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Leviticus 11:39-40

Context
Edible Land Quadrupeds

11:39 “‘Now if an animal 1  that you may eat dies, 2  whoever touches its carcass will be unclean until the evening. 11:40 One who eats from its carcass must wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening, and whoever carries its carcass must wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening.

Leviticus 15:5-12

Context
15:5 Anyone who touches his bed 3  must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 4  15:6 The one who sits on the furniture the man with a discharge sits on must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:7 The one who touches the body 5  of the man with a discharge must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:8 If the man with a discharge spits on a person who is ceremonially clean, 6  that person must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:9 Any means of riding 7  the man with a discharge rides on will be unclean. 15:10 Anyone who touches anything that was under him 8  will be unclean until evening, and the one who carries those items 9  must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:11 Anyone whom the man with the discharge touches without having rinsed his hands in water 10  must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:12 A clay vessel 11  which the man with the discharge touches must be broken, and any wooden utensil must be rinsed in water.

Leviticus 15:16-24

Context

15:16 “‘When a man has a seminal emission, 12  he must bathe his whole body in water 13  and be unclean until evening, 15:17 and he must wash in water any clothing or leather that has semen on it, and it will be unclean until evening. 15:18 When a man has sexual intercourse with a woman and there is a seminal emission, 14  they must bathe in water and be unclean until evening.

Female Bodily Discharges

15:19 “‘When a woman has a discharge 15  and her discharge is blood from her body, 16  she is to be in her menstruation 17  seven days, and anyone who touches her will be unclean until evening. 15:20 Anything she lies on during her menstruation will be unclean, and anything she sits on will be unclean. 15:21 Anyone who touches her bed must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:22 Anyone who touches any furniture she sits on must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:23 If there is something on the bed or on the furniture she sits on, 18  when he touches it 19  he will be unclean until evening, 15:24 and if a man actually has sexual intercourse with her so that her menstrual impurity touches him, 20  then he will be unclean seven days and any bed he lies on will be unclean.

1 tn This word for “animal” refers to land animal quadrupeds, not just any beast that dwells on the land (cf. 11:2).

2 tn Heb “which is food for you” or “which is for you to eat.”

3 tn Heb “And a man who touches in his bed”; NLT “touch the man’s bedding.”

4 tn Heb “he shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until the evening” (cf. also vv. 6-8, 10-11, etc.).

5 tn Heb “And the one who touches in the flesh.” In this instance, “flesh” (or “body”) probably refers literally to any part of the body, not the genitals specifically (see the discussion in J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:914).

6 tn Heb “And if the man with a discharge spits in the clean one.”

7 tn The Hebrew term for “means of riding” is a cognate noun from the verb “ride” later in this verse. It refers to anything on which one may ride without the feet touching the ground including, for example, a saddle, a (saddle) blanket, or a seat on a chariot (see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:916).

8 tn Heb “which shall be under him.” The verb is perhaps a future perfect, “which shall have been.”

9 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the previously mentioned items which were under the unclean person) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

10 tn Heb “And all who the man with the discharge touches in him and his hands he has not rinsed in water.”

11 tn The Hebrew term כְּלִי (kÿli) can mean “vessel” (v. 12a) or “utensil, implement, article” (v. 12b). An article of clay would refer to a vessel or container of some sort, while one made of wood would refer to some kind of tool or instrument.

12 tn Heb “And a man when a lying of seed goes out from him”; KJV, ASV “any man’s seed of copulation”; NIV, NRSV, TEV, NLT “an emission of semen.”

13 tn Heb “and he shall bathe all his flesh in water.”

14 tn Heb “And a woman who a man lies with her a lying of seed.”

15 tn See the note on Lev 15:2 above.

16 tn Heb “blood shall be her discharge in her flesh.” The term “flesh” here refers euphemistically to the female sexual area (cf. the note on v. 2 above).

17 tn See the note on Lev 12:2 and R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:925-27.

18 tn Heb “and if on the bed it (הוּא, hu’) is or on the vessel which she sits on it, when he touches it….” The translation and meaning of this verse is a subject of much debate in the commentaries (see the summary in J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:938-40). It is difficult to determine what הוּא refers to, whether it means “he” referring to the one who does the touching, “it” for the furniture or the seat in v. 22, “she” referring to the woman herself (see Smr היא rather than הוא), or perhaps anything that was lying on the furniture or the bed of vv. 21-22. The latter view is taken here (cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 202).

19 tn The MT accent suggest that “when he touches it” goes with the preceding line, but it seems to be better to take it as an introduction to what follows (see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 202).

20 tn Heb “and if a man indeed lies with her and her menstrual impurity is on him.”



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