12:1 Now these are the kings of the land whom the Israelites defeated and drove from their land 1 on the east side of the Jordan, 2 from the Arnon Valley to Mount Hermon, including all the eastern Arabah:
12:2 King Sihon of the Amorites who lived 3 in Heshbon and ruled from Aroer (on the edge of the Arnon Valley) – including the city in the middle of the valley 4 and half of Gilead – all the way to the Jabbok Valley bordering Ammonite territory. 12:3 His kingdom included 5 the eastern Arabah from the Sea of Kinnereth 6 to the Sea of the Arabah (the Salt Sea), 7 including the route to Beth Jeshimoth and the area southward below the slopes of Pisgah.
12:4 The territory of King Og of Bashan, one of the few remaining Rephaites, 8 who lived 9 in Ashtaroth and Edrei 12:5 and ruled over Mount Hermon, Salecah, all of Bashan to the border of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and half of Gilead as far as the border of King Sihon of Heshbon.
1 tn Heb “and took possession of their land.”
2 tn Heb “beyond the Jordan, toward the rising of the sun.”
3 tn Or perhaps, “reigned.”
5 tn The words “his kingdom included” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
7 sn The Salt Sea is another name for the Dead Sea.
8 tn Heb “from the remnant of the Rephaites.”
sn The Rephaites were apparently an extremely tall ethnic group. See Deut 2:10-11, 20; 3:11.
9 tn Or perhaps “who reigned.”
10 tn Heb “gave it for a possession.”