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Luke 14:1-14

Context
Healing Again on the Sabbath

14:1 Now 1  one Sabbath when Jesus went to dine 2  at the house of a leader 3  of the Pharisees, 4  they were watching 5  him closely. 14:2 There 6  right 7  in front of him was a man suffering from dropsy. 8  14:3 So 9  Jesus asked 10  the experts in religious law 11  and the Pharisees, “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath 12  or not?” 14:4 But they remained silent. So 13  Jesus 14  took hold of the man, 15  healed him, and sent him away. 16  14:5 Then 17  he said to them, “Which of you, if you have a son 18  or an ox that has fallen into a well on a Sabbath day, will not immediately pull him out?” 14:6 But 19  they could not reply 20  to this.

On Seeking Seats of Honor

14:7 Then 21  when Jesus 22  noticed how the guests 23  chose the places of honor, 24  he told them a parable. He said to them, 14:8 “When you are invited by someone to a wedding feast, 25  do not take 26  the place of honor, because a person more distinguished than you may have been invited by your host. 27  14:9 So 28  the host who invited both of you will come and say to you, ‘Give this man your place.’ Then, ashamed, 29  you will begin to move to the least important 30  place. 14:10 But when you are invited, go and take the least important place, so that when your host 31  approaches he will say to you, ‘Friend, move up here to a better place.’ 32  Then you will be honored in the presence of all who share the meal with you. 14:11 For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but 33  the one who humbles 34  himself will be exalted.”

14:12 He 35  said also to the man 36  who had invited him, “When you host a dinner or a banquet, 37  don’t invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors so you can be invited by them in return and get repaid. 14:13 But when you host an elaborate meal, 38  invite the poor, the crippled, 39  the lame, and 40  the blind. 41  14:14 Then 42  you will be blessed, 43  because they cannot repay you, for you will be repaid 44  at the resurrection of the righteous.”

1 tn Grk “Now it happened that one.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

2 tn Grk “to eat bread,” an idiom for participating in a meal.

3 tn Grk “a ruler of the Pharisees.” He was probably a synagogue official.

4 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

5 sn Watching…closely is a graphic term meaning to lurk and watch; see Luke 11:53-54.

6 tn Grk “And there.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

7 tn Grk “behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). Here it has been translated as “right” in the phrase “right in front of him,” giving a similar effect of vividness in the translation.

8 sn The condition called dropsy involves swollen limbs resulting from the accumulation of fluid in the body’s tissues, especially the legs.

9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the sequence of events (Jesus’ question was prompted by the man’s appearance).

10 tn Grk “Jesus, answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English. In addition, since the context does not describe a previous question to Jesus (although one may well be implied), the phrase has been translated here as “Jesus asked.”

11 tn That is, experts in the interpretation of the Mosaic law (traditionally, “lawyers”).

12 snIs it lawful to heal on the Sabbath or not?” Will the Pharisees and experts in religious law defend tradition and speak out against doing good on the Sabbath? Has anything at all been learned since Luke 13:10-17? Has repentance come (13:6-9)?

13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the sequence of events (Jesus’ healing the man was in response to their refusal to answer).

14 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

15 tn Grk “taking hold [of the man].” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενος (epilabomeno") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.

16 tn Or “and let him go.”

17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

18 tc Here “son,” found in Ì45,75 (A) B W Ï, is the preferred reading. The other reading, “donkey” (found in א K L Ψ Ë1,13 33 579 892 1241 2542 al lat bo), looks like an assimilation to Luke 13:15 and Deut 22:4; Isa 32:20, and was perhaps motivated by an attempt to soften the unusual collocation of “son” and “ox.” The Western ms D differs from all others and reads “sheep.”

19 tn καί (kai) has been translated here as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. The experts, who should be expected to know the law, are unable to respond to Jesus’ question.

20 sn They could not reply. Twice in the scene, the experts remain silent (see v. 4). That, along with the presence of power working through Jesus, serves to indicate endorsement of his work and message.

21 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

22 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

23 tn Grk “those who were invited.”

24 tn Or “the best places.” The “places of honor” at the meal would be those closest to the host.

25 tn Or “banquet.” This may not refer only to a wedding feast, because this term can have broader sense (note the usage in Esth 2:18; 9:22 LXX). However, this difference does not affect the point of the parable.

26 tn Grk “do not recline in the place of honor.” 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

27 tn Grk “by him”; the referent (the host) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

28 tn Grk “host, and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate this action is a result of the situation described in the previous verse. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

29 tn Or “then in disgrace”; Grk “with shame.” In this culture avoiding shame was important.

30 tn Grk “lowest place” (also in the repetition of the phrase in the next verse).

31 tn Grk “the one who invited you.”

32 tn Grk “Go up higher.” This means to move to a more important place.

33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context, which involves the reversal of expected roles.

34 sn The point of the statement the one who humbles himself will be exalted is humility and the reversal imagery used to underline it is common: Luke 1:52-53; 6:21; 10:15; 18:14.

35 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

36 sn That is, the leader of the Pharisees (v. 1).

37 tn The meaning of the two terms for meals here, ἄριστον (ariston) and δεῖπνον (deipnon), essentially overlap (L&N 23.22). Translators usually try to find two terms for a meal to use as equivalents (e.g., lunch and dinner, dinner and supper, etc.). In this translation “dinner” and “banquet” have been used, since the expected presence of rich neighbors later in the verse suggests a rather more elaborate occasion than an ordinary meal.

38 tn This term, δοχή (doch), is a third term for a meal (see v. 12) that could also be translated “banquet, feast.”

39 sn Normally the term means crippled as a result of being maimed or mutilated (L&N 23.177).

40 tn Here “and” has been supplied between the last two elements in the series in keeping with English style.

41 sn This list of needy is like Luke 7:22. See Deut 14:28-29; 16:11-14; 26:11-13.

42 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate that this follows from the preceding action. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

43 sn You will be blessed. God notes and approves of such generosity.

44 sn The passive verb will be repaid looks at God’s commendation.



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