21:12 But before all this, 1 they will seize 2 you and persecute you, handing you over to the synagogues 3 and prisons. You 4 will be brought before kings and governors because of my name. 21:13 This will be a time for you to serve as witnesses. 5 21:14 Therefore be resolved 6 not to rehearse 7 ahead of time how to make your defense. 21:15 For I will give you the words 8 along with the wisdom 9 that none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. 21:16 You will be betrayed even by parents, 10 brothers, relatives, 11 and friends, and they will have some of you put to death. 21:17 You will be hated by everyone because of my name. 12 21:18 Yet 13 not a hair of your head will perish. 14 21:19 By your endurance 15 you will gain 16 your lives. 17
21:20 “But when you see Jerusalem 18 surrounded 19 by armies, then know that its 20 desolation 21 has come near. 21:21 Then those who are in Judea must flee 22 to the mountains. Those 23 who are inside the city must depart. Those 24 who are out in the country must not enter it, 21:22 because these are days of vengeance, 25 to fulfill 26 all that is written. 21:23 Woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! For there will be great distress 27 on the earth and wrath against this people. 21:24 They 28 will fall by the edge 29 of the sword and be led away as captives 30 among all nations. Jerusalem 31 will be trampled down by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. 32
21:25 “And there will be signs in the sun and moon and stars, 33 and on the earth nations will be in distress, 34 anxious 35 over the roaring of the sea and the surging waves. 21:26 People will be fainting from fear 36 and from the expectation of what is coming on the world, for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 37 21:27 Then 38 they will see the Son of Man arriving in a cloud 39 with power and great glory.
1 sn But before all this. Another note of timing is present, this one especially important in understanding the sequence in the discourse. Before the things noted in vv. 8-11 are the events of vv. 12-19.
2 tn Grk “will lay their hands on you.”
4 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
5 tn Grk “This will turn out to you for [a] testimony.”
6 tn Grk “determine in your hearts.”
7 tn This term could refer to rehearsing a speech or a dance. On its syntax, see BDF §392.2.
8 tn Grk “a mouth.” It is a metonymy and refers to the reply the Lord will give to them.
9 tn Grk “and wisdom.”
10 sn To confess Christ might well mean rejection by one’s own family, even by parents.
11 tn Grk “and brothers and relatives,” but καί (kai) has not been translated twice here since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
15 sn By your endurance is a call to remain faithful, because trusting in Jesus is the means to life.
16 tc Some important Greek witnesses plus the majority of
17 tn Grk “your souls,” but ψυχή (yuch) is frequently used of one’s physical life. In light of v. 16 that does not seem to be the case here. The entire phrase could be taken as an idiom meaning “you will save yourselves” (L&N 21.20), or (as in v. 18) this could refer to living ultimately in the presence of God.
20 tn Grk “her,” referring to the city of Jerusalem (the name “Jerusalem” in Greek is a feminine noun).
21 sn The phrase its desolation is a reference to the fall of the city, which is the only antecedent present in Luke’s account. The parallels to this in Matt 24:15 and Mark 13:14 refer to the temple’s desolation, though Matthew’s allusion is clearer. They focus on the parallel events of the end, not on the short term realization in
23 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
24 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
25 tn Or “of punishment.” This is a time of judgment.
26 tn The passive construction with the infinitive πλησθῆναι (plhsqhnai) has been translated as an active construction for simplicity, in keeping with contemporary English style.
27 sn Great distress means that this is a period of great judgment.
28 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
29 tn Grk “by the mouth of the sword” (an idiom for the edge of a sword).
30 sn Here is the predicted judgment against the nation until the time of Gentile rule has passed: Its people will be led away as captives.
31 tn Grk “And Jerusalem.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
32 sn Until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled implies a time when Israel again has a central role in God’s plan.
33 sn Signs in the sun and moon and stars are cosmic signs that turn our attention to the end and the Son of Man’s return for the righteous. OT imagery is present: See Isa 13:9-10; 24:18-20; 34:4; Ezek 32:7-8; Joel 2:1, 30-31; 3:15.
34 tn Grk “distress of nations.”
35 tn Or “in consternation” (L&N 32.9).
36 tn According to L&N 23.184 this could be mainly a psychological experience rather than actual loss of consciousness. It could also refer to complete discouragement because of fear, leading people to give up hope (L&N 25.293).
37 sn An allusion to Isa 34:4. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.
38 tn Grk “And then” (καὶ τότε, kai tote). Here καί has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.