21:8 He 1 said, “Watch out 2 that you are not misled. For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am he,’ 3 and, ‘The time is near.’ Do not follow them! 21:9 And when you hear of wars and rebellions, 4 do not be afraid. 5 For these things must happen first, but the end will not come at once.” 6
21:10 Then he said to them, “Nation will rise up in arms 7 against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 21:11 There will be great earthquakes, and famines 8 and plagues in various places, and there will be terrifying sights 9 and great signs 10 from heaven. 21:12 But before all this, 11 they will seize 12 you and persecute you, handing you over to the synagogues 13 and prisons. You 14 will be brought before kings and governors because of my name. 21:13 This will be a time for you to serve as witnesses. 15 21:14 Therefore be resolved 16 not to rehearse 17 ahead of time how to make your defense. 21:15 For I will give you the words 18 along with the wisdom 19 that none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. 21:16 You will be betrayed even by parents, 20 brothers, relatives, 21 and friends, and they will have some of you put to death. 21:17 You will be hated by everyone because of my name. 22 21:18 Yet 23 not a hair of your head will perish. 24 21:19 By your endurance 25 you will gain 26 your lives. 27
21:20 “But when you see Jerusalem 28 surrounded 29 by armies, then know that its 30 desolation 31 has come near. 21:21 Then those who are in Judea must flee 32 to the mountains. Those 33 who are inside the city must depart. Those 34 who are out in the country must not enter it, 21:22 because these are days of vengeance, 35 to fulfill 36 all that is written. 21:23 Woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! For there will be great distress 37 on the earth and wrath against this people. 21:24 They 38 will fall by the edge 39 of the sword and be led away as captives 40 among all nations. Jerusalem 41 will be trampled down by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. 42
21:25 “And there will be signs in the sun and moon and stars, 43 and on the earth nations will be in distress, 44 anxious 45 over the roaring of the sea and the surging waves. 21:26 People will be fainting from fear 46 and from the expectation of what is coming on the world, for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 47 21:27 Then 48 they will see the Son of Man arriving in a cloud 49 with power and great glory.
1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
2 tn Or “Be on guard.”
3 tn That is, “I am the Messiah.”
4 tn Social and political chaos also precedes the end. This term refers to revolutions (L&N 39.34).
6 sn The end will not come at once. This remark about timing not only indicates that there will be events before the end, but that some time will also pass before it comes.
7 tn For the translation “rise up in arms” see L&N 55.2.
9 tn This term, φόβητρον (fobhtron), occurs only here in the NT. It could refer to an object, event, or condition that causes fear, but in the context it is linked with great signs from heaven, so the translation “sights” was preferred.
11 sn But before all this. Another note of timing is present, this one especially important in understanding the sequence in the discourse. Before the things noted in vv. 8-11 are the events of vv. 12-19.
12 tn Grk “will lay their hands on you.”
14 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
15 tn Grk “This will turn out to you for [a] testimony.”
16 tn Grk “determine in your hearts.”
17 tn This term could refer to rehearsing a speech or a dance. On its syntax, see BDF §392.2.
18 tn Grk “a mouth.” It is a metonymy and refers to the reply the Lord will give to them.
19 tn Grk “and wisdom.”
20 sn To confess Christ might well mean rejection by one’s own family, even by parents.
21 tn Grk “and brothers and relatives,” but καί (kai) has not been translated twice here since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
25 sn By your endurance is a call to remain faithful, because trusting in Jesus is the means to life.
26 tc Some important Greek witnesses plus the majority of
27 tn Grk “your souls,” but ψυχή (yuch) is frequently used of one’s physical life. In light of v. 16 that does not seem to be the case here. The entire phrase could be taken as an idiom meaning “you will save yourselves” (L&N 21.20), or (as in v. 18) this could refer to living ultimately in the presence of God.
30 tn Grk “her,” referring to the city of Jerusalem (the name “Jerusalem” in Greek is a feminine noun).
31 sn The phrase its desolation is a reference to the fall of the city, which is the only antecedent present in Luke’s account. The parallels to this in Matt 24:15 and Mark 13:14 refer to the temple’s desolation, though Matthew’s allusion is clearer. They focus on the parallel events of the end, not on the short term realization in
33 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
34 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
35 tn Or “of punishment.” This is a time of judgment.
36 tn The passive construction with the infinitive πλησθῆναι (plhsqhnai) has been translated as an active construction for simplicity, in keeping with contemporary English style.
37 sn Great distress means that this is a period of great judgment.
38 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
39 tn Grk “by the mouth of the sword” (an idiom for the edge of a sword).
40 sn Here is the predicted judgment against the nation until the time of Gentile rule has passed: Its people will be led away as captives.
41 tn Grk “And Jerusalem.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
42 sn Until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled implies a time when Israel again has a central role in God’s plan.
43 sn Signs in the sun and moon and stars are cosmic signs that turn our attention to the end and the Son of Man’s return for the righteous. OT imagery is present: See Isa 13:9-10; 24:18-20; 34:4; Ezek 32:7-8; Joel 2:1, 30-31; 3:15.
44 tn Grk “distress of nations.”
45 tn Or “in consternation” (L&N 32.9).
46 tn According to L&N 23.184 this could be mainly a psychological experience rather than actual loss of consciousness. It could also refer to complete discouragement because of fear, leading people to give up hope (L&N 25.293).
47 sn An allusion to Isa 34:4. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.
48 tn Grk “And then” (καὶ τότε, kai tote). Here καί has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.