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Lamentations 2:5

Context

ה (He)

2:5 The Lord, 1  like an enemy,

destroyed 2  Israel.

He destroyed 3  all her palaces;

he ruined her 4  fortified cities.

He made everyone in Daughter Judah

mourn and lament. 5 

Lamentations 2:17

Context

ע (Ayin)

2:17 The Lord has done what he planned;

he has fulfilled 6  his promise 7 

that he threatened 8  long ago: 9 

He has overthrown you without mercy 10 

and has enabled the enemy to gloat over you;

he has exalted your adversaries’ power. 11 

1 tc The MT reads אֲדֹנָי (’adonay, “the Lord”) here rather than יהוה (YHWH, “the Lord”). See the tc note at 1:14.

2 tn Heb “swallowed up.”

3 tn Heb “swallowed up.”

4 tn Heb “his.” For consistency this has been translated as “her.”

5 tn Heb “He increased in Daughter Judah mourning and lamentation.”

6 tn The verb בָּצַע (batsa’) has a broad range of meanings: (1) “to cut off, break off,” (2) “to injure” a person, (3) “to gain by violence,” (4) “to finish, complete” and (5) “to accomplish, fulfill” a promise.

7 tn Heb “His word.” When used in collocation with the verb בָּצַע (batsa’, “to fulfill,” see previous tn), the accusative noun אִמְרָה (’imrah) means “promise.”

8 tn Heb “commanded” or “decreed.” If a reference to prophetic oracles is understood, then “decreed” is preferable. If understood as a reference to the warnings in the covenant, then “threatened” is a preferable rendering.

9 tn Heb “from days of old.”

10 tn Heb “He has overthrown and has not shown mercy.” The two verbs חָרַס וְלֹא חָמָל (kharas vÿlokhamal) form a verbal hendiadys in which the first retains its verbal sense and the second functions adverbially: “He has overthrown you without mercy.” וְלֹא חָמָל (vÿlokhamal) alludes to 2:2.

11 tn Heb “He has exalted the horn of your adversaries.” The term “horn” (קֶרֶן, qeren) normally refers to the horn of a bull, one of the most powerful animals in ancient Israel. This term is often used figuratively as a symbol of strength, usually in reference to the military might of an army (Deut 33:17; 1 Sam 2:1, 10; 2 Sam 22:3; Pss 18:3; 75:11; 89:18, 25; 92:11; 112:9; 1 Chr 25:5; Jer 48:25; Lam 2:3; Ezek 29:21), just as warriors are sometimes figuratively described as “bulls.” To lift up the horn often means to boast and to lift up someone else’s horn is to give victory or cause to boast.



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