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Leviticus 5:1

Context
Additional Sin Offering Regulations

5:1 “‘When a person sins 1  in that he hears a public curse against one who fails to testify 2  and he is a witness (he either saw or knew what had happened 3 ) and he does not make it known, 4  then he will bear his punishment for iniquity. 5 

Leviticus 5:17

Context
Unknown trespass

5:17 “If a person sins and violates any of the Lord’s commandments which must not be violated 6  (although he did not know it at the time, 7  but later realizes he is guilty), then he will bear his punishment for iniquity 8 

Leviticus 7:18

Context
7:18 If some of the meat of his peace offering sacrifice is ever eaten on the third day it will not be accepted; it will not be accounted to the one who presented it, since it is spoiled, 9  and the person who eats from it will bear his punishment for iniquity. 10 

Leviticus 10:17

Context
10:17 “Why did you not eat the sin offering in the sanctuary? For it is most holy and he gave it to you to bear the iniquity of the congregation, 11  to make atonement on their behalf before the Lord.

Leviticus 16:22

Context
16:22 The goat is to bear on itself all their iniquities into an inaccessible land, 12  so he is to send the goat away 13  in the wilderness.

Leviticus 17:16

Context
17:16 But if he does not wash his clothes 14  and does not bathe his body, he will bear his punishment for iniquity.’” 15 

Leviticus 19:8

Context
19:8 and the one who eats it will bear his punishment for iniquity 16  because he has profaned 17  what is holy to the Lord. 18  That person will be cut off from his people. 19 

Leviticus 20:17

Context

20:17 “‘If a man has sexual intercourse with 20  his sister, whether the daughter of his father or his mother, so that he sees her nakedness and she sees his nakedness, it is a disgrace. They must be cut off in the sight of the children of their people. 21  He has exposed his sister’s nakedness; he will bear his punishment for iniquity. 22 

Leviticus 20:19

Context
20:19 You must not expose the nakedness of your mother’s sister and your father’s sister, for such a person has laid bare his own close relative. 23  They must bear their punishment for iniquity. 24 

Leviticus 22:16

Context
22:16 and so cause them to incur a penalty for guilt 25  when they eat their holy offerings, 26  for I am the Lord who sanctifies them.’”

Leviticus 26:39

Context
Restoration through Confession and Repentance

26:39 “‘As for the ones who remain among you, they will rot away because of 27  their iniquity in the lands of your enemies, and they will also rot away because of their ancestors’ 28  iniquities which are with them.

Leviticus 26:41

Context
26:41 (and I myself will walk in hostility against them and bring them into the land of their enemies), and 29  then their uncircumcised hearts become humbled and they make up for 30  their iniquity,

Leviticus 26:43

Context
26:43 The land will be abandoned by them 31  in order that it may make up for 32  its Sabbaths while it is made desolate 33  without them, 34  and they will make up for their iniquity because 35  they have rejected my regulations and have abhorred 36  my statutes.

1 tn Heb “And a person when he sins.” Most English versions translate this as the protasis of a conditional clause: “if a person sins” (NASB, NIV).

sn The same expression occurs in Lev 4:2 where it introduces sins done “by straying unintentionally from any of the commandments of the Lord which must not be done” (see the notes there). Lev 5:1-13 is an additional section of sin offering regulations directed at violations other than those referred to by this expression in Lev 4:2 (see esp. 5:1-6), and expanding on the offering regulations for the common person in Lev 4:27-35 with concessions to the poor common person (5:7-13).

2 tn The words “against one who fails to testify” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied to make sense of the remark about the “curse” (“imprecation” or “oath”; cf. ASV “adjuration”; NIV “public charge”) for the modern reader. For the interpretation of this verse reflected in the present translation see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:292-97.

3 tn The words “what had happened” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.

4 tn Heb “and hears a voice of curse, and he is a witness or he saw or he knew, if he does not declare.”

5 tn Heb “and he shall bear his iniquity.” The rendering “bear the punishment (for the iniquity)” reflects the use of the word “iniquity” to refer to the punishment for iniquity (cf. NRSV, NLT “subject to punishment”). It is sometimes referred to as the consequential use of the term (cf. Lev 5:17; 7:18; 10:17; etc.).

6 tn Heb “and does one from all of the commandments of the Lord which must not be done.”

7 tn The words “at the time” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.

8 tn Heb “and he did not know, and he shall be guilty and he shall bear his iniquity” (for the rendering “bear his punishment [for iniquity]”) see the note on Lev 5:1.) This portion of v. 17 is especially difficult. The translation offered here suggests (as in many other English versions) that the offender did not originally know that he had violated the Lord’s commandments, but then came to know it and dealt with it accordingly (cf. the corresponding sin offering section in Lev 5:1-4). Another possibility is that it refers to a situation where a person suspects that he violated something although he does not recollect it. Thus, he brings a guilt offering for his suspected violation (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:331-34, 361-63). See also R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:561-62.

9 tn Or “desecrated,” or “defiled,” or “forbidden.” For this difficult term see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:422. Cf. NIV “it is impure”; NCV “it will become unclean”; NLT “will be contaminated.”

10 tn Heb “his iniquity he shall bear” (cf. Lev 5:1); NIV “will be held responsible”; NRSV “shall incur guilt”; TEV “will suffer the consequences.”

11 sn This translation is quite literal. On the surface it appears to mean that the priests would “bear the iniquity” of the congregation by the act of eating the sin offering (so J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:622-25, 635-40). Such a notion is, however, found nowhere else in the Levitical regulations and seems unlikely (so J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 136). A more likely interpretation is reflected in this interpretive rendering: “he gave it to you [as payment] for [your work of] bearing the iniquity of the congregation.” The previous section of the chapter deals with the prebends that the priests received for performing the ministry of the tabernacle (Lev 10:12-15). Lev 10:16-18, therefore, seems to continue the very same topic in the light of the most immediate situation (see R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:702-4).

12 tn The Hebrew term rendered “inaccessible” derives from a root meaning “to cut off” (cf. NAB “an isolated region”). Another possible translation would be “infertile land” (see HALOT 187 s.v. *גָּזֵּר and cf. NRSV “a barren region”; NLT “a desolate land.”

13 tn Heb “and he [the man (standing) ready, v. 21] shall send the goat away.”

14 tn The words “his clothes” are not in the Hebrew text, but are repeated in the translation for clarity.

15 tn Heb “and he shall bear his iniquity.” The rendering “bear the punishment for the iniquity” reflects the use of the word “iniquity” to refer to the punishment for iniquity. This is sometimes referred to as the consequential use of the term (cf. Lev 5:17; 7:18; 10:17; etc.).

sn For the interpretation of this verse reflected in the present translation, see the remarks on Lev 5:1 in J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:292-97.

16 tn See the note on Lev 17:16 above.

17 sn Regarding “profaned,” see the note on Lev 10:10 above.

18 tn Heb “the holiness of the Lord.”

19 sn On the “cut off” penalty see the note on Lev 7:20.

20 tn Heb “takes.” The verb “to take” in this context means “to engage in sexual intercourse,” though some English versions translate it as “marry” (e.g., NIV, NCV, TEV, CEV).

21 tn Regarding the “cut off” penalty, see the note on Lev 7:20.

22 tn See the note on Lev 17:16 above.

23 tn Heb “his flesh.”

24 tn See the note on Lev 17:16 above.

25 tn Heb “iniquity of guilt”; NASB “cause them to bear punishment for guilt.” The Hebrew word עָוֹן (’avon, “iniquity”) can designate either acts of iniquity or the penalty (i.e., punishment) for such acts.

26 sn That is, when the lay people eat portions of offerings that should have been eaten only by priests and those who belonged to priestly households.

27 tn Heb “in” (so KJV, ASV; also later in this verse).

28 tn Heb “fathers’” (also in the following verse).

29 tn Heb “or then,” although the LXX has “then” and the Syriac “and then.”

30 tn Heb “and then they make up for.” On the verb “make up for” see the note on v. 34 above.

31 tn Heb “from them.” The preposition “from” refers here to the agent of the action (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 455).

32 tn The jussive form of the verb with the simple vav (ו) here calls for a translation that expresses purpose.

33 tn The verb is the Hophal infinitive construct with the third feminine singular suffix (GKC 182 §67.y; cf. v. 34).

34 tn Heb “from them.”

35 tn Heb “because and in because,” a double expression, which is used only here and in Ezek 13:10 (without the vav) for emphasis (GKC 492 §158.b).

36 tn Heb “and their soul has abhorred.”



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