

Context

22:31 “Simon, 1  Simon, pay attention! 2  Satan has demanded to have you all, 3  to sift you like wheat, 4  22:32 but I have prayed for you, Simon, 5  that your faith may not fail. 6  When 7  you have turned back, 8  strengthen 9  your brothers.” 22:33 But Peter 10  said to him, “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!” 11  22:34 Jesus replied, 12  “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow 13  today until you have denied 14  three times that you know me.”

22:35 Then 15  Jesus 16  said to them, “When I sent you out with no money bag, 17  or traveler’s bag, 18  or sandals, you didn’t lack 19  anything, did you?” They replied, 20  “Nothing.” 22:36 He said to them, “But now, the one who 21  has a money bag must take it, and likewise a traveler’s bag 22  too. And the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one. 22:37 For I tell you that this scripture must be 23  fulfilled in me, ‘And he was counted with the transgressors.’ 24  For what is written about me is being fulfilled.” 25  22:38 So 26  they said, “Look, Lord, here are two swords.” 27  Then he told them, “It is enough.” 28 

On the Mount of Olives

22:39 Then 29  Jesus 30  went out and made his way, 31  as he customarily did, to the Mount of Olives, 32  and the disciples followed him. 22:40 When he came to the place, 33  he said to them, “Pray that you will not fall into temptation.” 34  22:41 He went away from them about a stone’s throw, knelt down, and prayed, 22:42 “Father, if you are willing, take 35  this cup 36  away from me. Yet not my will but yours 37  be done.” 22:43 [Then an angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him. 22:44 And in his anguish 38  he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground.] 39  22:45 When 40  he got up from prayer, he came to the disciples and found them sleeping, exhausted 41  from grief. 22:46 So 42  he said to them, “Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray that you will not fall into temptation!” 43 

1 tc The majority of mss (א A D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï as well as several versional witnesses) begin this verse with an introductory comment, “and the Lord said,” indicating a change in the subject of discussion. But this is apparently a reading motivated by the need for clarity. Some of the best witnesses, along with a few others (Ì75 B L T 1241 2542c sys co), do not contain these words. The abrupt shift is the more difficult reading and thus more likely to be original.

2 tn Grk “behold” (for “pay attention” see L&N 91.13).

3 sn This pronoun is plural in the Greek text, so it refers to all the disciples of which Peter is the representative.

4 sn Satan has demanded permission to put them to the test. The idiom “sift (someone) like wheat” is similar to the English idiom “to pick (someone) apart.” The pronoun you is implied.

5 sn Here and in the remainder of the verse the second person pronouns are singular, so only Peter is in view. The name “Simon” has been supplied as a form of direct address to make this clear in English.

6 sn That your faith may not fail. Note that Peter’s denials are pictured here as lapses, not as a total absence of faith.

7 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

8 tn Or “turned around.”

9 sn Strengthen your brothers refers to Peter helping to strengthen their faith. Jesus quite graciously restores Peter “in advance,” even with the knowledge of his approaching denials.

10 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

11 sn The confidence Peter has in private (Lord, I am ready…) will wilt under the pressure of the public eye.

12 tn Grk “he said”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

13 sn That is, Peter’s denials will happen before the sun rises.

14 sn Once again, Jesus is quite aware that Peter will deny him. Peter, however, is too nonchalant about the possibility of stumbling.

15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

16 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

17 tn Traditionally, “purse” (likewise in v. 36).

18 tn Or possibly “beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145).

19 sn This refers back to 9:3 and 10:3-4. The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ at the end, “did you?” Nothing was lacking.

20 tn Grk “said.”

21 tn The syntax of this verse is disputed, resulting in various translations. The major options are either (1) that reflected in the translation or (2) that those who have a money bag and traveler’s bag should get a sword, just as those who do not have these items should sell their cloak to buy a sword. The point of all the options is that things have changed and one now needs full provisions. Opposition will come. But “sword” is a figure for preparing to fight. See Luke 22:50-51.

22 tn Or possibly “beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145).

23 sn This scripture must be fulfilled in me. The statement again reflects the divine necessity of God’s plan. See 4:43-44.

24 tn Or “with the lawless.”

sn This is a quotation from Isa 53:12. It highlights a theme of Luke 22-23. Though completely innocent, Jesus dies as if he were a criminal.

25 tn Grk “is having its fulfillment.”

26 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments about obtaining swords.

27 sn Here are two swords. The disciples mistakenly took Jesus to mean that they should prepare for armed resistance, something he will have to correct in 22:50-51.

28 sn It is enough. The disciples’ misunderstanding caused Jesus to terminate the discussion.

29 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

30 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

31 tn Grk “went.”

32 sn See the note on the Mount of Olives in Luke 19:29.

33 sn Luke does not mention Gethsemane by name, but calls it simply the place.

34 sn Jesus’ instructions to pray not to fall into temptation is an allusion to Luke 22:28-38, especially 22:31. The temptation is Satan’s challenge to them to defect, like what happened to Judas and what will happen to Peter.

35 tn Luke’s term παρένεγκε is not as exact as the one in Matt 26:39. Luke’s means “take away” (BDAG 772 s.v. παρένεγκε 2.c) while Matthew’s means “take away without touching,” suggesting an alteration (if possible) in God’s plan. For further discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1759-60.

36 sn This cup alludes to the wrath of God that Jesus would experience (in the form of suffering and death) for us. See Ps 11:6; 75:8-9; Isa 51:17, 19, 22 for this figure.

37 sn With the statement “Not my will but yours be done” Jesus submitted fully to God’s will.

38 tn Grk “And being in anguish.”

39 tc Several important Greek mss (Ì75 א1 A B N T W 579 1071*) along with diverse and widespread versional witnesses lack 22:43-44. In addition, the verses are placed after Matt 26:39 by Ë13. Floating texts typically suggest both spuriousness and early scribal impulses to regard the verses as historically authentic. These verses are included in א*,2 D L Θ Ψ 0171 Ë1 Ï lat Ju Ir Hipp Eus. However, a number of mss mark the text with an asterisk or obelisk, indicating the scribe’s assessment of the verses as inauthentic. At the same time, these verses generally fit Luke’s style. Arguments can be given on both sides about whether scribes would tend to include or omit such comments about Jesus’ humanity and an angel’s help. But even if the verses are not literarily authentic, they are probably historically authentic. This is due to the fact that this text was well known in several different locales from a very early period. Since there are no synoptic parallels to this account and since there is no obvious reason for adding these words here, it is very likely that such verses recount a part of the actual suffering of our Lord. Nevertheless, because of the serious doubts as to these verses’ authenticity, they have been put in brackets. For an important discussion of this problem, see B. D. Ehrman and M. A. Plunkett, “The Angel and the Agony: The Textual Problem of Luke 22:43-44,” CBQ 45 (1983): 401-16.

sn Angelic aid is noted elsewhere in the gospels: Matt 4:11 = Mark 1:13.

40 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

41 tn Grk “from grief.” The word “exhausted” is not in the Greek text, but is implied; the disciples have fallen asleep from mental and emotional exhaustion resulting from their distress (see L&N 25.273; cf. TEV, NIV, NLT).

42 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus finding them asleep.

43 sn Jesus calls the disciples again to prayerful watchfulness with the words “Get up and pray” (see 22:40). The time is full of danger (22:53).



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