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Leviticus 24:10-23

Context
A Case of Blaspheming the Name

24:10 Now 1  an Israelite woman’s son whose father was an Egyptian went out among the Israelites, and the Israelite woman’s son and an Israelite man 2  had a fight in the camp. 24:11 The Israelite woman’s son misused the Name and cursed, 3  so they brought him to Moses. (Now his mother’s name was Shelomith daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan.) 24:12 So they placed him in custody until they were able 4  to make a clear legal decision for themselves based on words from the mouth of the Lord. 5 

24:13 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 24:14 “Bring the one who cursed outside the camp, and all who heard him are to lay their hands on his head, and the whole congregation is to stone him to death. 6  24:15 Moreover, 7  you are to tell the Israelites, ‘If any man curses his God 8  he will bear responsibility for his sin, 24:16 and one who misuses 9  the name of the Lord must surely be put to death. The whole congregation must surely stone him, whether he is a foreigner or a native citizen; when he misuses the Name he must be put to death.

24:17 “‘If a man beats any person to death, 10  he must be put to death. 24:18 One who beats an animal to death 11  must make restitution for it, life for life. 12  24:19 If a man inflicts an injury on 13  his fellow citizen, 14  just as he has done it must be done to him – 24:20 fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth – just as he inflicts an injury on another person 15  that same injury 16  must be inflicted on him. 24:21 One who beats an animal to death 17  must make restitution for it, but 18  one who beats a person to death must be put to death. 24:22 There will be one regulation 19  for you, whether a foreigner or a native citizen, for I am the Lord your God.’”

24:23 Then Moses spoke to the Israelites and they brought the one who cursed outside the camp and stoned him with stones. So the Israelites did just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

1 tn Heb “And.”

2 tn Heb “the Israelite man,” but Smr has no article, and the point is that there was a conflict between the man of mixed background and a man of full Israelite descent.

3 tn The verb rendered “misused” means literally “to bore through, to pierce” (HALOT 719 s.v. נקב qal); it is from נָקַב (naqav), not קָבַב (qavav; see the participial form in v. 16a). Its exact meaning here is uncertain. The two verbs together may form a hendiadys, “he pronounced by cursing blasphemously” (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 166), the idea being one of the following: (1) he pronounced the name “Yahweh” in a way or with words that amounted to “some sort of verbal aggression against Yahweh himself” (E. S. Gerstenberger, Leviticus [OTL], 362), (2) he pronounced a curse against the man using the name “Yahweh” (N. H. Snaith, Leviticus and Numbers [NCBC], 110; G. J. Wenham, Leviticus [NICOT], 311), or (3) he pronounced the name “Yahweh” and thereby blasphemed, since the “Name” was never to be pronounced (a standard Jewish explanation). In one way or another, the offense surely violated Exod 20:7, one of the ten commandments, and the same verb for cursing is used explicitly in Exod 22:28 (27 HT) prohibition against “cursing” God. For a full discussion of these and related options for interpreting this verse see P. J. Budd, Leviticus (NCBC), 335-36; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 408-9; and Levine, 166.

4 tn The words “until they were able” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.

5 tn The Hebrew here is awkward. A literal reading would be something like the following: “And they placed him in custody to give a clear decision [HALOT 976 s.v. פרשׁ qal] for themselves on the mouth of the Lord.” In any case, they were apparently waiting for a direct word from the Lord regarding this matter (see vv. 13ff).

6 tn The words “to death” are supplied in the translation as a clarification; they are clearly implied from v. 16.

7 tn Heb “And.”

8 sn See the note on v. 11 above and esp. Exod 22:28 [27 HT].

9 sn See the note on v. 11 above.

10 tn Heb “And if a man strikes any soul [נֶפֶשׁ, nefesh] of mankind.” The idiom seems to derive from the idea of striking a fatal blow to the very “life” (literally, “soul”) of a human being, not just landing a blow on their body (HALOT 698 s.v. נכה hif.2). On the difficult of the meaning and significance of the term נֶפֶשׁ see the notes on Lev 17:10-11.

11 tn Heb “And one who strikes a soul of an animal.”

12 tn Heb “soul under soul.” Cf. KJV “beast for beast”; NCV “must give…another animal to take its place.”

13 tn Heb “gives a flaw in”; KJV, ASV “cause a blemish in.”

14 tn Or “neighbor” (so NAB, NASB, NIV); TEV, NLT “another person.”

15 tn Heb “in the man [אָדָם, ’adam].”

16 tn Heb “just as he inflicts an injury…it must be inflicted on him.” The referent (“that same injury”) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

17 sn See the note on v. 18 above.

18 tn Heb “and,” but here the Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) is adversative, contrasting the consequences of beating an animal to death with those of beating a person to death.

19 tn Heb “a regulation of one”; KJV, ASV “one manner of law”; NASB “one standard.”



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