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Luke 19:1-10

Context
Jesus and Zacchaeus

19:1 Jesus 1  entered Jericho 2  and was passing through it. 19:2 Now 3  a man named Zacchaeus was there; he was a chief tax collector 4  and was rich. 19:3 He 5  was trying to get a look at Jesus, 6  but being a short man he could not see over the crowd. 7  19:4 So 8  he ran on ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree 9  to see him, because Jesus 10  was going to pass that way. 19:5 And when Jesus came to that place, he looked up 11  and said to him, “Zacchaeus, come down quickly, 12  because I must 13  stay at your house today.” 14  19:6 So he came down quickly 15  and welcomed Jesus 16  joyfully. 17  19:7 And when the people 18  saw it, they all complained, 19  “He has gone in to be the guest of a man who is a sinner.” 20  19:8 But Zacchaeus stopped and said to the Lord, “Look, Lord, half of my possessions I now give 21  to the poor, and if 22  I have cheated anyone of anything, I am paying back four times as much!” 19:9 Then 23  Jesus said to him, “Today salvation 24  has come to this household, 25  because he too is a son of Abraham! 26  19:10 For the Son of Man came 27  to seek and to save the lost.”

1 tn Grk “And entering, he passed through”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

2 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

3 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new character. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

4 sn This is the one place in the NT the office of chief tax collector is noted. He would organize the other tax collectors and collect healthy commissions (see also the note on the word tax collector in 3:12).

5 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

6 tn Grk “He was trying to see who Jesus was.”

7 tn Grk “and he was not able to because of the crowd, for he was short in stature.”

8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Zacchaeus not being able to see over the crowd.

9 sn A sycamore tree would have large branches near the ground like an oak tree and would be fairly easy to climb. These trees reach a height of some 50 ft (about 15 m).

10 tn Grk “that one”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

11 tc Most mss (A [D] W [Ψ] Ë13 33vid Ï latt) read “Jesus looking up, saw him and said.” The words “saw him and” are not in א B L T Θ Ë1 579 1241 2542 pc co. Both the testimony for the omission and the natural tendency toward scribal expansion argue for the shorter reading here.

12 tn Grk “hastening, come down.” σπεύσας (speusa") has been translated as a participle of manner.

13 sn I must stay. Jesus revealed the necessity of his associating with people like Zacchaeus (5:31-32). This act of fellowship indicated acceptance.

14 sn On today here and in v. 9, see the note on today in 2:11.

15 tn Grk “hastening, he came down.” σπεύσας (speusas) has been translated as a participle of manner.

16 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

17 tn The participle χαίρων (cairwn) has been taken as indicating manner.

sn Zacchaeus responded joyfully. Luke likes to mention joy as a response to what God was doing (1:14; 2:10; 10:20; 13:17; 15:5, 32; 19:37; 24:41, 52).

18 tn Grk “they”; the referent is unspecified but is probably the crowd in general, who would have no great love for a man like Zacchaeus who had enriched himself many times over at their expense.

19 tn This term is used only twice in the NT, both times in Luke (here and 15:2) and has negative connotations both times (BDAG 227 s.v. διαγογγύζω). The participle λέγοντες (legonte") is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

20 sn Being the guest of a man who is a sinner was a common complaint about Jesus: Luke 5:31-32; 7:37-50; 15:1-2.

21 sn Zacchaeus was a penitent man who resolved on the spot to act differently in the face of Jesus’ acceptance of him. In resolving to give half his possessions to the poor, Zacchaeus was not defending himself against the crowd’s charges and claiming to be righteous. Rather as a result of this meeting with Jesus, he was a changed individual. So Jesus could speak of salvation coming that day (v. 9) and of the lost being saved (v. 10).

22 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text. It virtually confesses fraud.

23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative

24 sn This is one of the few uses of the specific term salvation in Luke (1:69, 71, 77), though the concept runs throughout the Gospel.

25 sn The household is not a reference to the building, but to the people who lived within it (L&N 10.8).

26 sn Zacchaeus was personally affirmed by Jesus as a descendant (son) of Abraham and a member of God’s family.

27 sn The Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost is Jesus’ mission succinctly defined. See Luke 15:1-32.



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