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Luke 22:21-38

A Final Discourse

22:21 “But look, the hand of the one who betrays 1  me is with me on the table. 2  22:22 For the Son of Man is to go just as it has been determined, 3  but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!” 22:23 So 4  they began to question one another as to which of them it could possibly be who would do this.

22:24 A dispute also started 5  among them over which of them was to be regarded as the greatest. 6  22:25 So 7  Jesus 8  said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those in authority over them are called ‘benefactors.’ 9  22:26 Not so with you; 10  instead the one who is greatest among you must become like the youngest, and the leader 11  like the one who serves. 12  22:27 For who is greater, the one who is seated at the table, 13  or the one who serves? Is it not 14  the one who is seated at the table? But I am among you as one 15  who serves.

22:28 “You are the ones who have remained 16  with me in my trials. 22:29 Thus 17  I grant 18  to you a kingdom, 19  just as my Father granted to me, 22:30 that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and you will sit 20  on thrones judging 21  the twelve tribes of Israel.

22:31 “Simon, 22  Simon, pay attention! 23  Satan has demanded to have you all, 24  to sift you like wheat, 25  22:32 but I have prayed for you, Simon, 26  that your faith may not fail. 27  When 28  you have turned back, 29  strengthen 30  your brothers.” 22:33 But Peter 31  said to him, “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!” 32  22:34 Jesus replied, 33  “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow 34  today until you have denied 35  three times that you know me.”

22:35 Then 36  Jesus 37  said to them, “When I sent you out with no money bag, 38  or traveler’s bag, 39  or sandals, you didn’t lack 40  anything, did you?” They replied, 41  “Nothing.” 22:36 He said to them, “But now, the one who 42  has a money bag must take it, and likewise a traveler’s bag 43  too. And the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one. 22:37 For I tell you that this scripture must be 44  fulfilled in me, ‘And he was counted with the transgressors.’ 45  For what is written about me is being fulfilled.” 46  22:38 So 47  they said, “Look, Lord, here are two swords.” 48  Then he told them, “It is enough.” 49 

1 sn The one who betrays me. Jesus knows about Judas and what he has done.

2 sn The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

3 sn Jesus’ death has been determined as a part of God’s plan (Acts 2:22-24).

4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments: The disciples begin wondering who would betray him.

5 tn Or “happened.”

6 tn Though the term μείζων (meizwn) here is comparative in form, it is superlative in sense (BDF §244).

7 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the dispute among the apostles.

8 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

9 sn The title ‘benefactor,’ highlighting grace and meaning something like “helper of the people,” was even given to tyrants (2 Macc 4:2; 3 Macc 3:19; Josephus, J. W. 3.9.8 [3.459]).

10 tn Grk “But you are not thus.”

11 tn Or “the ruler.”

12 sn And the leader like the one who serves. Leadership was not to be a matter of privilege and special status, but of service. All social status is leveled out by these remarks. Jesus himself is the prime example of the servant-leader.

13 tn Grk “who reclines at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

14 tn The interrogative particle used here in the Greek text (οὐχί, ouci) expects a positive reply.

15 sn Jesus’ example of humble service, as one who serves, shows that the standard for a disciple is different from that of the world. For an example see John 13:1-17.

16 tn Or “continued” (L&N 34.3). Jesus acknowledges the disciples’ faithfulness.

17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the disciples’ perseverance with Jesus.

18 sn With the statement “I grant to you a kingdom” Jesus gave the disciples authority over the kingdom, as God had given him such authority. The present tense looks at authority given presently, though the major manifestation of its presence is yet to come as the next verse shows.

19 tn Or “I give you the right to rule” (cf. CEV). For this translation of διατίθεμαι βασιλείαν (diatiqemai basileian) see L&N 37.105.

20 tn This verb is future indicative, and thus not subordinate to “grant” (διατίθεμαι, diatiqemai) as part of the result clause beginning with ἵνα ἔσθητε ({ina esqhte) at the beginning of v. 30. It is better understood as a predictive future.

21 sn The statement you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel looks at the future authority the Twelve will have when Jesus returns. They will share in Israel’s judgment.

22 tc The majority of mss (א A D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï as well as several versional witnesses) begin this verse with an introductory comment, “and the Lord said,” indicating a change in the subject of discussion. But this is apparently a reading motivated by the need for clarity. Some of the best witnesses, along with a few others (Ì75 B L T 1241 2542c sys co), do not contain these words. The abrupt shift is the more difficult reading and thus more likely to be original.

23 tn Grk “behold” (for “pay attention” see L&N 91.13).

24 sn This pronoun is plural in the Greek text, so it refers to all the disciples of which Peter is the representative.

25 sn Satan has demanded permission to put them to the test. The idiom “sift (someone) like wheat” is similar to the English idiom “to pick (someone) apart.” The pronoun you is implied.

26 sn Here and in the remainder of the verse the second person pronouns are singular, so only Peter is in view. The name “Simon” has been supplied as a form of direct address to make this clear in English.

27 sn That your faith may not fail. Note that Peter’s denials are pictured here as lapses, not as a total absence of faith.

28 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

29 tn Or “turned around.”

30 sn Strengthen your brothers refers to Peter helping to strengthen their faith. Jesus quite graciously restores Peter “in advance,” even with the knowledge of his approaching denials.

31 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

32 sn The confidence Peter has in private (Lord, I am ready…) will wilt under the pressure of the public eye.

33 tn Grk “he said”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

34 sn That is, Peter’s denials will happen before the sun rises.

35 sn Once again, Jesus is quite aware that Peter will deny him. Peter, however, is too nonchalant about the possibility of stumbling.

36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

37 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

38 tn Traditionally, “purse” (likewise in v. 36).

39 tn Or possibly “beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145).

40 sn This refers back to 9:3 and 10:3-4. The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ at the end, “did you?” Nothing was lacking.

41 tn Grk “said.”

42 tn The syntax of this verse is disputed, resulting in various translations. The major options are either (1) that reflected in the translation or (2) that those who have a money bag and traveler’s bag should get a sword, just as those who do not have these items should sell their cloak to buy a sword. The point of all the options is that things have changed and one now needs full provisions. Opposition will come. But “sword” is a figure for preparing to fight. See Luke 22:50-51.

43 tn Or possibly “beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145).

44 sn This scripture must be fulfilled in me. The statement again reflects the divine necessity of God’s plan. See 4:43-44.

45 tn Or “with the lawless.”

sn This is a quotation from Isa 53:12. It highlights a theme of Luke 22-23. Though completely innocent, Jesus dies as if he were a criminal.

46 tn Grk “is having its fulfillment.”

47 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments about obtaining swords.

48 sn Here are two swords. The disciples mistakenly took Jesus to mean that they should prepare for armed resistance, something he will have to correct in 22:50-51.

49 sn It is enough. The disciples’ misunderstanding caused Jesus to terminate the discussion.

TIP #08: Use the Strong Number links to learn about the original Hebrew and Greek text. [ALL]
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