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Luke 15:11-13

Context
The Parable of the Compassionate Father

15:11 Then 1  Jesus 2  said, “A man had two sons. 15:12 The 3  younger of them said to his 4  father, ‘Father, give me the share of the estate 5  that will belong 6  to me.’ So 7  he divided his 8  assets between them. 9  15:13 After 10  a few days, 11  the younger son gathered together all he had and left on a journey to a distant country, and there he squandered 12  his wealth 13  with a wild lifestyle.

Luke 15:28-30

Context
15:28 But the older son 14  became angry 15  and refused 16  to go in. His father came out and appealed to him, 15:29 but he answered 17  his father, ‘Look! These many years I have worked like a slave 18  for you, and I never disobeyed your commands. Yet 19  you never gave me even a goat 20  so that I could celebrate with my friends! 15:30 But when this son of yours 21  came back, who has devoured 22  your assets with prostitutes, 23  you killed the fattened calf 24  for him!’

1 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

2 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

4 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

5 tn L&N 57.19 notes that in nonbiblical contexts in which the word οὐσία (ousia) occurs, it refers to considerable possessions or wealth, thus “estate.”

6 tn L&N 57.3, “to belong to or come to belong to, with the possible implication of by right or by inheritance.”

7 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the father’s response to the younger son’s request.

8 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

9 sn He divided his assets between them. There was advice against doing this in the OT Apocrypha (Sir 33:20). The younger son would get half of what the older son received (Deut 21:17).

10 tn Grk “And after.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

11 tn Grk “after not many days.”

12 tn Or “wasted.” This verb is graphic; it means to scatter (L&N 57.151).

13 tn Or “estate” (the same word has been translated “estate” in v. 12).

14 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the older son, v. 25) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

15 tn The aorist verb ὠργίσθη (wrgisqh) has been translated as an ingressive aorist, reflecting entry into a state or condition.

16 sn Ironically the attitude of the older son has left him outside and without joy.

17 tn Grk “but answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “but he answered.”

18 tn Or simply, “have served,” but in the emotional context of the older son’s outburst the translation given is closer to the point.

19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to bring out the contrast indicated by the context.

20 sn You never gave me even a goat. The older son’s complaint was that the generous treatment of the younger son was not fair: “I can’t get even a little celebration with a basic food staple like a goat!”

21 sn Note the younger son is not “my brother” but this son of yours (an expression with a distinctly pejorative nuance).

22 sn This is another graphic description. The younger son’s consumption had been like a glutton. He had both figuratively and literally devoured the assets which were given to him.

23 sn The charge concerning the prostitutes is unproven, but essentially the older brother accuses the father of committing an injustice by rewarding his younger son’s unrighteous behavior.

24 sn See note on the phrase “fattened calf” in v. 23.



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