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Leviticus 1:3

Context
Burnt Offering Regulations: Animal from the Herd

1:3 “‘If his offering is a burnt offering 1  from the herd he must present it as a flawless male; he must present it at the entrance 2  of the Meeting Tent for its 3  acceptance before the Lord.

Leviticus 1:10

Context
Animal from the Flock

1:10 “‘If his offering is from the flock for a burnt offering 4  – from the sheep or the goats – he must present a flawless male,

Leviticus 1:14

Context
From the Birds

1:14 “‘If his offering to the Lord is a burnt offering from the birds, 5  he must present his offering from the turtledoves or from the young pigeons. 6 

Leviticus 2:5

Context
2:5 If your offering is a grain offering made on the griddle, it must be choice wheat flour mixed with olive oil, unleavened.

Leviticus 2:7

Context
2:7 If your offering is a grain offering made in a pan, 7  it must be made of choice wheat flour deep fried in olive oil. 8 

Leviticus 2:14

Context

2:14 “‘If you present a grain offering of first ripe grain to the Lord, you must present your grain offering of first ripe grain as soft kernels roasted in fire – crushed bits of fresh grain. 9 

Leviticus 4:3

Context
For the Priest

4:3 “‘If the high priest 10  sins so that the people are guilty, 11  on account of the sin he has committed he must present a flawless young bull to the Lord 12  for a sin offering. 13 

Leviticus 4:13

Context
For the Whole Congregation

4:13 “‘If the whole congregation of Israel strays unintentionally 14  and the matter is not noticed by 15  the assembly, and they violate one of the Lord’s commandments, which must not be violated, 16  so they become guilty,

1 sn The burnt offering (עֹלָה, ’olah) was basically a “a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord” (vv. 9, 13, 17). It could serve as a votive or freewill offering (e.g., Lev 22:18-20), an accompaniment of prayer and supplication (e.g., 1 Sam 7:9-10), part of the regular daily, weekly, monthly, and festival cultic pattern (e.g., Num 28-29), or to make atonement either alone (e.g., Lev 1:4; 16:24) or in combination with the grain offering (e.g., Lev 14:20) or sin offering (e.g., Lev 5:7; 9:7). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 4:996-1022.

2 tn Heb “door” (so KJV, ASV); NASB “doorway” (likewise throughout the book of Leviticus). The translation “door” or “doorway” may suggest a framed door in a casing to the modern reader, but here the term refers to the entrance to a tent.

3 tn The NIV correctly has “it” in the text, referring to the acceptance of the animal (cf., e.g., RSV, NEB, NLT), but “he” in the margin, referring to the acceptance of the offerer (cf. ASV, NASB, JB). The reference to a “flawless male” in the first half of this verse suggests that the issue here is the acceptability of the animal to make atonement on behalf of the offerer (Lev 1:4; cf. NRSV “for acceptance in your behalf”).

4 tn Heb “And if from the flock is his offering, from the sheep or from the goats, for a burnt offering.” Here “flock” specifies the broad category, with “sheep or goats” giving specific examples.

5 tn Heb “from the [category] ‘bird.’”

6 tn Heb “from the sons of the pigeon,” referring either to “young pigeons” (cf. KJV, NASB, NIV, NLT) or “various species of pigeon” (contrast J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:168, with J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 14).

7 tn Heb “a grain offering of a pan”; cf. KJV “fryingpan”; NAB “pot”; CEV “pan with a lid on it.”

8 sn Lev 7:9 makes it clear that one cooked “on” a griddle but “in” a pan. This suggests that the oil in the pan served for deep fat frying, hence the translation “deep fried in olive oil” (see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:185); cf. also NAB.

9 tn The translation of this whole section of the clause is difficult. Theoretically, it could describe one, two, or three different ways of preparing first ripe grain offerings (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 27). The translation here takes it as a description of only one kind of prepared grain. This is suggested by the fact that v. 16 uses only one term “crushed bits” (גֶּרֶשׂ, geres) to refer back to the grain as it is prepared in v. 14 (a more technical translation is “groats”; see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:178, 194). Cf. NAB “fresh grits of new ears of grain”; NRSV “coarse new grain from fresh ears.”

10 tn Heb “the anointed priest” (so ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). This refers to the high priest (cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).

11 tn Heb “to the guilt of the people”; NRSV “thus bringing guilt on the people.”

12 tn Heb “and he shall offer on his sin which he sinned, a bull, a son of the herd, flawless.”

13 sn The word for “sin offering” (sometimes translated “purification offering”) is the same as the word for “sin” earlier in the verse. One can tell which rendering is intended only by the context. The primary purpose of the “sin offering” (חַטָּאת, khattat) was to “purge” (כִּפֶּר, kipper, “to make atonement,” see 4:20, 26, 31, 35, and the notes on Lev 1:4 and esp. Lev 16:20, 33) the sanctuary or its furniture in order to cleanse it from any impurities and/or (re)consecrate it for holy purposes (see, e.g., Lev 8:15; 16:19). By making this atonement the impurities of the person or community were cleansed and the people became clean. See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:93-103.

14 tn Heb “strays”; KJV “sin through ignorance.” The verb “strays” here is the verbal form of the noun in the expression “by straying” (see the note on Lev 4:2 above).

15 tn Heb “is concealed from the eyes of”; NASB, NRSV, NLT “escapes the notice of.”

16 tn Heb “and they do one from all the commandments of the Lord which must not be done” (cf. v. 2).



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