4:1 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 1 4:2 “Tell the Israelites, ‘When a person sins by straying unintentionally 2 from any of the Lord’s commandments which must not be violated, and violates any 3 one of them 4 –
4:3 “‘If the high priest 5 sins so that the people are guilty, 6 on account of the sin he has committed he must present a flawless young bull to the Lord 7 for a sin offering. 8 4:4 He must bring the bull to the entrance of the Meeting Tent before the Lord, lay his hand on the head of the bull, and slaughter the bull before the Lord. 4:5 Then that high priest must take some of the blood 9 of the bull and bring it to the Meeting Tent. 4:6 The priest must dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle 10 some of it 11 seven times before the Lord toward 12 the front of the veil-canopy 13 of the sanctuary. 4:7 The priest must put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense that is before the Lord in the Meeting Tent, and all the rest of the bull’s blood he must pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering that is at the entrance of the Meeting Tent.
4:8 “‘Then he must take up all the fat from the sin offering bull: 14 the fat covering the entrails 15 and all the fat surrounding the entrails, 16 4:9 the two kidneys with the fat on their sinews, and the protruding lobe on the liver (which he is to remove along with the kidneys) 17 4:10 – just as it is taken from the ox of the peace offering sacrifice 18 – and the priest must offer them up in smoke on the altar of burnt offering. 4:11 But the hide of the bull, all its flesh along with its head and its legs, its entrails, and its dung – 4:12 all the rest of the bull 19 – he must bring outside the camp 20 to a ceremonially clean place, 21 to the fatty ash pile, 22 and he must burn 23 it on a wood fire; it must be burned on the fatty ash pile.
4:13 “‘If the whole congregation of Israel strays unintentionally 24 and the matter is not noticed by 25 the assembly, and they violate one of the Lord’s commandments, which must not be violated, 26 so they become guilty, 4:14 the assembly must present a young bull for a sin offering when the sin they have committed 27 becomes known. They must bring it before the Meeting Tent, 4:15 the elders of the congregation must lay their hands on the head of the bull before the Lord, and someone must slaughter 28 the bull before the Lord. 4:16 Then the high priest 29 must bring some of the blood of the bull to the Meeting Tent, 4:17 and that priest must dip his finger in the blood 30 and sprinkle 31 some of the blood seven times 32 before the Lord toward 33 the front of the veil-canopy. 34 4:18 He must put some of the blood on the horns of the altar 35 which is before the Lord in the Meeting Tent, and all the rest of the blood he must pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering that is at the entrance of the Meeting Tent.
4:19 “‘Then the priest 36 must take all its fat 37 and offer the fat 38 up in smoke on the altar. 4:20 He must do with the rest of the bull just as he did with the bull of the sin offering; this is what he must do with it. 39 So the priest will make atonement 40 on their behalf and they will be forgiven. 41 4:21 He 42 must bring the rest of the bull outside the camp 43 and burn it just as he burned the first bull – it is the sin offering of the assembly.
4:22 “‘Whenever 44 a leader, by straying unintentionally, 45 sins and violates one of the commandments of the Lord his God which must not be violated, 46 and he pleads guilty, 4:23 or his sin that he committed 47 is made known to him, 48 he must bring a flawless male goat as his offering. 49 4:24 He must lay his hand on the head of the male goat and slaughter 50 it in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered before the Lord – it is a sin offering. 4:25 Then the priest must take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and he must pour out the rest of its blood at the base of the altar of burnt offering. 4:26 Then the priest 51 must offer all of its fat up in smoke on the altar like the fat of the peace offering sacrifice. So the priest will make atonement 52 on his behalf for 53 his sin and he will be forgiven. 54
4:27 “‘If an ordinary individual 55 sins by straying unintentionally 56 when he violates one of the Lord’s commandments which must not be violated, 57 and he pleads guilty 4:28 or his sin that he committed 58 is made known to him, 59 he must bring a flawless female goat 60 as his offering for the sin 61 that he committed. 4:29 He must lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slaughter 62 the sin offering in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered. 4:30 Then the priest must take some of its blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and he must pour out all the rest of its blood at the base of the altar. 4:31 Then he must remove all of its fat (just as fat was removed from the peace offering sacrifice) and the priest must offer it up in smoke on the altar for a soothing aroma to the Lord. So the priest will make atonement 63 on his behalf and he will be forgiven. 64
4:32 “‘But if he brings a sheep as his offering, for a sin offering, he must bring a flawless female. 4:33 He must lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slaughter it for a sin offering in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered. 4:34 Then the priest must take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and he must pour out all the rest of its blood at the base of the altar. 4:35 Then the one who brought the offering 65 must remove all its fat (just as the fat of the sheep is removed from the peace offering sacrifice) and the priest must offer them up in smoke on the altar on top of the other gifts of the Lord. So the priest will make atonement 66 on his behalf for his sin which he has committed and he will be forgiven. 67
5:1 “‘When a person sins 68 in that he hears a public curse against one who fails to testify 69 and he is a witness (he either saw or knew what had happened 70 ) and he does not make it known, 71 then he will bear his punishment for iniquity. 72 5:2 Or when there is 73 a person who touches anything ceremonially 74 unclean, whether the carcass of an unclean wild animal, or the carcass of an unclean domesticated animal, or the carcass of an unclean creeping thing, even if he did not realize it, 75 but he himself has become unclean and is guilty; 76 5:3 or when he touches human uncleanness with regard to anything by which he can become unclean, 77 even if he did not realize it, but he himself has later come to know it and is guilty; 5:4 or when a person swears an oath, speaking thoughtlessly 78 with his lips, whether to do evil or to do good, with regard to anything which the individual might speak thoughtlessly in an oath, even if he did not realize it, but he himself has later come to know it and is guilty with regard to one of these oaths 79 – 5:5 when an individual becomes guilty with regard to one of these things 80 he must confess how he has sinned, 81 5:6 and he must bring his penalty for guilt 82 to the Lord for his sin that he has committed, a female from the flock, whether a female sheep or a female goat, for a sin offering. So the priest will make atonement 83 on his behalf for 84 his sin.
5:7 “‘If he cannot afford an animal from the flock, 85 he must bring his penalty for guilt for his sin that he has committed, 86 two turtledoves or two young pigeons, 87 to the Lord, one for a sin offering and one for a burnt offering. 5:8 He must bring them to the priest and present first the one that is for a sin offering. The priest 88 must pinch 89 its head at the nape of its neck, but must not sever the head from the body. 90 5:9 Then he must sprinkle 91 some of the blood of the sin offering on the wall of the altar, and the remainder of the blood 92 must be squeezed out at the base of the altar – it is a sin offering. 5:10 The second bird 93 he must make a burnt offering according to the standard regulation. 94 So the priest will make atonement 95 on behalf of this person for 96 his sin which he has committed, and he will be forgiven. 97
5:11 “‘If he cannot afford 98 two turtledoves or two young pigeons, 99 he must bring as his offering for his sin which he has committed 100 a tenth of an ephah 101 of choice wheat flour 102 for a sin offering. He must not place olive oil on it and he must not put frankincense on it, because it is a sin offering. 5:12 He must bring it to the priest and the priest must scoop out from it a handful as its memorial portion 103 and offer it up in smoke on the altar on top of the other gifts of the Lord – it is a sin offering. 5:13 So the priest will make atonement 104 on his behalf for his sin which he has committed by doing one of these things, 105 and he will be forgiven. 106 The remainder of the offering 107 will belong to the priest like the grain offering.’” 108
5:14 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 109 5:15 “When a person commits a trespass 110 and sins by straying unintentionally 111 from the regulations about the Lord’s holy things, 112 then he must bring his penalty for guilt 113 to the Lord, a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels according to the standard of the sanctuary shekel, 114 for a guilt offering. 115 5:16 And whatever holy thing he violated 116 he must restore and must add one fifth to it and give it to the priest. So the priest will make atonement 117 on his behalf with the guilt offering ram and he will be forgiven.” 118
5:17 “If a person sins and violates any of the Lord’s commandments which must not be violated 119 (although he did not know it at the time, 120 but later realizes he is guilty), then he will bear his punishment for iniquity 121 5:18 and must bring a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels, 122 for a guilt offering to the priest. So the priest will make atonement 123 on his behalf for his error which he committed 124 (although he himself had not known it) and he will be forgiven. 125 5:19 It is a guilt offering; he was surely guilty before the Lord.”
6:1 (5:20) 126 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 127 6:2 “When a person sins and commits a trespass 128 against the Lord by deceiving his fellow citizen 129 in regard to something held in trust, or a pledge, or something stolen, or by extorting something from his fellow citizen, 130 6:3 or has found something lost and denies it and swears falsely 131 concerning any one of the things that someone might do to sin 132 – 6:4 when it happens that he sins and he is found guilty, 133 then he must return whatever he had stolen, or whatever he had extorted, or the thing that he had held in trust, 134 or the lost thing that he had found, 6:5 or anything about which he swears falsely. 135 He must restore it in full 136 and add one fifth to it; he must give it to its owner when he is found guilty. 137 6:6 Then he must bring his guilt offering to the Lord, a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels, 138 for a guilt offering to the priest. 6:7 So the priest will make atonement 139 on his behalf before the Lord and he will be forgiven 140 for whatever he has done to become guilty.” 141
6:8 (6:1) 142 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 143 6:9 “Command Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the law of the burnt offering. The burnt offering is to remain on the hearth 144 on the altar all night until morning, and the fire of the altar must be kept burning on it. 145 6:10 Then the priest must put on his linen robe and must put linen leggings 146 over his bare flesh, and he must take up the fatty ashes of the burnt offering that the fire consumed on the altar, 147 and he must place them 148 beside the altar. 6:11 Then he must take off his clothes and put on other clothes, and he must bring the fatty ashes outside the camp to a ceremonially 149 clean place, 6:12 but the fire which is on the altar must be kept burning on it. 150 It must not be extinguished. So the priest must kindle wood on it morning by morning, and he must arrange the burnt offering on it and offer the fat of the peace offering up in smoke on it. 6:13 A continual fire must be kept burning on the altar. It must not be extinguished.
6:14 “‘This is the law of the grain offering. The sons of Aaron are to present it 151 before the Lord in front of the altar, 6:15 and the priest 152 must take up with his hand some of the choice wheat flour of the grain offering 153 and some of its olive oil, and all of the frankincense that is on the grain offering, and he must offer its memorial portion 154 up in smoke on the altar 155 as a soothing aroma to the Lord. 156 6:16 Aaron and his sons are to eat what is left over from it. It must be eaten unleavened in a holy place; they are to eat it in the courtyard of the Meeting Tent. 6:17 It must not be baked with yeast. 157 I have given it as their portion from my gifts. It is most holy, 158 like the sin offering and the guilt offering. 6:18 Every male among the sons of Aaron may eat it. It is a perpetual allotted portion 159 throughout your generations 160 from the gifts of the Lord. Anyone who touches these gifts 161 must be holy.’” 162
6:19 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 163 6:20 “This is the offering of Aaron and his sons which they must present to the Lord on the day when he is anointed: a tenth of an ephah 164 of choice wheat flour 165 as a continual grain offering, half of it in the morning and half of it in the evening. 6:21 It must be made with olive oil on a griddle and you must bring it well soaked, 166 so you must present a grain offering of broken pieces 167 as a soothing aroma to the Lord. 6:22 The high priest who succeeds him 168 from among his sons must do it. It is a perpetual statute; it must be offered up in smoke as a whole offering to the Lord. 6:23 Every grain offering of a priest must be a whole offering; it must not be eaten.”
6:24 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 169 6:25 “Tell Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the law of the sin offering. In the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered the sin offering must be slaughtered before the Lord. It is most holy. 170 6:26 The priest who offers it for sin is to eat it. It must be eaten in a holy place, in the court of the Meeting Tent. 6:27 Anyone who touches its meat must be holy, and whoever spatters some of its blood on a garment, 171 you must wash 172 whatever he spatters it on in a holy place. 6:28 Any clay vessel it is boiled in must be broken, and if it was boiled in a bronze vessel, then that vessel 173 must be rubbed out and rinsed in water. 6:29 Any male among the priests may eat it. It is most holy. 174 6:30 But any sin offering from which some of its blood is brought into the Meeting Tent to make atonement in the sanctuary must not be eaten. It must be burned up in the fire. 175
7:1 “‘This is the law of the guilt offering. It is most holy. 7:2 In the place where they slaughter the burnt offering they must slaughter the guilt offering, and the officiating priest 176 must splash 177 the blood against the altar’s sides. 7:3 Then the one making the offering 178 must present all its fat: the fatty tail, the fat covering the entrails, 7:4 the two kidneys and the fat on their sinews, and the protruding lobe on the liver (which he must remove along with the kidneys). 179 7:5 Then the priest must offer them up in smoke on the altar 180 as a gift to the Lord. It is a guilt offering. 7:6 Any male among the priests may eat it. It must be eaten in a holy place. It is most holy. 181 7:7 The law is the same for the sin offering and the guilt offering; 182 it belongs to the priest who makes atonement with it.
7:8 “‘As for the priest who presents someone’s burnt offering, the hide of that burnt offering which he presented belongs to him. 7:9 Every grain offering which is baked in the oven or 183 made in the pan 184 or on the griddle belongs to the priest who presented it. 7:10 Every grain offering, whether mixed with olive oil or dry, belongs to all the sons of Aaron, each one alike. 185
7:11 “‘This is the law of the peace offering sacrifice which he 186 is to present to the Lord. 7:12 If he presents it on account of thanksgiving, 187 along with the thank offering sacrifice he must present unleavened loaves mixed with olive oil, unleavened wafers smeared with olive oil, 188 and well soaked 189 ring-shaped loaves made of choice wheat flour 190 mixed with olive oil. 7:13 He must present this grain offering 191 in addition to ring-shaped loaves of leavened bread which regularly accompany 192 the sacrifice of his thanksgiving peace offering. 7:14 He must present one of each kind of grain offering 193 as a contribution offering 194 to the Lord; it belongs to the priest who splashes the blood of the peace offering. 7:15 The meat of his 195 thanksgiving peace offering must be eaten on the day of his offering; he must not set any of it aside until morning.
7:16 “‘If his offering is a votive or freewill sacrifice, 196 it may be eaten on the day he presents his sacrifice, and also the leftovers from it may be eaten on the next day, 197 7:17 but the leftovers from the meat of the sacrifice must be burned up in the fire 198 on the third day. 7:18 If some of the meat of his peace offering sacrifice is ever eaten on the third day it will not be accepted; it will not be accounted to the one who presented it, since it is spoiled, 199 and the person who eats from it will bear his punishment for iniquity. 200 7:19 The meat which touches anything ceremonially 201 unclean must not be eaten; it must be burned up in the fire. As for ceremonially clean meat, 202 everyone who is ceremonially clean may eat the meat. 7:20 The person who eats meat from the peace offering sacrifice which belongs to the Lord while his uncleanness persists 203 will be cut off from his people. 204 7:21 When a person touches anything unclean (whether human uncleanness, or an unclean animal, or an unclean detestable creature) 205 and eats some of the meat of the peace offering sacrifice which belongs to the Lord, that person will be cut off from his people.’” 206
7:22 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 207 7:23 “Tell the Israelites, ‘You must not eat any fat of an ox, sheep, or goat. 7:24 Moreover, the fat of an animal that has died of natural causes 208 and the fat of an animal torn by beasts may be used for any other purpose, 209 but you must certainly never eat it. 7:25 If anyone eats fat from the animal from which he presents a gift to the Lord, that person will be cut off from his people. 210 7:26 And you must not eat any blood of the birds or the domesticated land animals in any of the places where you live. 211 7:27 Any person who eats any blood – that person will be cut off from his people.’” 212
7:28 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 213 7:29 “Tell the Israelites, ‘The one who presents his peace offering sacrifice to the Lord must bring his offering to the Lord from his peace offering sacrifice. 7:30 With his own hands he must bring the Lord’s gifts. He must bring the fat with the breast 214 to wave the breast as a wave offering before the Lord, 215 7:31 and the priest must offer the fat up in smoke on the altar, but the breast will belong to Aaron and his sons. 7:32 The right thigh you must give as a contribution offering 216 to the priest from your peace offering sacrifices. 7:33 The one from Aaron’s sons who presents the blood of the peace offering and fat will have the right thigh as his share, 7:34 for the breast of the wave offering and the thigh of the contribution offering I have taken from the Israelites out of their peace offering sacrifices and have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons from the people of Israel as a perpetual allotted portion.’” 217
7:35 This is the allotment of Aaron and the allotment of his sons from the Lord’s gifts on the day Moses 218 presented them to serve as priests 219 to the Lord. 7:36 This is what the Lord commanded to give to them from the Israelites on the day Moses 220 anointed them 221 – a perpetual allotted portion throughout their generations. 222
7:37 This is the law 223 for the burnt offering, the grain offering, 224 the sin offering, the guilt offering, the ordination offering, 225 and the peace offering sacrifice, 7:38 which the Lord commanded Moses on Mount Sinai on the day he commanded the Israelites to present their offerings to the Lord in the wilderness of Sinai.
2 tn Heb “And a person, when he sins in straying.” The English translation of “by straying” (בִּשְׁגָגָה [bishgagah] literally, “in going astray; in making an error”) varies greatly, but almost all suggest that this term refers to sins that were committed by mistake or done not knowing that the particular act was sinful (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:228-29). See, e.g., LXX “involuntarily”; Tg. Onq. “by neglect”; KJV “through ignorance”; ASV, RSV, NJPS “unwittingly”; NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “unintentionally”; NAB, NEB “inadvertently”; NCV “by accident.” However, we know from Num 15:27-31 that committing a sin “by straying” is the opposite of committing a sin “defiantly” (i.e., בְּיַד רָמָה [bÿyad ramah] “with a raised hand,” v. 30). In the latter case the person, as it were, raises his fist in presumptuous defiance against the
3 tn This is an emphatic use of the preposition מִן (min; see R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 56-57, §325).
4 tn The “when” clause (כִּי, ki) breaks off here before its resolution, thus creating an open-ended introduction to the following subsections, which are introduced by “if” (אִם [’im] vv. 3, 13, 27, 32). Also, the last part of the verse reads literally, “which must not be done and does from one from them.”
5 tn Heb “the anointed priest” (so ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). This refers to the high priest (cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).
6 tn Heb “to the guilt of the people”; NRSV “thus bringing guilt on the people.”
7 tn Heb “and he shall offer on his sin which he sinned, a bull, a son of the herd, flawless.”
8 sn The word for “sin offering” (sometimes translated “purification offering”) is the same as the word for “sin” earlier in the verse. One can tell which rendering is intended only by the context. The primary purpose of the “sin offering” (חַטָּאת, khatta’t) was to “purge” (כִּפֶּר, kipper, “to make atonement,” see 4:20, 26, 31, 35, and the notes on Lev 1:4 and esp. Lev 16:20, 33) the sanctuary or its furniture in order to cleanse it from any impurities and/or (re)consecrate it for holy purposes (see, e.g., Lev 8:15; 16:19). By making this atonement the impurities of the person or community were cleansed and the people became clean. See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:93-103.
9 tn Heb “from the blood of the bull” (and similarly throughout this chapter).
11 tn Heb “of the blood.” The relative pronoun (“it”) has been used in the translation here for stylistic reasons.
12 tn The particle here translated “toward” usually serves as a direct object indicator or a preposition meaning “with.” With the verb of motion it probably means “toward,” “in the direction of” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:234; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 60); cf. NAB, CEV.
13 tn The Hebrew term פָּרֹכֶת (parokhet) is usually translated “veil” (e.g., ASV, NAB, NASB) or “curtain” (e.g., NIV, NRSV), but it seems to have stretched not only in front of but also over the top of the ark of the covenant which stood behind and under it inside the most holy place (see R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 3:687-89).
14 tn Heb “all the fat of the bull of the sin offering he shall take up from it.”
15 tc The MT has here the preposition עַל (’al, “on, upon” [i.e., “which covers on the entrails,” as awkward in Hebrew as it is in English]), but Smr, LXX, Syriac, and Targums read אֶת (’et), which is what would be expected (i.e., “which covers the entrails”; cf. Lev 3:3, 9, 14). It may have been mistakenly inserted here under the influence of “on (עַל) the entrails” at the end of the verse.
16 tn Heb “and all the fat on the entrails.” The fat layer that covers the entrails as a whole (i.e., “that covers the entrails”) is different from the fat that surrounds and adheres to the various organs (“on the entrails,” i.e., surrounding them; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:205-7).
17 tn Heb “and the protruding lobe on the liver on the kidneys he shall remove it.”
19 tn All of v. 11 is a so-called casus pendens (also known as an extraposition or a nominative absolute), which means that it anticipates the next verse, being the full description of “all (the rest of) the bull” (lit. “all the bull”) at the beginning of v. 12 (actually after the first verb of the verse; see the next note below).
20 tn Heb “And he (the offerer) shall bring out all the bull to from outside to the camp to a clean place.”
21 tn Heb “a clean place,” but referring to a place that is ceremonially clean. This has been specified in the translation for clarity.
22 tn Heb “the pouring out [place] of fatty ash.”
23 tn Heb “burn with fire.” This expression is somewhat redundant in English, so the translation collocates “fire” with “wood,” thus “a wood fire.”
25 tn Heb “is concealed from the eyes of”; NASB, NRSV, NLT “escapes the notice of.”
27 tn Heb “and the sin which they committed on it becomes known”; KJV “which they have sinned against it.” The Hebrew עָלֶיהָ (’aleha, “on it”) probably refers back to “one of the commandments” in v. 13 (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:243).
28 tn Heb “and he shall slaughter.” The singular verb seems to refer to an individual who represents the whole congregation, perhaps one of the elders referred to at the beginning of the verse, or the officiating priest (cf. v. 21). The LXX and Syriac make the verb plural, referring to “the elders of the congregation.”
29 tn Heb “the anointed priest” (so ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). This refers to the high priest (cf. TEV).
30 tn The words “in the blood” are not repeated in the Hebrew text at this point, but must be supplied in the English translation for clarity.
32 tc The MT reads literally, “and the priest shall dip his finger from the blood and sprinkle seven times.” This is awkward. Compare v. 6, which has literally, “and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle from the blood seven times.” The MT appears to be corrupt by haplography (i.e., assuming v. 6 to be the correct form, in v. 17 the scribe skipped from “his finger” to “from the blood,” thus missing “in the blood”) and metathesis (i.e., this also resulted in a text where “from the blood” stands before “sprinkle” rather than after it; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 47).
36 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Based on the parallel statement in 4:10 and 4:31, it is the priest who performs this action rather than the person who brought the offering.
37 tn Heb “take up all its fat from it”; NASB “shall remove all its fat from it.”
sn See the full discussion of the fat regulations in Lev 4:8-9 above.
41 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to them” or “it shall be forgiven to them.”
43 tn Heb “And he shall bring out the bull to from outside to the camp.”
44 tn This section begins with the relative pronoun אֲשֶׁר (’asher) which usually means “who” or “which,” but here means “whenever.”
46 tn Heb “and does one from all the commandments of the
47 tn Heb “or his sin which he sinned in it is made known to him”; NAB “if he learns of the sin he committed.”
48 tn Lev 4:22b-23a is difficult. The present translation suggests that there are two possible legal situations envisioned, separated by the Hebrew אוֹ (’o, “or”) at the beginning of v. 23. Lev 4:22b refers to any case in which the leader readily admits his guilt (i.e., “pleads guilty”), whereas v. 23a refers to cases where the leader is convicted of his guilt by legal action (“his sin…is made known to him”). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:95-96; Lev 4:27-28; and esp. the notes on Lev 5:1 below.
49 tn Heb “a he-goat of goats, a male without defect”; cf. NLT “with no physical defects.”
51 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Based on the parallel statements in 4:10 and 4:31, it is the priest who performs this action rather than the person who brought the offering.
53 tn Heb “from.” In this phrase the preposition מִן (min) may be referring to the reason or cause (“on account of, because of”; GKC 383 §119.z). As J. E. Hartley (Leviticus [WBC], 47) points out, “from” may refer to the removal of the sin, but is an awkward expression. Hartley also suggests that the phrasing might be “an elliptical expression for יְכַפֵּר עַל־לְטַהֵר אֶת־מִן, ‘he will make expiation for…to cleanse…from…,’ as in 16:30.”
54 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
55 tn Heb “an individual from the people of the land”; cf. NASB “anyone of the common people” (KJV, ASV both similar); NAB “a private person.”
57 tn Heb “by doing it, one from the commandments of the
58 tn Heb “or his sin which he sinned is made known to him”; cf. NCV “when that person learns about his sin.”
60 tn Heb “a she-goat of goats, a female without defect”; NAB “an unblemished she-goat.”
61 tn Heb “on his sin.”
64 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
65 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here “he” refers to the offerer rather than the priest (contrast the clauses before and after).
67 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
68 tn Heb “And a person when he sins.” Most English versions translate this as the protasis of a conditional clause: “if a person sins” (NASB, NIV).
sn The same expression occurs in Lev 4:2 where it introduces sins done “by straying unintentionally from any of the commandments of the
69 tn The words “against one who fails to testify” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied to make sense of the remark about the “curse” (“imprecation” or “oath”; cf. ASV “adjuration”; NIV “public charge”) for the modern reader. For the interpretation of this verse reflected in the present translation see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:292-97.
70 tn The words “what had happened” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.
71 tn Heb “and hears a voice of curse, and he is a witness or he saw or he knew, if he does not declare.”
72 tn Heb “and he shall bear his iniquity.” The rendering “bear the punishment (for the iniquity)” reflects the use of the word “iniquity” to refer to the punishment for iniquity (cf. NRSV, NLT “subject to punishment”). It is sometimes referred to as the consequential use of the term (cf. Lev 5:17; 7:18; 10:17; etc.).
73 tc The insertion of the words “when there is” is a reflection of the few Hebrew
74 tn The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the uncleanness involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.
75 tn Heb “and it is hidden from him,” meaning that the person who contracted the ceremonial uncleanness was not aware at the time what had happened, but later found out that he had become ceremonially unclean. This same phrase occurs again in both vv. 3 and 4.
76 sn Lev 5:2-3 are parallel laws of uncleanness (contracted from animals and people, respectively), and both seem to assume that the contraction of uncleanness was originally unknown to the person (vv. 2 and 3) but became known to him or her at a later time (v. 3; i.e., “has come to know” in v. 3 is to be assumed for v. 2 as well). Uncleanness itself did not make a person “guilty” unless he or she failed to handle it according to the normal purification regulations (see, e.g., “wash his clothes and bathe with water, and he will be unclean till evening,” Lev 15:5 NIV; cf. Lev 11:39-40; 15:5-12, 16-24; Num 19, etc.). The problem here in Lev 5:2-3 is that, because the person had not been aware of his or her uncleanness, he or she had incurred guilt for not carrying out these regular procedures, and it would now be too late for that. Thus, the unclean person needs to bring a sin offering to atone for the contamination caused by his or her neglect of the purity regulations.
77 tn Heb “or if he touches uncleanness of mankind to any of his uncleanness which he becomes unclean in it.”
78 tn Heb “to speak thoughtlessly”; cf. NAB “rashly utters an oath.”
79 tn Heb “and is guilty to one from these,” probably referring here to any of “these” things about which one might swear a thoughtless oath (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 45), with the word “oath” supplied in the translation for clarity. Another possibility is that “to one from these” is a dittography from v. 5 (cf. the note on v. 5a), and that v. 4 ends with “and is guilty” like vv. 2 and 3 (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:300).
80 tn Heb “and it shall happen when he becomes guilty to one from these,” referring to any of “these” possible transgressions in Lev 5:1-4. Tg. Onq., the original Greek translation, and the Latin Vulgate omit this clause, possibly due to homoioteleuton because of the repetition of “to one from these” from the end of v. 4 in v. 5a (cf. the note on v. 4b).
sn What all the transgressions in Lev 5:1-4 have in common is that the time is past for handling the original situation properly (i.e., testifying in court, following purity regulations, or fulfilling an oath), so now the person has become guilty and needs to follow corrective sacrificial procedures.
81 tn Heb “which he sinned on it”; cf. ASV “confess that wherein he hath sinned”; NCV “must tell how he sinned.”
82 tn In this context the word for “guilt” (אָשָׁם, ’asham) refers to the “penalty” for incurring guilt, the so-called consequential אָשָׁם (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:303; cf. the note on Lev 5:1).
85 tn Heb “and if his hand does not reach enough of a flock animal” (see the note on v. 11 below). The term translated “animal from the flock” (שֶׂה, seh) is often translated “lamb” (e.g., KJV, NASB, NIV, NCV) or “sheep” (e.g., NRSV, TEV, NLT), but it clearly includes either a sheep or a goat here (cf. v. 6), referring to the smaller pasture animals as opposed to the larger ones (i.e., cattle; cf. 4:3). Some English versions use the more generic “animal” (e.g., NAB, CEV).
86 tn Heb “and he shall bring his guilt which he sinned,” which is an abbreviated form of Lev 5:6, “and he shall bring his [penalty for] guilt to the
89 sn The action seems to involve both a twisting action, breaking the neck of the bird and severing its vertebrae, as well as pinching or nipping the skin, but in this case not severing the head from the main body (note the rest of this verse).
90 tn Heb “he shall not divide [it]” (see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:305).
92 tn Heb “the remainder in the blood.” The Heb. preposition “in” (בְּ, bÿ) is used here to mean “some among” a whole collection of something.
93 tn The word “bird” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for clarity.
97 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
98 tn Heb “and if his hand does not reach [or is not sufficient] to”; cf. NASB “if his means are insufficient for.” The expression is the same as that in Lev 5:7 above except for the verb: נָשַׂג (nasag, “to collect, to reach, to be sufficient”) is used here, but נָגַע (nagah, “to touch, to reach”) is used in v. 7. Smr has the former in both v. 7 and 11.
100 tn Heb “and he shall bring his offering which he sinned.” Like the similar expression in v. 7 above (see the note there), this is an abbreviated form of Lev 5:6, “and he shall bring his [penalty for] guilt to the
101 sn A tenth of an ephah would be about 2.3 liters, one day’s ration for a single person (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:306). English versions handle the amount somewhat differently, cf. NCV “about two quarts”; TEV “one kilogramme”; CEV “two pounds.”
103 sn The “memorial portion” (אַזְכָּרָה, ’azkkarah) was the part of the grain offering that was burnt on the altar (Lev 2:2), as opposed to the remainder, which was normally consumed by the priests (Lev 2:3; see the full regulations in Lev 6:14-23 [6:7-16 HT]). It was probably intended to call to mind (i.e., memorialize) before the
106 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
107 tn Heb “and it”; the referent (the remaining portion of the offering) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
110 tn Heb “trespasses a trespass” (verb and direct object from the same Hebrew root, מַעַל, ma’al); cf. NIV “commits a violation.” The word refers to some kind of overstepping of the boundary between that which is common (i.e., available for common use by common people) and that which is holy (i.e., to be used only for holy purposes because it has been consecrated to the
112 sn Heb “from the holy things of the
113 tn Here the word for “guilt” (אָשָׁם, ’asham) refers to the “penalty” for incurring guilt, the so-called consequential use of אָשָׁם (’asham; see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:303).
114 tn Heb “in your valuation, silver of shekels, in the shekel of the sanctuary.” The translation offered here suggests that, instead of a ram, the guilt offering could be presented in the form of money (see, e.g., NRSV; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:326-27). Others still maintain the view that it refers to the value of the ram that was offered (see, e.g., NIV “of the proper value in silver, according to the sanctuary shekel”; also NAB, NLT; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 72-73, 81).
sn The sanctuary shekel was about 10 grams (= ca. two fifths of an ounce; J. E. Shepherd, NIDOTTE 4:237-38).
115 tn The word for “guilt offering” (sometimes translated “reparation offering”) is the same as “guilt” earlier in the verse (rendered there “[penalty for] guilt”). One can tell which is intended only by the context.
sn The primary purpose of the guilt offering was to “atone” (see the note on Lev 1:4 above) for “trespassing” on the
116 tn Heb “and which he sinned from the holy thing.”
118 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
119 tn Heb “and does one from all of the commandments of the
120 tn The words “at the time” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.
121 tn Heb “and he did not know, and he shall be guilty and he shall bear his iniquity” (for the rendering “bear his punishment [for iniquity]”) see the note on Lev 5:1.) This portion of v. 17 is especially difficult. The translation offered here suggests (as in many other English versions) that the offender did not originally know that he had violated the
125 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV and NASB both similar).
126 sn Beginning with 6:1, the verse numbers through 6:30 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 6:1 ET = 5:20 HT, 6:2 ET = 5:21 HT, 6:8 ET = 6:1 HT, etc., through 6:30 ET = 6:23 HT. Beginning with 7:1 the verse numbers in the English text and Hebrew text are again the same.
127 sn This paragraph is Lev 6:1-7 in the English Bible but Lev 5:20-26 in the Hebrew text. The quotation introduced by v. 1 extends from Lev 6:2 (5:21 HT) through 6:7 (5:26 HT), encompassing the third main section of guilt offering regulations. Compare the notes on Lev 1:1; 4:1; and 5:14 above.
129 tn Or “neighbor” (ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NASB “companion”; TEV “a fellow-Israelite.”
130 tn Heb “has extorted his neighbor”; ASV “oppressed”; NRSV “defrauded.”
131 tn Heb “and swears on falsehood”; cf. CEV “deny something while under oath.”
132 tn Heb “on one from all which the man shall do to sin in them.”
133 tn Heb “and it shall happen, when he sins and becomes guilty,” which is both resumptive of the previous (vv. 2-3) and the conclusion to the protasis (cf. “then” introducing the next clause as the apodosis). In this case, “becomes guilty” (cf. NASB, NIV) probably refers to his legal status as one who has been convicted of a crime in court; thus the translation “he is found guilty.” See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:559-61.
134 tn Heb “that had been held in trust with him.”
135 tn Heb “or from all which he swears on it to falsehood.”
136 tn Heb “in its head.” This refers “the full amount” in terms of the “principal,” the original item or amount obtained illegally (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:338; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 84).
137 tn Heb “to whom it is to him he shall give it in the day of his being guilty.” The present translation is based on the view that he has been found guilty through the legal process (see the note on v. 4 above; cf., e.g., TEV and B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 33-34). Others translate the latter part as “in the day he offers his guilt [reparation] offering” (e.g., NIV and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 73, 84), or “in the day he realizes his guilt” (e.g., NRSV and J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:319, 338).
140 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
141 tn Heb “on one from all which he does to become guilty in it”; NAB “whatever guilt he may have incurred.”
143 sn The following paragraphs are Lev 6:8-30 in the English Bible but 6:1-23 in the Hebrew text. This initial verse makes the special priestly regulations for the people’s burnt and grain offerings into a single unit (i.e., Lev 6:8-18 [6:1-11 HT]; cf. Lev 1-2 above). Note also the separate introductions for various priestly regulations in Lev 6:19 [12 HT], 24 [17 HT], and for the common people in Lev 7:22, 28 below.
144 tn Heb “It is the burnt offering on the hearth.”
145 tn Heb “in it.” In this context “in it” apparently refers to the “hearth” which was on top of the altar.
146 tn The exact nature of this article of the priest’s clothing is difficult to determine. Cf. KJV, ASV “breeches”; NAB “drawers”; NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “undergarments”; NCV “underclothes”; CEV “underwear”; TEV “shorts.”
147 tn Heb “he shall lift up the fatty ashes which the fire shall consume the burnt offering on the altar.”
148 tn Heb “it,” referring the “fatty ashes” as a single unit.
149 tn The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the uncleanness of the place involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.
151 tn Heb “offering it, the sons of Aaron.” The verb is a Hiphil infinitive absolute, which is used here in place of the finite verb as either a jussive (GKC 346 §113.cc, “let the sons of Aaron offer”) or more likely an injunctive in light of the verbs that follow (Joüon 2:430 §123.v, “the sons of Aaron shall/must offer”).
152 tn Heb “and he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. The “he” refers to the officiating priest. A similar shift between singular and plural occurs in Lev 1:7-9, but see the note on Lev 1:7 and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 89 for the possibility of textual corruption.
153 tn Heb “shall take up from it with his hand some of the choice wheat flour of the grain offering.”
155 tc Smr reading, which includes the locative ה (hey, translated “on” the altar), is preferred here. This is the normal construction with the verb “offer up in smoke” in Lev 1-7 (see the note on Lev 1:9).
156 tn Heb “and he shall offer up in smoke [on] the altar a soothing aroma, its memorial portion, to the
158 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is”; cf. NAB “most sacred.”
159 tn Or “a perpetual regulation”; cf. NASB “a permanent ordinance”; NRSV “as their perpetual due.”
160 tn Heb “for your generations”; cf. NIV “for the generations to come.”
161 tn Heb “touches them”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. In this context “them” must refer to the “gifts” of the
162 tn Or “anyone/anything that touches them shall become holy” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:443-56). The question is whether this refers to the contagious nature of holy objects (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) or whether it simply sets forth a demand that anyone who touches the holy gifts of the
164 sn A tenth of an ephah is about 2.3 liters, one day’s ration for a single person (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:306).
166 tn The term rendered here “well soaked” (see, e.g., NRSV; the Hebrew term is מֻרְבֶּכֶת, murbbekhet) occurs only three times (here; 7:12, and 1 Chr 23:29), and is sometimes translated “well-mixed” (e.g., NIV, NCV, NLT; NASB “well stirred”; NAB “well kneaded”). The meaning is uncertain (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:399-400), but in Lev 7:12 it stands parallel to already prepared grain offerings either “mixed” (the Hebrew term is בְּלוּלֹת (bÿlulot), not מֻרְבֶּכֶת as in Lev 6:21 [6:14 HT]) or anointed with oil.
167 tn Heb “broken bits [?] of a grain offering of pieces,” but the meaning of the Hebrew term rendered here “broken bits” (תֻּפִינֵי, tufiney) is quite uncertain. Some take it from the Hebrew verb “to break up, to crumble” (פַּת [pat]; e.g., the Syriac, NAB, NIV, NLT “broken” pieces) and others from “to bake” (אָפַה, ’afah; e.g., NRSV “baked pieces”). For a good summary of other proposed options, see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 90. Compare Lev 2:5-6 for the general regulations regarding this manner of grain offering. Similar but less problematic terminology is used there.
168 tn Heb “And the anointed priest under him.”
170 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is.” Cf. NAB “most sacred”; CEV “very sacred”; TEV “very holy.”
171 tn Heb “on the garment”; NCV “on any clothes”; CEV “on the clothes of the priest.”
172 tc The translation “you must wash” is based on the MT as it stands (cf. NASB, NIV). Smr, LXX, Syriac, Tg. Ps.-J., and the Vulgate have a third person masculine singular passive form (Pual), “[the garment] must be washed” (cf. NAB, NRSV, NLT). This could also be supported from the verbs in the following verse, and it requires only a repointing of the Hebrew text with no change in consonants. See the remarks in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 90 and J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:404.
173 tn Heb “it”; the words “that vessel” are supplied in the translation to clarify the referent.
175 tn Heb “burned with fire,” an expression which is sometimes redundant in English, but here means “burned up,” “burned up entirely.”
176 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the officiating priest) has been specified in the translation for clarity. This priest was responsible for any actions involving direct contact with the altar (e.g., the splashing of the blood).
181 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is”; NAB “most sacred”; TEV “very holy.”
182 tn Heb “like the sin offering like the guilt offering, one law to them.”
183 tn Heb “and” rather than “or” (cf. also the next “or”).
184 tn Heb “and all made in the pan”; cf. KJV “fryingpan”; NAB “deep-fried in a pot.”
185 tn Heb “a man like his brother.”
186 tn This “he” pronoun refers to the offerer. Smr and LXX have plural “they.”
187 tn Or “for a thank offering.”
192 tn The words “which regularly accompany” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied for clarity.
sn The translation “[which regularly accompany]…” is based on the practice of bringing bread (and wine) to eat with the portions of the peace offering meat eaten by the priests and worshipers (see v. 14 and Num 15:1-13). This was in addition to the memorial portion of the unleavened bread that was offered to the
194 tn The term rendered “contribution offering” is תְּרוּמָה (tÿrumah), which generally refers to that which is set aside from the offerings to the
195 tn In the verse “his” refers to the offerer.
197 tn Heb “and on the next day and the left over from it shall be eaten.”
199 tn Or “desecrated,” or “defiled,” or “forbidden.” For this difficult term see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:422. Cf. NIV “it is impure”; NCV “it will become unclean”; NLT “will be contaminated.”
201 tn The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation both here and in the following sentence to clarify that the uncleanness involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.
202 tn The Hebrew has simply “the flesh,” but this certainly refers to “clean” flesh in contrast to the unclean flesh in the first half of the verse.
203 tn Heb “and his unclean condition is on him.”
204 sn The exact meaning of this penalty clause is not certain. It could mean that he will be executed, whether by God or by man, he will be excommunicated from sanctuary worship and/or community benefits (cf. TEV, CEV), or his line will be terminated by God (i.e., extirpation), etc. See J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 100; J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:457-60; and B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 241-42 for further discussion.
208 tn Heb “carcass,” referring to the carcass of an animal that has died on its own, not the carcass of an animal slaughtered for sacrifice or killed by wild beasts. This has been clarified in the translation by supplying the phrase “of natural causes”; cf. NAB, TEV “that has died a natural death.”
209 tn Heb “shall be used for any work”; cf. NIV, NLT “may be used for any other purpose.”
211 tn Heb “and any blood you must not eat in any of your dwelling places, to the bird and to the animal.”
214 tn Heb “on the breast.”
215 tc Many Hebrew
tn Heb “the breast to wave it, a wave offering before the
216 tn Older English versions (e.g., KJV, ASV) translate this Hebrew term (תְּרוּמָה, tÿrumah) “heave offering,” derived from the idea of “to raise, to lift” found in the verbal root (cf. NAB “a raised offering”). “Contribution offering” is a better English rendering because it refers to something “taken out from” (i.e., “lifted up from”; cf. the Hebrew term הֵרִים (herim) in, e.g., Lev 2:9; 4:8, etc.) the offering as a special contribution to the specific priest who presided over the offering procedures in any particular instance (see the next verse and R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 4:335-37). Cf. TEV “as a special contribution”; NCV, NLT “as a gift.”
217 tn Or “a perpetual regulation”; cf. NASB “as their due forever”; NRSV “as a perpetual due”; NLT “their regular share.”
218 tn Heb “the day he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
219 tn Heb “in the day of he presented them to serve as priests to the
220 tn Heb “the day he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
222 tn Heb “for your generations”; cf. NIV “for the generations to come”; TEV “for all time to come.”
223 sn The Hebrew term translated “law” (תוֹרָה [torah]) occurs up to this point in the book only in Lev 6:9 [6:2 HT], 14 [7 HT], 25 [18 HT], 7:1, 7, 11, and here in 7:37. This suggests that Lev 7:37-38 is a summary of only this section of the book (i.e., Lev 6:8 [6:1 HT]-7:36), not all of Lev 1-7.
224 tc In the MT only “the grain offering” lacks a connecting ו (vav). However, many Hebrew , Smr, LXX, Syriac, and some
225 sn The inclusion of the “ordination offering” (מִלּוּאִים, milu’im; the term apparently comes from the notion of “filling [of the hand],” cf. Lev 8:33) here anticipates Lev 8. It is a kind of peace offering, as the regulations in Lev 8:22-32 will show (cf. Exod 29:19-34). In the context of the ordination ritual for the priests it fits into the sequence of offerings as a peace offering would: sin offering (Lev 8:14-17), burnt and grain offering (Lev 8:18-21), and finally peace (i.e., ordination) offering (Lev 8:22-32). Moreover, in this case, Moses received the breast of the ordination offering as his due since he was the presiding priest over the sacrificial procedures (Lev 8:29; cf. Lev 7:30-31), while Aaron and his sons ate the portions that would have been consumed by the common worshipers in a regular peace offering procedure (Exod 29:31-34; cf. Lev 7:15-18). For a general introduction to the peace offering see the note on Lev 3:1.