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Luke 21:9-11

Context
21:9 And when you hear of wars and rebellions, 1  do not be afraid. 2  For these things must happen first, but the end will not come at once.” 3 

Persecution of Disciples

21:10 Then he said to them, “Nation will rise up in arms 4  against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 21:11 There will be great earthquakes, and famines 5  and plagues in various places, and there will be terrifying sights 6  and great signs 7  from heaven.

Luke 21:25-28

Context
The Arrival of the Son of Man

21:25 “And there will be signs in the sun and moon and stars, 8  and on the earth nations will be in distress, 9  anxious 10  over the roaring of the sea and the surging waves. 21:26 People will be fainting from fear 11  and from the expectation of what is coming on the world, for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 12  21:27 Then 13  they will see the Son of Man arriving in a cloud 14  with power and great glory. 21:28 But when these things 15  begin to happen, stand up and raise your heads, because your redemption 16  is drawing near.”

Luke 21:33

Context
21:33 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away. 17 

1 tn Social and political chaos also precedes the end. This term refers to revolutions (L&N 39.34).

2 tn This is not the usual term for fear, but refers to a deep sense of terror and emotional distress (Luke 24:37; BDAG 895 s.v. πτοέω).

3 sn The end will not come at once. This remark about timing not only indicates that there will be events before the end, but that some time will also pass before it comes.

4 tn For the translation “rise up in arms” see L&N 55.2.

5 sn See Isa 5:13-14; 13:6-16; Hag 2:6-7; Zech 14:4.

6 tn This term, φόβητρον (fobhtron), occurs only here in the NT. It could refer to an object, event, or condition that causes fear, but in the context it is linked with great signs from heaven, so the translation “sights” was preferred.

7 sn See Jer 4:13-22; 14:12; 21:6-7.

8 sn Signs in the sun and moon and stars are cosmic signs that turn our attention to the end and the Son of Man’s return for the righteous. OT imagery is present: See Isa 13:9-10; 24:18-20; 34:4; Ezek 32:7-8; Joel 2:1, 30-31; 3:15.

9 tn Grk “distress of nations.”

10 tn Or “in consternation” (L&N 32.9).

11 tn According to L&N 23.184 this could be mainly a psychological experience rather than actual loss of consciousness. It could also refer to complete discouragement because of fear, leading people to give up hope (L&N 25.293).

12 sn An allusion to Isa 34:4. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.

13 tn Grk “And then” (καὶ τότε, kai tote). Here καί has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

14 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13. Here is Jesus returning with full judging authority.

15 sn These things are all the events of vv. 8-27. Disciples represent the righteous here. The events surrounding the fall of the nation are a down payment on a fuller judgment to come on all humanity. The presence of one guarantees the other.

16 sn With Jesus’ return comes the manifestation of judgment and final salvation (redemption).

17 sn The words that Jesus predicts here will never pass away. They are more stable and lasting than creation itself. For this kind of image, see Isa 40:8; 55:10-11.



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