NETBible KJV GRK-HEB XRef Arts Hymns
  Discovery Box

Luke 22:1--23:56

Context
Judas’ Decision to Betray Jesus

22:1 Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread, 1  which is called the Passover, was approaching. 22:2 The 2  chief priests and the experts in the law 3  were trying to find some way 4  to execute 5  Jesus, 6  for they were afraid of the people. 7 

22:3 Then 8  Satan 9  entered Judas, the one called Iscariot, who was one of the twelve. 10  22:4 He went away and discussed with the chief priests and officers of the temple guard 11  how he might 12  betray Jesus, 13  handing him over to them. 14  22:5 They 15  were delighted 16  and arranged to give him money. 17  22:6 So 18  Judas 19  agreed and began looking for an opportunity to betray Jesus 20  when no crowd was present. 21 

The Passover

22:7 Then the day for the feast 22  of Unleavened Bread came, on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. 23  22:8 Jesus 24  sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare the Passover 25  for us to eat.” 26  22:9 They 27  said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare 28  it?” 22:10 He said to them, “Listen, 29  when you have entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water 30  will meet you. 31  Follow him into the house that he enters, 22:11 and tell the owner of the house, 32  ‘The Teacher says to you, “Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 22:12 Then he will show you a large furnished room upstairs. Make preparations there.” 22:13 So 33  they went and found things 34  just as he had told them, 35  and they prepared the Passover.

The Lord’s Supper

22:14 Now 36  when the hour came, Jesus 37  took his place at the table 38  and the apostles joined 39  him. 22:15 And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired 40  to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 22:16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again 41  until it is fulfilled 42  in the kingdom of God.” 43  22:17 Then 44  he took a cup, 45  and after giving thanks he said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves. 22:18 For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit 46  of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” 47  22:19 Then 48  he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body 49  which is given for you. 50  Do this in remembrance of me.” 22:20 And in the same way he took 51  the cup after they had eaten, 52  saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant 53  in my blood.

A Final Discourse

22:21 “But look, the hand of the one who betrays 54  me is with me on the table. 55  22:22 For the Son of Man is to go just as it has been determined, 56  but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!” 22:23 So 57  they began to question one another as to which of them it could possibly be who would do this.

22:24 A dispute also started 58  among them over which of them was to be regarded as the greatest. 59  22:25 So 60  Jesus 61  said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those in authority over them are called ‘benefactors.’ 62  22:26 Not so with you; 63  instead the one who is greatest among you must become like the youngest, and the leader 64  like the one who serves. 65  22:27 For who is greater, the one who is seated at the table, 66  or the one who serves? Is it not 67  the one who is seated at the table? But I am among you as one 68  who serves.

22:28 “You are the ones who have remained 69  with me in my trials. 22:29 Thus 70  I grant 71  to you a kingdom, 72  just as my Father granted to me, 22:30 that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and you will sit 73  on thrones judging 74  the twelve tribes of Israel.

22:31 “Simon, 75  Simon, pay attention! 76  Satan has demanded to have you all, 77  to sift you like wheat, 78  22:32 but I have prayed for you, Simon, 79  that your faith may not fail. 80  When 81  you have turned back, 82  strengthen 83  your brothers.” 22:33 But Peter 84  said to him, “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!” 85  22:34 Jesus replied, 86  “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow 87  today until you have denied 88  three times that you know me.”

22:35 Then 89  Jesus 90  said to them, “When I sent you out with no money bag, 91  or traveler’s bag, 92  or sandals, you didn’t lack 93  anything, did you?” They replied, 94  “Nothing.” 22:36 He said to them, “But now, the one who 95  has a money bag must take it, and likewise a traveler’s bag 96  too. And the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one. 22:37 For I tell you that this scripture must be 97  fulfilled in me, ‘And he was counted with the transgressors.’ 98  For what is written about me is being fulfilled.” 99  22:38 So 100  they said, “Look, Lord, here are two swords.” 101  Then he told them, “It is enough.” 102 

On the Mount of Olives

22:39 Then 103  Jesus 104  went out and made his way, 105  as he customarily did, to the Mount of Olives, 106  and the disciples followed him. 22:40 When he came to the place, 107  he said to them, “Pray that you will not fall into temptation.” 108  22:41 He went away from them about a stone’s throw, knelt down, and prayed, 22:42 “Father, if you are willing, take 109  this cup 110  away from me. Yet not my will but yours 111  be done.” 22:43 [Then an angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him. 22:44 And in his anguish 112  he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground.] 113  22:45 When 114  he got up from prayer, he came to the disciples and found them sleeping, exhausted 115  from grief. 22:46 So 116  he said to them, “Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray that you will not fall into temptation!” 117 

Betrayal and Arrest

22:47 While he was still speaking, suddenly a crowd appeared, 118  and the man named Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He walked up 119  to Jesus to kiss him. 120  22:48 But Jesus said to him, “Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?” 121  22:49 When 122  those who were around him saw what was about to happen, they said, “Lord, should 123  we use our swords?” 124  22:50 Then 125  one of them 126  struck the high priest’s slave, 127  cutting off his right ear. 22:51 But Jesus said, 128  “Enough of this!” And he touched the man’s 129  ear and healed 130  him. 22:52 Then 131  Jesus said to the chief priests, the officers of the temple guard, 132  and the elders who had come out to get him, “Have you come out with swords and clubs like you would against an outlaw? 133  22:53 Day after day when I was with you in the temple courts, 134  you did not arrest me. 135  But this is your hour, 136  and that of the power 137  of darkness!”

Jesus’ Condemnation and Peter’s Denials

22:54 Then 138  they arrested 139  Jesus, 140  led him away, and brought him into the high priest’s house. 141  But Peter was following at a distance. 22:55 When they had made a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter sat down among them. 22:56 Then a slave girl, 142  seeing him as he sat in the firelight, stared at him and said, “This man was with him too!” 22:57 But Peter 143  denied it: “Woman, 144  I don’t know 145  him!” 22:58 Then 146  a little later someone else 147  saw him and said, “You are one of them too.” But Peter said, “Man, 148  I am not!” 22:59 And after about an hour still another insisted, 149  “Certainly this man was with him, because he too is a Galilean.” 150  22:60 But Peter said, “Man, I don’t know what you’re talking about!” At that moment, 151  while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed. 152  22:61 Then 153  the Lord turned and looked straight at Peter, and Peter remembered the word of the Lord, 154  how he had said to him, “Before a rooster crows today, you will deny me three times.” 22:62 And he went outside and wept bitterly. 155 

22:63 Now 156  the men who were holding Jesus 157  under guard began to mock him and beat him. 22:64 They 158  blindfolded him and asked him repeatedly, 159  “Prophesy! Who hit you?” 160  22:65 They also said many other things against him, reviling 161  him.

22:66 When day came, the council of the elders of the people gathered together, both the chief priests and the experts in the law. 162  Then 163  they led Jesus 164  away to their council 165  22:67 and said, “If 166  you are the Christ, 167  tell us.” But he said to them, “If 168  I tell you, you will not 169  believe, 22:68 and if 170  I ask you, you will not 171  answer. 22:69 But from now on 172  the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand 173  of the power 174  of God.” 22:70 So 175  they all said, “Are you the Son of God, 176  then?” He answered 177  them, “You say 178  that I am.” 22:71 Then 179  they said, “Why do we need further testimony? We have heard it ourselves 180  from his own lips!” 181 

Jesus Brought Before Pilate

23:1 Then 182  the whole group of them rose up and brought Jesus 183  before Pilate. 184  23:2 They 185  began to accuse 186  him, saying, “We found this man subverting 187  our nation, forbidding 188  us to pay the tribute tax 189  to Caesar 190  and claiming that he himself is Christ, 191  a king.” 23:3 So 192  Pilate asked Jesus, 193  “Are you the king 194  of the Jews?” He replied, “You say so.” 195  23:4 Then 196  Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowds, “I find no basis for an accusation 197  against this man.” 23:5 But they persisted 198  in saying, “He incites 199  the people by teaching throughout all Judea. It started in Galilee and ended up here!” 200 

Jesus Brought Before Herod

23:6 Now when Pilate heard this, he asked whether the man was a Galilean. 23:7 When 201  he learned that he was from Herod’s jurisdiction, 202  he sent him over to Herod, 203  who also happened to be in Jerusalem 204  at that time. 23:8 When 205  Herod saw Jesus, he was very glad, for he had long desired to see him, because he had heard about him and was hoping to see him perform 206  some miraculous sign. 207  23:9 So 208  Herod 209  questioned him at considerable length; Jesus 210  gave him no answer. 23:10 The chief priests and the experts in the law 211  were there, vehemently accusing him. 212  23:11 Even Herod with his soldiers treated him with contempt and mocked him. Then, 213  dressing him in elegant clothes, 214  Herod 215  sent him back to Pilate. 23:12 That very day Herod and Pilate became friends with each other, 216  for prior to this they had been enemies. 217 

Jesus Brought Before the Crowd

23:13 Then 218  Pilate called together the chief priests, the 219  rulers, and the people, 23:14 and said to them, “You brought me this man as one who was misleading 220  the people. When I examined him before you, I 221  did not find this man guilty 222  of anything you accused him of doing. 23:15 Neither did Herod, for he sent him back to us. Look, he has done nothing 223  deserving death. 224  23:16 I will therefore have him flogged 225  and release him.”

23:17 [[EMPTY]] 226 

23:18 But they all shouted out together, 227  “Take this man 228  away! Release Barabbas for us!” 23:19 (This 229  was a man who had been thrown into prison for an insurrection 230  started in the city, and for murder.) 231  23:20 Pilate addressed them once again because he wanted 232  to release Jesus. 23:21 But they kept on shouting, 233  “Crucify, crucify 234  him!” 23:22 A third time he said to them, “Why? What wrong has he done? I have found him guilty 235  of no crime deserving death. 236  I will therefore flog 237  him and release him.” 23:23 But they were insistent, 238  demanding with loud shouts that he be crucified. And their shouts prevailed. 23:24 So 239  Pilate 240  decided 241  that their demand should be granted. 23:25 He released the man they asked for, who had been thrown in prison for insurrection and murder. But he handed Jesus over 242  to their will. 243 

The Crucifixion

23:26 As 244  they led him away, they seized Simon of Cyrene, 245  who was coming in from the country. 246  They placed the cross on his back and made him carry it behind Jesus. 247  23:27 A great number of the people followed him, among them women 248  who were mourning 249  and wailing for him. 23:28 But Jesus turned to them and said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, 250  do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves 251  and for your children. 23:29 For this is certain: 252  The days are coming when they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, the wombs that never bore children, and the breasts that never nursed!’ 253  23:30 Then they will begin to say to the mountains, 254 Fall on us!and to the hills,Cover us! 255  23:31 For if such things are done 256  when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?” 257 

23:32 Two other criminals 258  were also led away to be executed with him. 23:33 So 259  when they came to the place that is called “The Skull,” 260  they crucified 261  him there, along with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left. 23:34 [But Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they don’t know what they are doing.”] 262  Then 263  they threw dice 264  to divide his clothes. 265  23:35 The people also stood there watching, but the rulers ridiculed 266  him, saying, “He saved others. Let him save 267  himself if 268  he is the Christ 269  of God, his chosen one!” 23:36 The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine, 270  23:37 and saying, “If 271  you are the king of the Jews, save yourself!” 23:38 There was also an inscription 272  over him, “This is the king of the Jews.”

23:39 One of the criminals who was hanging there railed at him, saying, “Aren’t 273  you the Christ? 274  Save yourself and us!” 23:40 But the other rebuked him, saying, 275  “Don’t 276  you fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation? 277  23:41 And we rightly so, for we are getting what we deserve for what we did, but this man has done nothing 278  wrong.” 23:42 Then 279  he said, “Jesus, remember me 280  when you come in 281  your kingdom.” 23:43 And Jesus 282  said to him, “I tell you the truth, 283  today 284  you will be with me in paradise.” 285 

23:44 It was now 286  about noon, 287  and darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon, 288  23:45 because the sun’s light failed. 289  The temple curtain 290  was torn in two. 23:46 Then Jesus, calling out with a loud voice, said, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit! 291  And after he said this he breathed his last.

23:47 Now when the centurion 292  saw what had happened, he praised God and said, “Certainly this man was innocent!” 293  23:48 And all the crowds that had assembled for this spectacle, when they saw what had taken place, returned home beating their breasts. 294  23:49 And all those who knew Jesus 295  stood at a distance, and the women who had followed him from Galilee saw 296  these things.

Jesus’ Burial

23:50 Now 297  there was a man named Joseph who was a member of the council, 298  a good and righteous man. 23:51 (He 299  had not consented 300  to their plan and action.) He 301  was from the Judean town 302  of Arimathea, and was looking forward to 303  the kingdom of God. 304  23:52 He went to Pilate and asked for the body 305  of Jesus. 23:53 Then 306  he took it down, wrapped it in a linen cloth, 307  and placed it 308  in a tomb cut out of the rock, 309  where no one had yet been buried. 310  23:54 It was the day of preparation 311  and the Sabbath was beginning. 312  23:55 The 313  women who had accompanied Jesus 314  from Galilee followed, and they saw the tomb and how his body was laid in it. 23:56 Then 315  they returned and prepared aromatic spices 316  and perfumes. 317 

On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment. 318 

1 sn The Feast of Unleavened Bread was a week long celebration that followed the day of Passover, so one name was used for both feasts (Exod 12:1-20; 23:15; 34:18; Deut 16:1-8).

2 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

3 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

4 tn Grk “were seeking how.”

5 tn The Greek verb here means “to get rid of by execution” (BDAG 64 s.v. ἀναιρέω 2; cf. also L&N 20.71, which states, “to get rid of someone by execution, often with legal or quasi-legal procedures”).

6 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

7 sn The suggestion here is that Jesus was too popular to openly arrest him. The verb were trying is imperfect. It suggests, in this context, that they were always considering the opportunities.

8 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

9 sn The cross is portrayed as part of the cosmic battle between Satan and God; see Luke 4:1-13; 11:14-23.

10 tn Grk “Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.”

11 tn The full title στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ (strathgo" tou Jierou; “officer of the temple” or “captain of the temple guard”) is sometimes shortened to στρατηγός as here (L&N 37.91).

12 tn Luke uses this frequent indirect question to make his point (BDF §267.2).

13 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

14 tn Grk “how he might hand him over to them,” in the sense of “betray him.”

15 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

16 sn The leaders were delighted when Judas contacted them about betraying Jesus, because it gave them the opportunity they had been looking for, and they could later claim that Jesus had been betrayed by one of his own disciples.

17 sn Matt 26:15 states the amount of money they gave Judas was thirty pieces of silver (see also Matt 27:3-4; Zech 11:12-13).

18 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the arrangement worked out in the preceding verse.

19 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

20 tn Grk “betray him to them”; the referent of the first pronoun (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

21 tn Grk “apart from the crowd.”

sn The leaders wanted to do this quietly, when no crowd was present, so no public uproar would result (cf. v. 21:38; 22:2).

22 tn The words “for the feast” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.

23 sn Generally the feast of Unleavened Bread would refer to Nisan 15 (Friday), but the following reference to the sacrifice of the Passover lamb indicates that Nisan 14 (Thursday) was what Luke had in mind (Nisan = March 27 to April 25). The celebration of the Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted eight days, beginning with the Passover meal. The celebrations were so close together that at times the names of both were used interchangeably.

24 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

25 sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 22:14). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.

26 tn Grk “for us, so that we may eat.”

27 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

28 tn In the Greek text this a deliberative subjunctive.

29 tn Grk “behold.”

30 sn Since women usually carried these jars, it would have been no problem for Peter and John to recognize the man Jesus was referring to.

31 sn Jesus is portrayed throughout Luke 22-23 as very aware of what will happen, almost directing events. Here this is indicated by his prediction that a man carrying a jar of water will meet you.

32 tn Grk “to the master of the household,” referring to one who owns and manages the household, including family, servants, and slaves (L&N 57.14).

33 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ instructions.

34 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

35 sn The author’s note that the disciples found things just as he had told them shows that Jesus’ word could be trusted.

36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

37 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

38 tn Grk “reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

39 tn Grk “the apostles with him.”

40 tn This phrase parallels a Hebrew infinitive absolute and serves to underline Jesus’ enthusiasm for holding this meal (BDF §198.6).

41 tn Although the word “again” is not in the Greek text, it is supplied to indicate that Jesus did indeed partake of this Passover meal, as statements in v. 18 suggest (“from now on”). For more complete discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1720.

42 sn Jesus looked to a celebration in the kingdom to come when the Passover is fulfilled. This reference could well suggest that some type of commemorative sacrifice and meal will be celebrated then, as the antecedent is the Passover sacrifice. The reference is not to the Lord’s supper as some argue, but the Passover.

43 sn The kingdom of God here refers to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37.

44 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

45 sn Then he took a cup. Only Luke mentions two cups at this meal; the other synoptic gospels (Matt, Mark) mention only one. This is the first of the two. It probably refers to the first cup in the traditional Passover meal, which today has four cups (although it is debated whether the fourth cup was used in the 1st century).

46 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

47 sn Until the kingdom of God comes is a reference to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37. Jesus awaits celebration with the arrival of full kingdom blessing.

48 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

49 tc Some important Western mss (D it) lack the words from this point to the end of v. 20. However, the authenticity of these verses is very likely. The inclusion of the second cup is the harder reading, since it differs from Matt 26:26-29 and Mark 14:22-25, and it has much better ms support. It is thus easier to explain the shorter reading as a scribal accident or misunderstanding. Further discussion of this complicated problem (the most difficult in Luke) can be found in TCGNT 148-50.

50 sn The language of the phrase given for you alludes to Christ’s death in our place. It is a powerful substitutionary image of what he did for us.

51 tn The words “he took” are not in the Greek text at this point, but are an understood repetition from v. 19.

52 tn The phrase “after they had eaten” translates the temporal infinitive construction μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι (meta to deipnhsai), where the verb δειπνέω (deipnew) means “to eat a meal” or “to have a meal.”

53 sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.

54 sn The one who betrays me. Jesus knows about Judas and what he has done.

55 sn The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

56 sn Jesus’ death has been determined as a part of God’s plan (Acts 2:22-24).

57 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments: The disciples begin wondering who would betray him.

58 tn Or “happened.”

59 tn Though the term μείζων (meizwn) here is comparative in form, it is superlative in sense (BDF §244).

60 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the dispute among the apostles.

61 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

62 sn The title ‘benefactor,’ highlighting grace and meaning something like “helper of the people,” was even given to tyrants (2 Macc 4:2; 3 Macc 3:19; Josephus, J. W. 3.9.8 [3.459]).

63 tn Grk “But you are not thus.”

64 tn Or “the ruler.”

65 sn And the leader like the one who serves. Leadership was not to be a matter of privilege and special status, but of service. All social status is leveled out by these remarks. Jesus himself is the prime example of the servant-leader.

66 tn Grk “who reclines at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

67 tn The interrogative particle used here in the Greek text (οὐχί, ouci) expects a positive reply.

68 sn Jesus’ example of humble service, as one who serves, shows that the standard for a disciple is different from that of the world. For an example see John 13:1-17.

69 tn Or “continued” (L&N 34.3). Jesus acknowledges the disciples’ faithfulness.

70 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the disciples’ perseverance with Jesus.

71 sn With the statement “I grant to you a kingdom” Jesus gave the disciples authority over the kingdom, as God had given him such authority. The present tense looks at authority given presently, though the major manifestation of its presence is yet to come as the next verse shows.

72 tn Or “I give you the right to rule” (cf. CEV). For this translation of διατίθεμαι βασιλείαν (diatiqemai basileian) see L&N 37.105.

73 tn This verb is future indicative, and thus not subordinate to “grant” (διατίθεμαι, diatiqemai) as part of the result clause beginning with ἵνα ἔσθητε ({ina esqhte) at the beginning of v. 30. It is better understood as a predictive future.

74 sn The statement you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel looks at the future authority the Twelve will have when Jesus returns. They will share in Israel’s judgment.

75 tc The majority of mss (א A D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï as well as several versional witnesses) begin this verse with an introductory comment, “and the Lord said,” indicating a change in the subject of discussion. But this is apparently a reading motivated by the need for clarity. Some of the best witnesses, along with a few others (Ì75 B L T 1241 2542c sys co), do not contain these words. The abrupt shift is the more difficult reading and thus more likely to be original.

76 tn Grk “behold” (for “pay attention” see L&N 91.13).

77 sn This pronoun is plural in the Greek text, so it refers to all the disciples of which Peter is the representative.

78 sn Satan has demanded permission to put them to the test. The idiom “sift (someone) like wheat” is similar to the English idiom “to pick (someone) apart.” The pronoun you is implied.

79 sn Here and in the remainder of the verse the second person pronouns are singular, so only Peter is in view. The name “Simon” has been supplied as a form of direct address to make this clear in English.

80 sn That your faith may not fail. Note that Peter’s denials are pictured here as lapses, not as a total absence of faith.

81 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

82 tn Or “turned around.”

83 sn Strengthen your brothers refers to Peter helping to strengthen their faith. Jesus quite graciously restores Peter “in advance,” even with the knowledge of his approaching denials.

84 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

85 sn The confidence Peter has in private (Lord, I am ready…) will wilt under the pressure of the public eye.

86 tn Grk “he said”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

87 sn That is, Peter’s denials will happen before the sun rises.

88 sn Once again, Jesus is quite aware that Peter will deny him. Peter, however, is too nonchalant about the possibility of stumbling.

89 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

90 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

91 tn Traditionally, “purse” (likewise in v. 36).

92 tn Or possibly “beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145).

93 sn This refers back to 9:3 and 10:3-4. The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ at the end, “did you?” Nothing was lacking.

94 tn Grk “said.”

95 tn The syntax of this verse is disputed, resulting in various translations. The major options are either (1) that reflected in the translation or (2) that those who have a money bag and traveler’s bag should get a sword, just as those who do not have these items should sell their cloak to buy a sword. The point of all the options is that things have changed and one now needs full provisions. Opposition will come. But “sword” is a figure for preparing to fight. See Luke 22:50-51.

96 tn Or possibly “beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145).

97 sn This scripture must be fulfilled in me. The statement again reflects the divine necessity of God’s plan. See 4:43-44.

98 tn Or “with the lawless.”

sn This is a quotation from Isa 53:12. It highlights a theme of Luke 22-23. Though completely innocent, Jesus dies as if he were a criminal.

99 tn Grk “is having its fulfillment.”

100 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments about obtaining swords.

101 sn Here are two swords. The disciples mistakenly took Jesus to mean that they should prepare for armed resistance, something he will have to correct in 22:50-51.

102 sn It is enough. The disciples’ misunderstanding caused Jesus to terminate the discussion.

103 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

104 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

105 tn Grk “went.”

106 sn See the note on the Mount of Olives in Luke 19:29.

107 sn Luke does not mention Gethsemane by name, but calls it simply the place.

108 sn Jesus’ instructions to pray not to fall into temptation is an allusion to Luke 22:28-38, especially 22:31. The temptation is Satan’s challenge to them to defect, like what happened to Judas and what will happen to Peter.

109 tn Luke’s term παρένεγκε is not as exact as the one in Matt 26:39. Luke’s means “take away” (BDAG 772 s.v. παρένεγκε 2.c) while Matthew’s means “take away without touching,” suggesting an alteration (if possible) in God’s plan. For further discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1759-60.

110 sn This cup alludes to the wrath of God that Jesus would experience (in the form of suffering and death) for us. See Ps 11:6; 75:8-9; Isa 51:17, 19, 22 for this figure.

111 sn With the statement “Not my will but yours be done” Jesus submitted fully to God’s will.

112 tn Grk “And being in anguish.”

113 tc Several important Greek mss (Ì75 א1 A B N T W 579 1071*) along with diverse and widespread versional witnesses lack 22:43-44. In addition, the verses are placed after Matt 26:39 by Ë13. Floating texts typically suggest both spuriousness and early scribal impulses to regard the verses as historically authentic. These verses are included in א*,2 D L Θ Ψ 0171 Ë1 Ï lat Ju Ir Hipp Eus. However, a number of mss mark the text with an asterisk or obelisk, indicating the scribe’s assessment of the verses as inauthentic. At the same time, these verses generally fit Luke’s style. Arguments can be given on both sides about whether scribes would tend to include or omit such comments about Jesus’ humanity and an angel’s help. But even if the verses are not literarily authentic, they are probably historically authentic. This is due to the fact that this text was well known in several different locales from a very early period. Since there are no synoptic parallels to this account and since there is no obvious reason for adding these words here, it is very likely that such verses recount a part of the actual suffering of our Lord. Nevertheless, because of the serious doubts as to these verses’ authenticity, they have been put in brackets. For an important discussion of this problem, see B. D. Ehrman and M. A. Plunkett, “The Angel and the Agony: The Textual Problem of Luke 22:43-44,” CBQ 45 (1983): 401-16.

sn Angelic aid is noted elsewhere in the gospels: Matt 4:11 = Mark 1:13.

114 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

115 tn Grk “from grief.” The word “exhausted” is not in the Greek text, but is implied; the disciples have fallen asleep from mental and emotional exhaustion resulting from their distress (see L&N 25.273; cf. TEV, NIV, NLT).

116 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus finding them asleep.

117 sn Jesus calls the disciples again to prayerful watchfulness with the words “Get up and pray” (see 22:40). The time is full of danger (22:53).

118 tn Grk “While he was still speaking, behold, a crowd, and the one called Judas…was leading them.” The abrupt appearance of the crowd on the scene is indicated in the translation by “suddenly” and “appeared.”

119 tn Grk “drew near.”

120 tc Many mss (D Θ Ë13 700 pm as well as several versional mss) add here, “for this is the sign he gave to them: Whoever I kiss is [the one].” This addition is almost certainly not original, since most of the important mss lack it. It may be a copyist’s attempt to clarify the text, or the accidental inclusion of a marginal gloss.

121 sn Jesus’ comment about betraying the Son of Man with a kiss shows the hypocrisy and blindness of an attempt to cover up sin. On “misused kisses” in the Bible, see Gen 27:26-27; 2 Sam 15:5; Prov 7:13; 27:6; and 2 Sam 20:9.

122 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

123 tn The direct question using “if” in Greek is not unusual (BDF §440.3).

124 snShould we use our swords?” The disciples’ effort to defend Jesus recalls Luke 22:35-38. One individual did not wait for the answer.

125 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

126 sn One of them. The unnamed disciple is Peter according to John 18:10 (cf. also Matt 26:51; Mark 14:47).

127 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.

128 tn Grk “But answering, Jesus said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.

129 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the slave of the high priest mentioned in the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

130 sn When Jesus healed the man’s ear he showed grace even to those who hated him, following his own teaching (Luke 6:27-36).

131 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

132 tn This title, literally “official of the temple” (στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ, strathgo" tou Jierou), referred to the commander of the Jewish soldiers who guarded and maintained order in the Jerusalem temple. Here, since the term is plural, it has been translated “officers of the temple guard” rather than “commanders of the temple guard,” since the idea of a number of commanders might be confusing to the modern English reader.

133 tn Or “a revolutionary.” This term can refer to one who stirs up rebellion: BDAG 594 s.v. λῃστής 2 has “revolutionary, insurrectionist, guerrilla” citing evidence from Josephus (J. W. 2.13.2-3 [2.253-254]). However, this usage generally postdates Jesus’ time. It does refer to a figure of violence. Luke uses the same term for the highwaymen who attack the traveler in the parable of the good Samaritan (10:30).

134 tn Grk “in the temple.”

135 tn Grk “lay hands on me.”

136 tn Or “your time.”

137 tn Or “authority,” “domain.”

138 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

139 tn Or “seized” (L&N 37.109).

140 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

141 sn Putting all the gospel accounts together, there is a brief encounter with Annas (brought him into the high priest’s house, here and John 18:13, where Annas is named); the meeting led by Caiaphas (Matt 26:57-68 = Mark 14:53-65; and then a Sanhedrin meeting (Matt 27:1; Mark 15:1; Luke 22:66-71). These latter two meetings might be connected and apparently went into the morning.

142 tn The Greek term here is παιδίσκη (paidiskh), referring to a slave girl or slave woman.

143 tn Grk “he denied it, saying.” The referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant and has not been translated.

144 sn Woman was a polite form of address (see BDAG 208-9 s.v. γυνή), similar to “Madam” or “Ma’am” used in English in different regions.

145 sn The expression “I do not know him” had an idiomatic use in Jewish ban formulas in the synagogue and could mean, “I have nothing to do with him.”

146 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

147 sn In Mark 14:69, the same slave girl made the charge. So apparently Peter was being identified by a variety of people.

148 tn Here and in v. 60 “Man” is used as a neutral form of address to a stranger.

149 tn Grk “insisted, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated here.

150 sn According to Mark 14:70 it was Peter’s accent that gave him away as a Galilean.

151 tn Grk “And immediately.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

152 tn A real rooster crowing is probably in view here (rather than the Roman trumpet call known as gallicinium), in part due to the fact that Mark 14:72 mentions the rooster crowing twice. See the discussion at Matt 26:74.

153 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

154 tn “The word of the Lord” is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; here and in Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said. Because of its technical nature the expression has been retained in the translation in preference to a smoother rendering like “remembered what the Lord had said” (cf. TEV, NLT).

155 sn When Peter went out and wept bitterly it shows he really did not want to fail here and was deeply grieved that he had.

156 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

157 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

158 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

159 tn The verb ἐπηρώτων (ephrwtwn) has been translated as an iterative imperfect. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated here.

160 tn Grk “Who is the one who hit you?”

sn Who hit you? This is a variation of one of three ancient games that involved blindfolds.

161 tn Or “insulting.” Luke uses a strong word here; it means “to revile, to defame, to blaspheme” (L&N 33.400).

162 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

163 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

164 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

165 sn Their council is probably a reference to the Jewish Sanhedrin, the council of seventy leaders.

166 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.

167 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.

168 tn This is a third class condition in the Greek text. Jesus had this experience already in 20:1-8.

169 tn The negation in the Greek text is the strongest possible (οὐ μή, ou mh).

170 tn This is also a third class condition in the Greek text.

171 tn The negation in the Greek text is the strongest possible (οὐ μή, ou mh).

172 sn From now on. Jesus’ authority was taken up from this moment on. Ironically he is now the ultimate judge, who is himself being judged.

173 sn Seated at the right hand is an allusion to Ps 110:1 (“Sit at my right hand…”) and is a claim that Jesus shares authority with God in heaven. Those present may have thought they were his judges, but, in fact, the reverse was true.

174 sn The expression the right hand of the power of God is a circumlocution for referring to God. Such indirect references to God were common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.

175 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ pronouncement.

176 sn The members of the council understood the force of the claim and asked Jesus about another title, Son of God.

177 tn Grk “He said to them.”

178 sn Jesus’ reply, “You say that I am,” was not a denial, but a way of giving a qualified positive response: “You have said it, but I do not quite mean what you think.”

179 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

180 sn We have heard it ourselves. The Sanhedrin regarded the answer as convicting Jesus. They saw it as blasphemous to claim such intimacy and shared authority with God, a claim so serious and convicting that no further testimony was needed.

181 tn Grk “from his own mouth” (an idiom).

182 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

183 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

184 sn Pilate was the Roman prefect (procurator) in charge of collecting taxes and keeping the peace. His immediate superior was the Roman governor (proconsul) of Syria, although the exact nature of this administrative relationship is unknown. Pilate’s relations with the Jews had been rocky (v. 12). Here he is especially sensitive to them.

185 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

186 sn They began to accuse him. There were three charges: (1) disturbing Jewish peace; (2) fomenting rebellion through advocating not paying taxes (a lie – 20:20-26); and (3) claiming to be a political threat to Rome, by claiming to be a king, an allusion to Jesus’ messianic claims. The second and third charges were a direct challenge to Roman authority. Pilate would be forced to do something about them.

187 tn On the use of the term διαστρέφω (diastrefw) here, see L&N 31.71 and 88.264.

sn Subverting our nation was a summary charge, as Jesus “subverted” the nation by making false claims of a political nature, as the next two detailed charges show.

188 tn Grk “and forbidding.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated to suggest to the English reader that this and the following charge are specifics, while the previous charge was a summary one. See the note on the word “misleading” earlier in this verse.

189 tn This was a “poll tax.” L&N 57.182 states this was “a payment made by the people of one nation to another, with the implication that this is a symbol of submission and dependence – ‘tribute tax.’”

190 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

191 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.

192 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the charges brought in the previous verse.

193 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

194 snAre you the king of the Jews?” Pilate was interested only in the third charge, because of its political implications of sedition against Rome.

195 sn The reply “You say so” is somewhat enigmatic, like Jesus’ earlier reply to the Jewish leadership in 22:70.

196 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

197 tn Grk “find no cause.”

sn Pilate’s statement “I find no reason for an accusation” is the first of several remarks in Luke 23 that Jesus is innocent or of efforts to release him (vv. 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 22).

198 tn Or “were adamant.” For “persisted in saying,” see L&N 68.71.

199 sn He incites the people. The Jewish leadership claimed that Jesus was a political threat and had to be stopped. By reiterating this charge of stirring up rebellion, they pressured Pilate to act, or be accused of overlooking political threats to Rome.

200 tn Grk “beginning from Galilee until here.”

201 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

202 sn Learning that Jesus was from Galilee and therefore part of Herod’s jurisdiction, Pilate decided to rid himself of the problem by sending him to Herod.

203 sn Herod was Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great. See the note on Herod in 3:1.

204 sn Herod would probably have come to Jerusalem for the feast, although his father was only half Jewish (Josephus, Ant. 14.15.2 [14.403]). Josephus does mention Herod’s presence in Jerusalem during a feast (Ant. 18.5.3 [18.122]).

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

205 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

206 tn Grk “to see some sign performed by him.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style.

207 sn Herod, hoping to see him perform some miraculous sign, seems to have treated Jesus as a curiosity (cf. 9:7-9).

208 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the previous statements in the narrative about Herod’s desire to see Jesus.

209 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

210 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

211 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

212 sn Luke portrays the Jewish leadership as driving events toward the cross by vehemently accusing Jesus.

213 tn This is a continuation of the previous Greek sentence, but because of its length and complexity, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying “then” to indicate the sequence of events.

214 sn This mockery involved putting elegant royal clothes on Jesus, either white or purple (the colors of royalty). This was no doubt a mockery of Jesus’ claim to be a king.

215 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

216 sn Herod and Pilate became friends with each other. It may be that Pilate’s change of heart was related to the death of his superior, Sejanus, who had a reputation for being anti-Jewish. To please his superior, Pilate may have ruled the Jews with insensitivity. Concerning Sejanus, see Philo, Embassy 24 (160-61) and Flaccus 1 (1).

217 tn Grk “at enmity with each other.”

218 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

219 tn Grk “and the,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

220 tn This term also appears in v. 2.

221 tn Grk “behold, I” A transitional use of ἰδού (idou) has not been translated here.

222 tn Grk “nothing did I find in this man by way of cause.” The reference to “nothing” is emphatic.

223 sn With the statement “he has done nothing,” Pilate makes another claim that Jesus is innocent of any crime worthy of death.

224 tn Grk “nothing deserving death has been done by him.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style.

225 tn Or “scourged” (BDAG 749 s.v. παιδεύω 2.b.γ). This refers to a whipping Pilate ordered in an attempt to convince Jesus not to disturb the peace. It has been translated “flogged” to distinguish it from the more severe verberatio.

226 tc Many of the best mss, as well as some others (Ì75 A B K L T 070 1241 pc sa), lack 23:17 “(Now he was obligated to release one individual for them at the feast.)” This verse appears to be a parenthetical note explaining the custom of releasing someone on amnesty at the feast. It appears in two different locations with variations in wording, which makes it look like a scribal addition. It is included in א (D following v. 19) W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat. The verse appears to be an explanatory gloss based on Matt 27:15 and Mark 15:6, not original in Luke. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

227 tn Grk “together, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated here.

228 tn Grk “this one.” The reference to Jesus as “this man” is pejorative in this context.

229 tn Grk “who” (a continuation of the previous sentence).

230 sn Ironically, what Jesus was alleged to have done, started an insurrection, this man really did.

231 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

232 sn The account pictures a battle of wills – the people versus Pilate. Pilate is consistently portrayed in Luke’s account as wanting to release Jesus because he believed him to be innocent.

233 tn Grk “shouting, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated here.

234 tn This double present imperative is emphatic.

sn Crucifixion was the cruelest form of punishment practiced by the Romans. Roman citizens could not normally undergo it. It was reserved for the worst crimes, like treason and evasion of due process in a capital case. The Roman historian Cicero called it “a cruel and disgusting penalty” (Against Verres 2.5.63-66 §§163-70); Josephus (J. W. 7.6.4 [7.203]) called it the worst of deaths.

235 tn Grk “no cause of death I found in him.”

236 sn The refrain of innocence comes once again. Pilate tried to bring some sense of justice, believing Jesus had committed no crime deserving death.

237 tn Or “scourge” (BDAG 749 s.v. παιδεύω 2.b.γ). See the note on “flogged” in v. 16.

238 tn Though a different Greek term is used here (BDAG 373 s.v. ἐπίκειμαι), this remark is like 23:5.

239 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the crowd’s cries prevailing.

240 sn Finally Pilate gave in. He decided crucifying one Galilean teacher was better than facing a riot. Justice lost out in the process, because he did not follow his own verdict.

241 tn Although some translations render ἐπέκρινεν (epekrinen) here as “passed sentence” or “gave his verdict,” the point in context is not that Pilate sentenced Jesus to death here, but that finally, although convinced of Jesus’ innocence, he gave in to the crowd’s incessant demand to crucify an innocent man.

242 tn Or “delivered up.”

243 sn He handed Jesus over to their will. Here is where Luke places the major blame for Jesus’ death. It lies with the Jewish nation, especially the leadership, though in Acts 4:24-27 he will bring in the opposition of Herod, Pilate, and all people.

244 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

245 sn Jesus was beaten severely with a whip before this (the prelude to crucifixion, known to the Romans as verberatio, mentioned in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1), so he would have been weak from trauma and loss of blood. Apparently he was unable to bear the cross himself, so Simon was conscripted to help. Cyrene was located in North Africa where Tripoli is today. Nothing more is known about this Simon. Mark 15:21 names him as father of two people apparently known to Mark’s audience.

246 tn Or perhaps, “was coming in from his field” outside the city (BDAG 15-16 s.v. ἀγρός 1).

247 tn Grk “they placed the cross on him to carry behind Jesus.”

248 sn The background of these women is disputed. Are they “official” mourners of Jesus’ death, appointed by custom to mourn death? If so, the mourning here would be more pro forma. However, the text seems to treat the mourning as sincere, so their tears and lamenting would have been genuine.

249 tn Or “who were beating their breasts,” implying a ritualized form of mourning employed in Jewish funerals. See the note on the term “women” earlier in this verse.

250 sn The title Daughters of Jerusalem portrays these women mourning as representatives of the nation.

map For the location of Jerusalem see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

251 sn Do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves. Judgment now comes on the nation (see Luke 19:41-44) for this judgment of Jesus. Ironically, they mourn the wrong person – they should be mourning for themselves.

252 tn Grk “For behold.”

253 tn Grk “Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that have not borne, and the breasts that have not nursed!”

sn Normally barrenness is a sign of judgment, because birth would be seen as a sign of blessing. The reversal of imagery indicates that something was badly wrong.

254 sn The figure of crying out to the mountains ‘Fall on us!’ (appealing to creation itself to hide them from God’s wrath), means that a time will come when people will feel they are better off dead (Hos 10:8).

255 sn An allusion to Hos 10:8 (cf. Rev 6:16).

256 tn Grk “if they do such things.” The plural subject here is indefinite, so the active voice has been translated as a passive (see ExSyn 402).

257 sn The figure of the green wood and the dry has been variously understood. Most likely the picture compares the judgment on Jesus as the green (living) wood to the worse judgment that will surely come for the dry (dead) wood of the nation.

258 tc The text reads either “two other criminals” or “others, two criminals.” The first reading (found in Ì75 א B) could be read as describing Jesus as a criminal, while the second (found in A C D L W Θ Ψ 070 0250 Ë1,13 33 Ï) looks like an attempt to prevent this identification. The first reading, more difficult to explain from the other, is likely original.

sn Jesus is numbered among the criminals (see Isa 53:12 and Luke 22:37).

259 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the preceding material.

260 sn The place that is calledThe Skull’ (known as Golgotha in Aramaic, cf. John 19:17) is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for Greek κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” derives (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).

261 sn See the note on crucify in 23:21.

262 tc Many important mss (Ì75 א1 B D* W Θ 070 579 1241 pc sys sa) lack v. 34a. It is included in א*,2 (A) C D2 L Ψ 0250 Ë1,(13) 33 Ï lat syc,p,h. It also fits a major Lukan theme of forgiving the enemies (6:27-36), and it has a parallel in Stephen’s response in Acts 7:60. The lack of parallels in the other Gospels argues also for inclusion here. On the other hand, the fact of the parallel in Acts 7:60 may well have prompted early scribes to insert the saying in Luke’s Gospel alone. Further, there is the great difficulty of explaining why early and diverse witnesses lack the saying. A decision is difficult, but even those who regard the verse as inauthentic literarily often consider it to be authentic historically. For this reason it has been placed in single brackets in the translation.

263 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

264 tn Grk “cast lots” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent “threw dice” was chosen here because of its association with gambling.

265 sn An allusion to Ps 22:18, which identifies Jesus as the suffering innocent one.

266 tn A figurative extension of the literal meaning “to turn one’s nose up at someone”; here “ridicule, sneer at, show contempt for” (L&N 33.409).

267 sn The irony in the statement Let him save himself is that salvation did come, but later, not while on the cross.

268 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.

269 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.

270 sn Sour wine was cheap wine, called in Latin posca, and referred to a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion, who had some on hand, now used it to taunt Jesus further.

271 tn This is also a first class condition in the Greek text.

272 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.

273 tc Most mss (A C3 W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat) read εἰ σὺ εἶ (ei su ei, “If you are”) here, while οὐχὶ σὺ εἶ (ouci su ei, “Are you not”) is found in overall better and earlier witnesses (Ì75 א B C* L 070 1241 pc it). The “if” clause reading creates a parallel with the earlier taunts (vv. 35, 37), and thus is most likely a motivated reading.

sn The question in Greek expects a positive reply and is also phrased with irony.

274 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.

275 tn Grk “But answering, the other rebuking him, said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

276 tn The particle used here (οὐδέ, oude), which expects a positive reply, makes this a rebuke – “You should fear God and not speak!”

277 tn The words “of condemnation” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

278 sn This man has done nothing wrong is yet another declaration that Jesus was innocent of any crime.

279 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

280 sn Jesus, remember me is a statement of faith from the cross, as Jesus saves another even while he himself is dying. This man’s faith had shown itself when he rebuked the other thief. He hoped to be with Jesus sometime in the future in the kingdom.

281 tc ‡ The alternate readings of some mss make the reference to Jesus’ coming clearer. “Into your kingdom” – with εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν (ei" thn basileian), read by Ì75 B L – is a reference to his entering into God’s presence at the right hand. “In your kingdom” – with ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ (en th basileia), read by א A C*,2 W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat sy – looks at his return. It could be argued that the reading with εἰς is more in keeping with Luke’s theology elsewhere, but the contrast with Jesus’ reply, “Today,” slightly favors the reading “in your kingdom.” Codex Bezae (D), in place of this short interchange between the criminal and Jesus, reads “Then he turned to the Lord and said to him, ‘Remember me in the day of your coming.’ Then the Lord said in reply to [him], ‘Take courage; today you will be with me in paradise.’” This reading emphasizes the future aspect of the coming of Christ; it has virtually no support in any other mss.

282 tn Grk “he.”

283 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

284 sn Jesus gives more than the criminal asked for, because the blessing will come today, not in the future. He will be among the righteous. See the note on today in 2:11.

285 sn In the NT, paradise is mentioned three times. Here it refers to the abode of the righteous dead. In Rev 2:7 it refers to the restoration of Edenic paradise predicted in Isa 51:3 and Ezek 36:35. In 2 Cor 12:4 it probably refers to the “third heaven” (2 Cor 12:2) as the place where God dwells.

286 tn Grk “And it was.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

287 tn Grk “the sixth hour.”

288 tn Grk “until the ninth hour.”

289 tc The wording “the sun’s light failed” is a translation of τοῦ ἡλίου ἐκλιπόντος/ ἐκλείποντος (tou Jhliou eklipontos/ ekleipontos), a reading found in the earliest and best witnesses (among them Ì75 א B C*vid L 070 579 2542 pc) as well as several ancient versions. The majority of mss (A C3 [D] W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat sy) have the flatter, less dramatic term, “the sun was darkened” (ἐσκοτίσθη, eskotisqe), a reading that avoids the problem of implying an eclipse (see sn below). This alternative thus looks secondary because it is a more common word and less likely to be misunderstood as referring to a solar eclipse. That it appears in later witnesses rather than the earliest ones adds confirmatory testimony to its inauthentic character.

sn This imagery has parallels to the Day of the Lord: Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Zeph 1:15. Some students of the NT see in Luke’s statement the sun’s light failed (eklipontos) an obvious blunder in his otherwise meticulous historical accuracy. The reason for claiming such an error on the author’s part is due to an understanding of the verb as indicating a solar eclipse when such would be an astronomical impossibility during a full moon. There are generally two ways to resolve this difficulty: (a) adopt a different reading (“the sun was darkened”) that smoothes over the problem (discussed in the tc problem above), or (b) understand the verb eklipontos in a general way (such as “the sun’s light failed”) rather than as a technical term, “the sun was eclipsed.” The problem with the first solution is that it is too convenient, for the Christian scribes who, over the centuries, copied Luke’s Gospel would have thought the same thing. That is, they too would have sensed a problem in the wording and felt that some earlier scribe had incorrectly written down what Luke penned. The fact that the reading “was darkened” shows up in the later and generally inferior witnesses does not bolster one’s confidence that this is the right solution. But second solution, if taken to its logical conclusion, proves too much for it would nullify the argument against the first solution: If the term did not refer to an eclipse, then why would scribes feel compelled to change it to a more general term? The solution to the problem is that ekleipo did in fact sometimes refer to an eclipse, but it did not always do so. (BDAG 306 s.v. ἐκλείπω notes that the verb is used in Hellenistic Greek “Of the sun cease to shine.” In MM it is argued that “it seems more than doubtful that in Lk 2345 any reference is intended to an eclipse. To find such a reference is to involve the Evangelist in a needless blunder, as an eclipse is impossible at full moon, and to run counter to his general usage of the verb = ‘fail’…” [p. 195]. They enlist Luke 16:9; 22:32; and Heb 1:12 for the general meaning “fail,” and further cite several contemporaneous examples from papyri of this meaning [195-96]) Thus, the very fact that the verb can refer to an eclipse would be a sufficient basis for later scribes altering the text out of pious motives; conversely, the very fact that the verb does not always refer to an eclipse and, in fact, does not normally do so, is enough of a basis to exonerate Luke of wholly uncharacteristic carelessness.

290 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up. It also pictures a judgment that includes the sacrifices.

291 sn A quotation from Ps 31:5. It is a psalm of trust. The righteous, innocent sufferer trusts in God. Luke does not have the cry of pain from Ps 22:1 (cf. Matt 27:46; Mark 15:34), but notes Jesus’ trust instead.

292 sn See the note on the word centurion in 7:2.

293 tn Or “righteous.” It is hard to know whether “innocent” or “righteous” is intended, as the Greek term used can mean either, and both make good sense in this context. Luke has been emphasizing Jesus as innocent, so that is slightly more likely here. Of course, one idea entails the other.

sn Here is a fourth figure who said that Jesus was innocent in this chapter (Pilate, Herod, a criminal, and now a centurion).

294 sn Some apparently regretted what had taken place. Beating their breasts was a sign of lamentation.

295 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

296 tn Technically the participle ὁρῶσαι (Jorwsai) modifies only γυναῖκες (gunaike") since both are feminine plural nominative, although many modern translations refer this as well to the group of those who knew Jesus mentioned in the first part of the verse. These events had a wide array of witnesses.

297 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

298 tn Grk “a councillor” (as a member of the Sanhedrin, see L&N 11.85). This indicates that some individuals among the leaders did respond to Jesus.

299 tn Grk “This one.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.

300 tc Several mss (א C D L Δ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 [579] 892 1424 2542 al) read the present participle συγκατατιθέμενος (sunkatatiqemeno") instead of the perfect participle συγκατατεθειμένος (sunkatateqeimeno"). The present participle could be taken to mean that Joseph had decided that the execution was now a mistake. The perfect means that he did not agree with it from the start. The perfect participle, however, has better support externally (Ì75 A B W Θ 33 Ï), and is thus the preferred reading.

sn The parenthetical note at the beginning of v. 51 indicates that Joseph of Arimathea had not consented to the action of the Sanhedrin in condemning Jesus to death. Since Mark 14:64 indicates that all the council members condemned Jesus as deserving death, it is likely that Joseph was not present at the trial.

301 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.

302 tn Or “Judean city”; Grk “from Arimathea, a city of the Jews.” Here the expression “of the Jews” (᾿Iουδαίων, Ioudaiwn) is used in an adjectival sense to specify a location (cf. BDAG 478 s.v. ᾿Iουδαῖος 2.c) and so has been translated “Judean.”

303 tn Or “waiting for.”

304 sn Though some dispute that Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Jesus, this remark that he was looking forward to the kingdom of God, the affirmation of his character at the end of v. 50, and his actions regarding Jesus’ burial all suggest otherwise.

305 sn Joseph went to Pilate and asked for the body because he sought to give Jesus an honorable burial. This was indeed a bold move on the part of Joseph of Arimathea, for it clearly and openly identified him with a man who had just been condemned and executed, namely, Jesus. His faith is exemplary, especially for someone who was a member of the council that handed Jesus over for crucifixion (cf. Mark 15:43).

306 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

307 tn The term σινδών (sindwn) can refer to a linen cloth used either for clothing or for burial.

308 tn In the Greek text this pronoun (αὐτόν, auton) is masculine, while the previous one (αὐτό, auto) is neuter, referring to the body.

309 tn That is, cut or carved into an outcropping of natural rock, resulting in a cave-like structure (see L&N 19.26).

310 tc Codex Bezae (D), with some support from 070, one Itala ms, and the Sahidic version, adds the words, “And after he [Jesus] was laid [in the tomb], he [Joseph of Arimathea] put a stone over the tomb which scarcely twenty men could roll.” Although this addition is certainly not part of the original text of Luke, it does show how interested the early scribes were in the details of the burial and may even reflect a very primitive tradition. Matt 27:60 and Mark 15:46 record the positioning of a large stone at the door of the tomb.

tn Or “laid to rest.”

311 sn The day of preparation was the day before the Sabbath when everything had to be prepared for it, as no work could be done on the Sabbath.

312 tn Normally, “dawning,” but as the Jewish Sabbath begins at 6 p.m., “beginning” is more appropriate.

313 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

314 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

315 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

316 tn On this term see BDAG 140-41 s.v. ἄρωμα. The Jews did not practice embalming, so these preparations were used to cover the stench of decay and slow decomposition. The women planned to return and anoint the body. But that would have to wait until after the Sabbath.

317 tn Or “ointments.” This was another type of perfumed oil.

318 sn According to the commandment. These women are portrayed as pious, faithful to the law in observing the Sabbath.



TIP #01: Welcome to the NEXT Bible Web Interface and Study System!! [ALL]
created in 0.33 seconds
powered by bible.org