all the homes of Jacob’s descendants. 4
In his anger he tore down
the fortified cities 5 of Daughter Judah.
He knocked to the ground and humiliated
the kingdom and its rulers. 6
destroyed 8 Israel.
He destroyed 9 all her palaces;
he ruined her 10 fortified cities.
He made everyone in Daughter Judah
mourn and lament. 11
2 tn Heb “has swallowed up.”
3 tc The Kethib is written לֹא חָמַל (lo’ khamal, “without mercy”), while the Qere reads וְלֹא חָמַל (vÿlo’ khamal, “and he has shown no mercy”). The Kethib is followed by the LXX, while the Qere is reflected in many Hebrew
4 tn Heb “all the dwellings of Jacob.”
5 tn Heb “the strongholds.”
6 tn Heb “He brought down to the ground in disgrace the kingdom and its princes.” The verbs חִלֵּל…הִגִּיע (higgi’…khillel, “he has brought down…he has profaned”) function as a verbal hendiadys, as the absence of the conjunction ו (vav) suggests. The first verb retains its full verbal force, while the second functions adverbially: “he has brought down [direct object] in disgrace.”
8 tn Heb “swallowed up.”
9 tn Heb “swallowed up.”
10 tn Heb “his.” For consistency this has been translated as “her.”
11 tn Heb “He increased in Daughter Judah mourning and lamentation.”