5:14 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 1 5:15 “When a person commits a trespass 2 and sins by straying unintentionally 3 from the regulations about the Lord’s holy things, 4 then he must bring his penalty for guilt 5 to the Lord, a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels according to the standard of the sanctuary shekel, 6 for a guilt offering. 7 5:16 And whatever holy thing he violated 8 he must restore and must add one fifth to it and give it to the priest. So the priest will make atonement 9 on his behalf with the guilt offering ram and he will be forgiven.” 10
1 sn The quotation introduced here extends from Lev 5:14 through 5:19, encompassing the first main section of guilt offering regulations. Compare the notes on Lev 1:1; 4:1; and 6:1 [5:20 HT].
2 tn Heb “trespasses a trespass” (verb and direct object from the same Hebrew root, מַעַל, ma’al); cf. NIV “commits a violation.” The word refers to some kind of overstepping of the boundary between that which is common (i.e., available for common use by common people) and that which is holy (i.e., to be used only for holy purposes because it has been consecrated to the
3 tn See Lev 4:2 above for a note on “straying.”
4 sn Heb “from the holy things of the
5 tn Here the word for “guilt” (אָשָׁם, ’asham) refers to the “penalty” for incurring guilt, the so-called consequential use of אָשָׁם (’asham; see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:303).
6 tn Heb “in your valuation, silver of shekels, in the shekel of the sanctuary.” The translation offered here suggests that, instead of a ram, the guilt offering could be presented in the form of money (see, e.g., NRSV; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:326-27). Others still maintain the view that it refers to the value of the ram that was offered (see, e.g., NIV “of the proper value in silver, according to the sanctuary shekel”; also NAB, NLT; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 72-73, 81).
sn The sanctuary shekel was about 10 grams (= ca. two fifths of an ounce; J. E. Shepherd, NIDOTTE 4:237-38).
7 tn The word for “guilt offering” (sometimes translated “reparation offering”) is the same as “guilt” earlier in the verse (rendered there “[penalty for] guilt”). One can tell which is intended only by the context.
sn The primary purpose of the guilt offering was to “atone” (see the note on Lev 1:4 above) for “trespassing” on the
8 tn Heb “and which he sinned from the holy thing.”
9 sn Regarding “make atonement” see the note on Lev 1:4.
10 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).