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John 5:1--6:71

Context
Healing a Paralytic at the Pool of Bethesda

5:1 After this 1  there was a Jewish feast, 2  and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 3  5:2 Now there is 4  in Jerusalem by the Sheep Gate 5  a pool called Bethzatha 6  in Aramaic, 7  which has five covered walkways. 8  5:3 A great number of sick, blind, lame, and paralyzed people were lying in these walkways. 5:4 [[EMPTY]] 9  5:5 Now a man was there who had been disabled for thirty-eight years. 10  5:6 When Jesus saw him lying there and when he realized 11  that the man 12  had been disabled a long time already, he said to him, “Do you want to become well?” 5:7 The sick man answered him, “Sir, 13  I have no one to put me into the pool when the water is stirred up. While I am trying to get into the water, 14  someone else 15  goes down there 16  before me.” 5:8 Jesus said to him, “Stand up! Pick up your mat 17  and walk.” 5:9 Immediately the man was healed, 18  and he picked up his mat 19  and started walking. (Now that day was a Sabbath.) 20 

5:10 So the Jewish leaders 21  said to the man who had been healed, “It is the Sabbath, and you are not permitted to carry your mat.” 22  5:11 But he answered them, “The man who made me well said to me, ‘Pick up your mat 23  and walk.’” 5:12 They asked him, “Who is the man who said to you, ‘Pick up your mat 24  and walk’?” 25  5:13 But the man who had been healed did not know who it was, for Jesus had slipped out, since there was a crowd in that place.

5:14 After this Jesus found him at the temple and said to him, “Look, you have become well. Don’t sin any more, 26  lest anything worse happen to you.” 5:15 The man went away and informed the Jewish leaders 27  that Jesus was the one who had made him well.

Responding to Jewish Leaders

5:16 Now because Jesus was doing these things 28  on the Sabbath, the Jewish leaders 29  began persecuting 30  him. 5:17 So he 31  told 32  them, “My Father is working until now, and I too am working.” 33  5:18 For this reason the Jewish leaders 34  were trying even harder to kill him, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was also calling God his own Father, thus making himself equal with God.

5:19 So Jesus answered them, 35  “I tell you the solemn truth, 36  the Son can do nothing on his own initiative, 37  but only what he sees the Father doing. For whatever the Father 38  does, the Son does likewise. 39  5:20 For the Father loves the Son and shows him everything he does, and will show him greater deeds than these, so that you will be amazed. 5:21 For just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, 40  so also the Son gives life to whomever he wishes. 41  5:22 Furthermore, the Father does not judge 42  anyone, but has assigned 43  all judgment to the Son, 5:23 so that all people 44  will honor the Son just as they honor the Father. The one who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him.

5:24 “I tell you the solemn truth, 45  the one who hears 46  my message 47  and believes the one who sent me has eternal life and will not be condemned, 48  but has crossed over from death to life. 5:25 I tell you the solemn truth, 49  a time 50  is coming – and is now here – when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. 5:26 For just as the Father has life in himself, thus he has granted the Son to have life in himself, 5:27 and he has granted the Son 51  authority to execute judgment, 52  because he is the Son of Man.

5:28 “Do not be amazed at this, because a time 53  is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice 5:29 and will come out – the ones who have done what is good to the resurrection resulting in life, and the ones who have done what is evil to the resurrection resulting in condemnation. 54  5:30 I can do nothing on my own initiative. 55  Just as I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, 56  because I do not seek my own will, but the will of the one who sent me. 57 

More Testimony About Jesus

5:31 “If I testify about myself, my testimony is not true. 5:32 There is another 58  who testifies about me, and I know the testimony he testifies about me is true. 5:33 You have sent to John, 59  and he has testified to the truth. 5:34 (I do not accept 60  human testimony, but I say this so that you may be saved.) 5:35 He was a lamp that was burning and shining, 61  and you wanted to rejoice greatly for a short time 62  in his light.

5:36 “But I have a testimony greater than that from John. For the deeds 63  that the Father has assigned me to complete – the deeds 64  I am now doing – testify about me that the Father has sent me. 5:37 And the Father who sent me has himself testified about me. You people 65  have never heard his voice nor seen his form at any time, 66  5:38 nor do you have his word residing in you, because you do not believe the one whom he sent. 5:39 You study the scriptures thoroughly 67  because you think in them you possess eternal life, 68  and it is these same scriptures 69  that testify about me, 5:40 but you are not willing to come to me so that you may have life.

5:41 “I do not accept 70  praise 71  from people, 72  5:42 but I know you, that you do not have the love of God 73  within you. 5:43 I have come in my Father’s name, and you do not accept 74  me. If someone else comes in his own name, you will accept 75  him. 5:44 How can you believe, if you accept praise 76  from one another and don’t seek the praise 77  that comes from the only God? 78 

5:45 “Do not suppose that I will accuse you before the Father. The one who accuses you is Moses, in whom you have placed your hope. 79  5:46 If 80  you believed Moses, you would believe me, because he wrote about me. 5:47 But if you do not believe what Moses 81  wrote, how will you believe my words?”

The Feeding of the Five Thousand

6:1 After this 82  Jesus went away to the other side of the Sea of Galilee (also called the Sea of Tiberias). 83  6:2 A large crowd was following him because they were observing the miraculous signs he was performing on the sick. 6:3 So Jesus went on up the mountainside 84  and sat down there with his disciples. 6:4 (Now the Jewish feast of the Passover 85  was near.) 86  6:5 Then Jesus, when he looked up 87  and saw that a large crowd was coming to him, said to Philip, “Where can we buy bread so that these people may eat?” 6:6 (Now Jesus 88  said this to test him, for he knew what he was going to do.) 89  6:7 Philip replied, 90  “Two hundred silver coins worth 91  of bread would not be enough for them, for each one to get a little.” 6:8 One of Jesus’ disciples, 92  Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, said to him, 6:9 “Here is a boy who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what good 93  are these for so many people?”

6:10 Jesus said, “Have 94  the people sit down.” (Now there was a lot of grass in that place.) 95  So the men 96  sat down, about five thousand in number. 6:11 Then Jesus took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed the bread to those who were seated. He then did the same with the fish, 97  as much as they wanted. 6:12 When they were all satisfied, Jesus 98  said to his disciples, “Gather up the broken pieces that are left over, so that nothing is wasted.” 6:13 So they gathered them up and filled twelve baskets with broken pieces from the five barley loaves 99  left over by the people who had eaten.

6:14 Now when the people saw the miraculous sign that Jesus 100  performed, they began to say to one another, “This is certainly the Prophet 101  who is to come into the world.” 102  6:15 Then Jesus, because he knew they were going to come and seize him by force to make him king, withdrew again up the mountainside alone. 103 

Walking on Water

6:16 Now when evening came, his disciples went down to the lake, 104  6:17 got into a boat, and started to cross the lake 105  to Capernaum. 106  (It had already become dark, and Jesus had not yet come to them.) 107  6:18 By now a strong wind was blowing and the sea was getting rough. 6:19 Then, when they had rowed about three or four miles, 108  they caught sight of Jesus walking on the lake, 109  approaching the boat, and they were frightened. 6:20 But he said to them, “It is I. Do not be afraid.” 6:21 Then they wanted to take him into the boat, and immediately the boat came to the land where they had been heading.

6:22 The next day the crowd that remained on the other side of the lake 110  realized that only one small boat 111  had been there, and that Jesus had not boarded 112  it with his disciples, but that his disciples had gone away alone. 6:23 But some boats from Tiberias 113  came to shore 114  near the place where they had eaten the bread after the Lord had given thanks. 115  6:24 So when the crowd realized that neither Jesus nor his disciples were there, they got into the boats 116  and came to Capernaum 117  looking for Jesus.

Jesus’ Discourse About the Bread of Life

6:25 When they found him on the other side of the lake, 118  they said to him, “Rabbi, when did you get here?” 119  6:26 Jesus replied, 120  “I tell you the solemn truth, 121  you are looking for me not because you saw miraculous signs, but because you ate all the loaves of bread you wanted. 122  6:27 Do not work for the food that disappears, 123  but for the food that remains to eternal life – the food 124  which the Son of Man will give to you. For God the Father has put his seal of approval on him.” 125 

6:28 So then they said to him, “What must we do to accomplish the deeds 126  God requires?” 127  6:29 Jesus replied, 128  “This is the deed 129  God requires 130  – to believe in the one whom he 131  sent.” 6:30 So they said to him, “Then what miraculous sign will you perform, so that we may see it and believe you? What will you do? 6:31 Our ancestors 132  ate the manna in the wilderness, just as it is written, ‘He gave them bread from heaven to eat.’” 133 

6:32 Then Jesus told them, “I tell you the solemn truth, 134  it is not Moses who has given you the bread from heaven, but my Father is giving you the true bread from heaven. 6:33 For the bread of God is the one who 135  comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.” 6:34 So they said to him, “Sir, 136  give us this bread all the time!”

6:35 Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life. The one who comes to me will never go hungry, and the one who believes in me will never be thirsty. 137  6:36 But I told you 138  that you have seen me 139  and still do not believe. 6:37 Everyone whom the Father gives me will come to me, and the one who comes to me I will never send away. 140  6:38 For I have come down from heaven not to do my own will but the will of the one who sent me. 6:39 Now this is the will of the one who sent me – that I should not lose one person of every one he has given me, but raise them all up 141  at the last day. 6:40 For this is the will of my Father – for everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him to have eternal life, and I will raise him up 142  at the last day.” 143 

6:41 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus 144  began complaining about him because he said, “I am the bread that came down from heaven,” 6:42 and they said, “Isn’t this Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How can he now say, ‘I have come down from heaven’?” 6:43 Jesus replied, 145  “Do not complain about me to one another. 146  6:44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, 147  and I will raise him up at the last day. 6:45 It is written in the prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by God.’ 148  Everyone who hears and learns from the Father 149  comes to me. 6:46 (Not that anyone has seen the Father except the one who is from God – he 150  has seen the Father.) 151  6:47 I tell you the solemn truth, 152  the one who believes 153  has eternal life. 154  6:48 I am the bread of life. 155  6:49 Your ancestors 156  ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 6:50 This 157  is the bread that has come down from heaven, so that a person 158  may eat from it and not die. 6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread 159  that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”

6:52 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus 160  began to argue with one another, 161  “How can this man 162  give us his flesh to eat?” 6:53 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, 163  unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, 164  you have no life 165  in yourselves. 6:54 The one who eats 166  my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 167  6:55 For my flesh is true 168  food, and my blood is true 169  drink. 6:56 The one who eats 170  my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. 171  6:57 Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes 172  me will live because of me. 6:58 This 173  is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors 174  ate, but then later died. 175  The one who eats 176  this bread will live forever.”

Many Followers Depart

6:59 Jesus 177  said these things while he was teaching in the synagogue 178  in Capernaum. 179  6:60 Then many of his disciples, when they heard these things, 180  said, “This is a difficult 181  saying! 182  Who can understand it?” 183  6:61 When Jesus was aware 184  that his disciples were complaining 185  about this, he said to them, “Does this cause you to be offended? 186  6:62 Then what if you see the Son of Man ascending where he was before? 187  6:63 The Spirit is the one who gives life; human nature is of no help! 188  The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and are life. 189  6:64 But there are some of you who do not believe.” (For Jesus had already known from the beginning who those were who did not believe, and who it was who would betray him.) 190  6:65 So Jesus added, 191  “Because of this I told you that no one can come to me unless the Father has allowed him to come.” 192 

Peter’s Confession

6:66 After this many of his disciples quit following him 193  and did not accompany him 194  any longer. 6:67 So Jesus said to the twelve, “You don’t want to go away too, do you?” 195  6:68 Simon Peter answered him, “Lord, to whom would we go? You have the words of eternal life. 6:69 We 196  have come to believe and to know 197  that you are the Holy One of God!” 198  6:70 Jesus replied, 199  “Didn’t I choose you, the twelve, and yet one of you is the devil?” 200  6:71 (Now he said this about Judas son of Simon Iscariot, 201  for Judas, 202  one of the twelve, was going to betray him.) 203 

1 sn The temporal indicator After this is not specific, so it is uncertain how long after the incidents at Cana this occurred.

2 tc The textual variants ἑορτή or ἡ ἑορτή (Jeorth or Jh Jeorth, “a feast” or “the feast”) may not appear significant at first, but to read ἑορτή with the article would almost certainly demand a reference to the Jewish Passover. The article is found in א C L Δ Ψ Ë1 33 892 1424 pm, but is lacking in {Ì66,75 A B D T Ws Θ Ë13 565 579 700 1241 pm}. Overall, the shorter reading has somewhat better support. Internally, the known proclivity of scribes to make the text more explicit argues compellingly for the shorter reading. Thus, the verse refers to a feast other than the Passover. The incidental note in 5:3, that the sick were lying outside in the porticoes of the pool, makes Passover an unlikely time because it fell toward the end of winter and the weather would not have been warm. L. Morris (John [NICNT], 299, n. 6) thinks it impossible to identify the feast with certainty.

sn A Jewish feast. Jews were obligated to go up to Jerusalem for 3 major annual feasts: Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles. If the first is probably ruled out because of the time of year, the last is not as likely because it forms the central setting for chap. 7 (where there are many indications in the context that Tabernacles is the feast in view.) This leaves the feast of Pentecost, which at some point prior to this time in Jewish tradition (as reflected in Jewish intertestamental literature and later post-Christian rabbinic writings) became identified with the giving of the law to Moses on Mount Sinai. Such an association might explain Jesus’ reference to Moses in 5:45-46. This is uncertain, however. The only really important fact for the author is that the healing was done on a Sabbath. This is what provoked the controversy with the Jewish authorities recorded in 5:16-47.

3 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

4 tn Regarding the use of the present tense ἐστιν (estin) and its implications for the dating of the Gospel of John, see the article by D. B. Wallace, “John 5,2 and the Date of the Fourth Gospel,” Bib 71 (1990): 177-205.

5 tn The site of the miracle is also something of a problem: προβατικῇ (probatikh) is usually taken as a reference to the Sheep Gate near the temple. Some (R. E. Brown and others) would place the word κολυμβήθρα (kolumbhqra) with προβατικῇ to read “in Jerusalem, by the Sheep Pool, there is (another pool) with the Hebrew name.” This would imply that there is reference to two pools in the context rather than only one. This does not seem necessary (although it is a grammatical possibility). The gender of the words does not help since both are feminine (as is the participle ἐπιλεγομένη [epilegomenh]). Note however that Brown’s suggestion would require a feminine word to be supplied (for the participle ἐπιλεγομένη to modify). The traditional understanding of the phrase as a reference to the Sheep Gate near the temple appears more probably correct.

6 tc Some mss (א [L] 33 it) read Bethzatha, while others read Bethsaida (Ì[66],75 B T Ws [Ψ] pc vg); codex D has Belzetha. A lot of controversy has surrounded the name of the pool itself: The reading of the Byzantine (or majority) text (A C Θ 078 Ë1,13 Ï), Bethesda, has been virtually discarded by scholars in favor of what is thought to be the more primitive Bethzatha, even though many recent translations continue to employ Bethesda, the traditional reading. The latter is attested by Josephus as the name of a quarter of the city near the northeast corner of the temple area. He reports that the Syrian Legate Cestius burned this suburb in his attack on Jerusalem in October a.d. 68 (J. W. 2.19.4 [2.530]). However, there is some new archaeological evidence for this problem. 3Q15 (Copper Scroll) from Qumran seems to indicate that in the general area of the temple, on the eastern hill of Jerusalem, a treasure was buried in Bet áEsdatayin, in the pool at the entrance to the smaller basin. The name of the region or pool itself seems then to have been Bet ᾿Esda, “house of the flowing.” It appears with the dual ending in the scroll because there were two basins. Bethesda seems to be an accurate Greek rendition of the name, while J. T. Milik suggests Bethzatha is a rendition of the Aramaic intensive plural Bet áEsdata (DJDJ 3, 271). As for the text of John 5:2, the fundamental problems with the Bethesda reading are that it looks motivated (with an edifying Semitic etymology, meaning “House of Mercy” [TCGNT 178]), and is minimally attested. Apart from the Copper Scroll, the evidence for Bethesda is almost entirely shut up to the Byzantine text (C being the most notable exception, but it often has Byzantine encroachments). On the one hand, this argues the Byzantine reading here had ancient, semitic roots; on the other hand, since both readings are attested as historically accurate, a decision has to be based on the better witnesses. The fact that there are multiple readings here suggests that the original was not well understood. Which reading best explains the rise of the others? It seems that Bethzatha is the best choice.

sn On the location of the pool called Bethzatha, the double-pool of St. Anne is the probable site, and has been excavated; the pools were trapezoidal in shape, 165 ft (49.5 m) wide at one end, 220 ft (66 m) wide at the other, and 315 ft (94.5 m) long, divided by a central partition. There were colonnades (rows of columns) on all 4 sides and on the partition, thus forming the five covered walkways mentioned in John 5:2. Stairways at the corners permitted descent to the pool.

7 tn Grk “in Hebrew.”

8 tn Or “porticoes,” or “colonnades”; Grk “stoas.”

sn The pool had five porticoes. These were covered walkways formed by rows of columns supporting a roof and open on the side facing the pool. People could stand, sit, or walk on these colonnaded porches, protected from the weather and the heat of the sun.

9 tc The majority of later mss (C3 Θ Ψ 078 Ë1,13 Ï) add the following to 5:3: “waiting for the moving of the water. 5:4 For an angel of the Lord went down and stirred up the water at certain times. Whoever first stepped in after the stirring of the water was healed from whatever disease which he suffered.” Other mss include only v. 3b (Ac D 33 lat) or v. 4 (A L it). Few textual scholars today would accept the authenticity of any portion of vv. 3b-4, for they are not found in the earliest and best witnesses (Ì66,75 א B C* T pc co), they include un-Johannine vocabulary and syntax, several of the mss that include the verses mark them as spurious (with an asterisk or obelisk), and because there is a great amount of textual diversity among the witnesses that do include the verses. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

10 tn Grk “who had had thirty-eight years in his disability.”

11 tn Or “knew.”

12 tn Grk “he.” The referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

13 tn Or “Lord.” The Greek κύριος (kurios) means both “Sir” and “Lord.” In this passage the paralytic who was healed by Jesus never acknowledges Jesus as Lord – he rather reports Jesus to the authorities.

14 tn Grk “while I am going.”

15 tn Grk “another.”

16 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

17 tn Or “pallet,” “mattress,” “cot,” or “stretcher.” Some of these items, however, are rather substantial (e.g., “mattress”) and would probably give the modern English reader a false impression.

18 tn Grk “became well.”

19 tn Or “pallet,” “mattress,” “cot,” or “stretcher.” See the note on “mat” in the previous verse.

20 tn Grk “Now it was Sabbath on that day.”

sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

21 tn Or “the Jewish authorities”; Grk “the Jews.” In NT usage the term ᾿Ιουδαῖοι (Ioudaioi) may refer to the entire Jewish people, the residents of Jerusalem and surrounding territory, the authorities in Jerusalem, or merely those who were hostile to Jesus. Here the author refers to the Jewish authorities or leaders in Jerusalem. (For further information see R. G. Bratcher, “‘The Jews’ in the Gospel of John,” BT 26 [1975]: 401-9).

22 tn Or “pallet,” “mattress,” “cot,” or “stretcher.” See the note on “mat” in v. 8.

23 tn Or “pallet,” “mattress,” “cot,” or “stretcher.” See the note on “mat” in v. 8.

24 tc While a number of mss, especially the later ones (Ac C3 D Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï latt sy), include the words τον κραβ(β)ατ(τ)ον σου (ton krab(b)at(t)on sou, “your mat”) here, the earliest and best (Ì66,75 א B C* L) do not. Nevertheless, in the translation, it is necessary to supply the words due to the demands of English style, which does not typically allow for understood or implied direct objects as Greek does.

25 tn Grk “Pick up and walk”; the object (the mat) is implied but not repeated.

26 tn Since this is a prohibition with a present imperative, the translation “stop sinning” is sometimes suggested. This is not likely, however, since the present tense is normally used in prohibitions involving a general condition (as here) while the aorist tense is normally used in specific instances. Only when used opposite the normal usage (the present tense in a specific instance, for example) would the meaning “stop doing what you are doing” be appropriate.

27 tn Or “the Jewish authorities”; Grk “the Jews.” See the note on the phrase “Jewish leaders” in v. 10.

28 sn Note the plural phrase these things which seems to indicate that Jesus healed on the Sabbath more than once (cf. John 20:30). The synoptic gospels show this to be true; the incident in 5:1-15 has thus been chosen by the author as representative.

29 tn Or “the Jewish authorities”; Grk “the Jews.” See the note on the phrase “Jewish leaders” in v. 10.

30 tn Or “harassing.”

31 tc ‡ Most witnesses (Ì66 A D L Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï latt co) have ᾿Ιησοῦς (Ihsou", “Jesus”) here, while generally better witnesses (Ì75 א B W {0141} 892 1241 pbo) lack the name. Although it is possible that Alexandrian scribes deleted the name due to proclivities to prune, this is not as likely as other witnesses adding it for clarification, especially since multiple strands of the Alexandrian text are represented in the shorter reading. NA27 places the word in brackets, indicating some doubts as to authenticity.

32 tn Grk “answered.”

33 snMy Father is working until now, and I too am working.” What is the significance of Jesus’ claim? A preliminary understanding can be obtained from John 5:18, noting the Jewish authorities’ response and the author’s comment. They sought to kill Jesus, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was also calling God his own Father, thus making himself equal with God. This must be seen in the context of the relation of God to the Sabbath rest. In the commandment (Exod 20:11) it is explained that “In six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth…and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.” Philo, based on the LXX translation of Exod 20:11, denied outright that God had ever ceased his creative activity. And when Rabban Gamaliel II, R. Joshua, R. Eleazar ben Azariah, and R. Akiba were in Rome, ca. a.d. 95, they gave as a rebuttal to sectarian arguments evidence that God might do as he willed in the world without breaking the Sabbath because the entire world was his private residence. So even the rabbis realized that God did not really cease to work on the Sabbath: Divine providence remained active on the Sabbath, otherwise, all nature and life would cease to exist. As regards men, divine activity was visible in two ways: Men were born and men died on the Sabbath. Since only God could give life and only God could deal with the fate of the dead in judgment, this meant God was active on the Sabbath. This seems to be the background for Jesus’ words in 5:17. He justified his work of healing on the Sabbath by reminding the Jewish authorities that they admitted God worked on the Sabbath. This explains the violence of the reaction. The Sabbath privilege was peculiar to God, and no one was equal to God. In claiming the right to work even as his Father worked, Jesus was claiming a divine prerogative. He was literally making himself equal to God, as 5:18 goes on to state explicitly for the benefit of the reader who might not have made the connection.

34 tn Or “the Jewish authorities”; Grk “the Jews.” See the note on the phrase “Jewish leaders” in v. 10.

35 tn Grk “answered and said to them.”

36 tn Grk “Truly, truly, I say to you.”

37 tn Grk “nothing from himself.”

38 tn Grk “that one”; the referent (the Father) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

39 sn What works does the Son do likewise? The same that the Father does – and the same that the rabbis recognized as legitimate works of God on the Sabbath (see note on working in v. 17). (1) Jesus grants life (just as the Father grants life) on the Sabbath. But as the Father gives physical life on the Sabbath, so the Son grants spiritual life (John 5:21; note the “greater things” mentioned in v. 20). (2) Jesus judges (determines the destiny of people) on the Sabbath, just as the Father judges those who die on the Sabbath, because the Father has granted authority to the Son to judge (John 5:22-23). But this is not all. Not only has this power been granted to Jesus in the present; it will be his in the future as well. In v. 28 there is a reference not to spiritually dead (only) but also physically dead. At their resurrection they respond to the Son as well.

40 tn Grk “and makes them live.”

41 tn Grk “the Son makes whomever he wants to live.”

42 tn Or “condemn.”

43 tn Or “given,” or “handed over.”

44 tn Grk “all.” The word “people” is not in the Greek text but is supplied for stylistic reasons and for clarity (cf. KJV “all men”).

45 tn Grk “Truly, truly, I say to you.”

46 tn Or “obeys.”

47 tn Or “word.”

48 tn Grk “and does not come into judgment.”

49 tn Grk “Truly, truly, I say to you.”

50 tn Grk “an hour.”

51 tn Grk “him.”

52 tn Grk “authority to judge.”

53 tn Grk “an hour.”

54 tn Or “a resurrection resulting in judgment.”

55 tn Grk “nothing from myself.”

56 tn Or “righteous,” or “proper.”

57 tn That is, “the will of the Father who sent me.”

58 sn To whom does another refer? To John the Baptist or to the Father? In the nearer context, v. 33, it would seem to be John the Baptist. But v. 34 seems to indicate that Jesus does not receive testimony from men. Probably it is better to view v. 32 as identical to v. 37, with the comments about the Baptist as a parenthetical digression.

59 sn John refers to John the Baptist.

60 tn Or “I do not receive.”

61 sn He was a lamp that was burning and shining. Sir 48:1 states that the word of Elijah was “a flame like a torch.” Because of the connection of John the Baptist with Elijah (see John 1:21 and the note on John’s reply, “I am not”), it was natural for Jesus to apply this description to John.

62 tn Grk “for an hour.”

63 tn Or “works.”

64 tn Grk “complete, which I am now doing”; the referent of the relative pronoun has been specified by repeating “deeds” from the previous clause.

65 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to clarify that the following verbs (“heard,” “seen,” “have residing,” “do not believe”) are second person plural.

66 sn You people have never heard his voice nor seen his form at any time. Compare Deut 4:12. Also see Deut 5:24 ff., where the Israelites begged to hear the voice no longer – their request (ironically) has by this time been granted. How ironic this would be if the feast is Pentecost, where by the 1st century a.d. the giving of the law at Sinai was being celebrated.

67 tn Or “Study the scriptures thoroughly” (an imperative). For the meaning of the verb see G. Delling, TDNT 2:655-57.

68 sn In them you possess eternal life. Note the following examples from the rabbinic tractate Pirqe Avot (“The Sayings of the Fathers”): Pirqe Avot 2:8, “He who has acquired the words of the law has acquired for himself the life of the world to come”; Pirqe Avot 6:7, “Great is the law for it gives to those who practice it life in this world and in the world to come.”

69 tn The words “same scriptures” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to clarify the referent (“these”).

70 tn Or “I do not receive.”

71 tn Or “honor” (Grk “glory,” in the sense of respect or honor accorded to a person because of their status).

72 tn Grk “from men,” but in a generic sense; both men and women are implied here.

73 tn The genitive in the phrase τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ θεοῦ (thn agaphn tou qeou, “the love of God”) could be translated as either a subjective genitive (“God’s love”) or an objective genitive (“love for God”). Either is grammatically possible. This is possibly an instance of a plenary genitive (see ExSyn 119-21; M. Zerwick, Biblical Greek, §§36-39). If so, the emphasis would be on the love God gives which in turn produces love for him, but Jesus’ opponents are lacking any such love inside them.

74 tn Or “you do not receive.”

75 tn Or “you will receive.”

76 tn Or “honor” (Grk “glory,” in the sense of respect or honor accorded to a person because of their status).

77 tn Or “honor” (Grk “glory,” in the sense of respect or honor accorded to a person because of their status).

78 tc Several early and important witnesses (Ì66,75 B W a b sa) lack θεοῦ (qeou, “God”) here, thus reading “the only one,” while most of the rest of the tradition, including some important mss, has the name ({א A D L Θ Ψ 33 Ï}). Internally, it could be argued that the name of God was not used here, in keeping with the NT practice of suppressing the name of God at times for rhetorical effect, drawing the reader inexorably to the conclusion that the one being spoken of is God himself. On the other hand, never is ὁ μόνος (Jo mono") used absolutely in the NT (i.e., without a noun or substantive with it), and always the subject of the adjunct is God (cf. Matt 24:36; John 17:3; 1 Tim 6:16). What then is to explain the shorter reading? In uncial script, with θεοῦ written as a nomen sacrum, envisioning accidental omission of the name by way of homoioteleuton requires little imagination, largely because of the succession of words ending in -ου: toumonouqMuou. It is thus preferable to retain the word in the text.

79 sn The final condemnation will come from Moses himself – again ironic, since Moses is the very one the Jewish authorities have trusted in (placed your hope). This is again ironic if it is occurring at Pentecost, which at this time was being celebrated as the occasion of the giving of the Torah to Moses on Mt. Sinai. There is evidence that some Jews of the 1st century looked on Moses as their intercessor at the final judgment (see W. A. Meeks, The Prophet King [NovTSup], 161). This would mean the statement Moses, in whom you have placed your hope should be taken literally and relates directly to Jesus’ statements about the final judgment in John 5:28-29.

80 tn Grk “For if.”

81 tn Grk “that one” (“he”); the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

82 tn Again, μετὰ ταῦτα (meta tauta) is a vague temporal reference. How Jesus got from Jerusalem to Galilee is not explained, which has led many scholars (e.g., Bernard, Bultmann, and Schnackenburg) to posit either editorial redaction or some sort of rearrangement or dislocation of material (such as reversing the order of chaps. 5 and 6, for example). Such a rearrangement of the material would give a simple and consistent connection of events, but in the absence of all external evidence it does not seem to be supportable. R. E. Brown (John [AB], 1:236) says that such an arrangement is attractive in some ways but not compelling, and that no rearrangement can solve all the geographical and chronological problems in John.

83 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. Only John in the New Testament refers to the Sea of Galilee by the name Sea of Tiberias (see also John 21:1), but this is correct local usage. In the mid-20’s Herod completed the building of the town of Tiberias on the southwestern shore of the lake; after this time the name came into use for the lake itself.

84 sn Up on the mountainside does not necessarily refer to a particular mountain or hillside, but may simply mean “the hill country” or “the high ground,” referring to the high country east of the Sea of Galilee (known today as the Golan Heights).

85 sn Passover. According to John’s sequence of material, considerable time has elapsed since the feast of 5:1. If the feast in 5:1 was Pentecost of a.d. 31, then this feast would be the Passover of a.d. 32, just one year before Jesus’ crucifixion.

86 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

87 tn Grk “when he lifted up his eyes” (an idiom).

88 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

89 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

90 tn Grk “Philip answered him.”

91 tn Grk “two hundred denarii.” The denarius was a silver coin worth about a day’s wage for a laborer; this would be an amount worth about eight months’ pay.

92 tn Grk “one of his disciples.”

93 tn Grk “but what are these”; the word “good” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

94 tn Grk “Make.”

95 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author (suggesting an eyewitness recollection).

96 tn Here “men” has been used in the translation because the following number, 5,000, probably included only adult males (see the parallel in Matt 14:21).

97 tn Grk “likewise also (he distributed) from the fish.”

98 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

99 sn Note that the fish mentioned previously (in John 6:9) are not emphasized here, only the five barley loaves. This is easy to understand, however, because the bread is of primary importance for the author in view of Jesus’ upcoming discourse on the Bread of Life.

100 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

101 sn The Prophet is a reference to the “prophet like Moses” of Deut 18:15, by this time an eschatological figure in popular belief.

102 sn An allusion to Deut 18:15.

103 sn Jesus, knowing that his “hour” had not yet come (and would not, in this fashion) withdrew again up the mountainside alone. The ministry of miracles in Galilee, ending with this, the multiplication of the bread (the last public miracle in Galilee recorded by John) aroused such a popular response that there was danger of an uprising. This would have given the authorities a legal excuse to arrest Jesus. The nature of Jesus’ kingship will become an issue again in the passion narrative of the Fourth Gospel (John 18:33ff.). Furthermore, the volatile reaction of the Galileans to the signs prepares for and foreshadows the misunderstanding of the miracle itself, and even the misunderstanding of Jesus’ explanation of it (John 6:22-71).

104 tn Or “sea.” The Greek word indicates a rather large body of water, but the English word “sea” normally indicates very large bodies of water, so the word “lake” in English is a closer approximation.

105 tn Or “sea.” See the note on “lake” in the previous verse.

106 map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 C3; Map3 B2.

107 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

108 tn Grk “about twenty-five or thirty stades” (a stade as a unit of linear measure is about 607 feet or 187 meters).

sn About three or four miles. The Sea of Galilee was at its widest point 7 mi (11.6 km) by 12 mi (20 km). So at this point the disciples were in about the middle of the lake.

109 tn Or “sea.” See the note on “lake” in v. 16. John uses the phrase ἐπί (epi, “on”) followed by the genitive (as in Mark, instead of Matthew’s ἐπί followed by the accusative) to describe Jesus walking “on the lake.”

110 tn Or “sea.” See the note on “lake” in v. 16.

111 tc Most witnesses have after “one” the phrase “which his disciples had entered” (ἐκεῖνο εἰς ὃ ἐνέβησαν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, ekeino ei" }o enebhsan Joi maqhtai autou) although there are several permutations of this clause ([א* D] Θ [Ë13 33] Ï [sa]). The witnesses that lack this expression are, however, significant and diffused (Ì75 א2 A B L N W Ψ 1 565 579 1241 al lat). The clarifying nature of the longer reading, the multiple variants from it, and the weighty testimony for the shorter reading all argue against the authenticity of the longer text in any of its variations.

tn Grk “one”; the referent (a small boat) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

112 tn Grk “entered.”

113 map For location see Map1 E2; Map2 C2; Map3 C3; Map4 D1; Map5 G4.

114 tn Or “boats from Tiberias landed”; Grk “came.”

115 tc D 091 a e sys,c lack the phrase “after the Lord had given thanks” (εὐχαριστήσαντος τοῦ κυρίου, eucaristhsanto" tou kuriou), while almost all the rest of the witnesses ({Ì75 א A B L W Θ Ψ 0141 [Ë1] Ë13 33 Ï as well as several versions and fathers}) have the words (though {l672 l950 syp pbo} read ᾿Ιησοῦ [Ihsou, “Jesus”] instead of κυρίου). Although the shorter reading has minimal support, it is significant that this Gospel speaks of Jesus as Lord in the evangelist’s narrative descriptions only in 11:2; 20:18, 20; 21:12; and possibly 4:1 (but see tc note on “Jesus” there). There is thus but one undisputed preresurrection text in which the narrator calls Jesus “Lord.” This fact can be utilized on behalf of either reading: The participial phrase could be seen as a scribal addition harking back to 6:11 but which does not fit Johannine style, or it could be viewed as truly authentic and in line with what John indisputably does elsewhere even if rarely. On balance, in light of the overwhelming support for these words it is probably best to retain them in the text.

116 tn Or “embarked in the boats.”

117 map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 C3; Map3 B2.

118 tn Or “sea.” See the note on “lake” in v. 16.

119 sn John 6:25-31. The previous miracle of the multiplication of the bread had taken place near the town of Tiberias (cf. John 6:23). Jesus’ disciples set sail for Capernaum (6:17) and were joined by the Lord in the middle of the sea. The next day boats from Tiberias picked up a few of those who had seen the multiplication (certainly not the whole 5,000) and brought them to Capernaum. It was to this group that Jesus spoke in 6:26-27. But there were also people from Capernaum who had gathered to see Jesus, who had not witnessed the multiplication, and it was this group that asked Jesus for a miraculous sign like the manna (6:30-31). This would have seemed superfluous if it were the same crowd that had already seen the multiplication of the bread. But some from Capernaum had heard about it and wanted to see a similar miracle repeated.

120 tn Grk “answered and said to them.”

121 tn Grk “Truly, truly, I say to you.”

122 tn Grk “because you ate of the loaves of bread and were filled.”

123 tn Or “perishes” (this might refer to spoiling, but is more focused on the temporary nature of this kind of food).

sn Do not work for the food that disappears. Note the wordplay on “work” here. This does not imply “working” for salvation, since the “work” is later explained (in John 6:29) as “to believe in the one whom he (the Father) sent.”

124 tn The referent (the food) has been specified for clarity by repeating the word “food” from the previous clause.

125 tn Grk “on this one.”

126 tn Grk “the works.”

127 tn Grk “What must we do to work the works of God?”

128 tn Grk “answered and said to them.”

129 tn Grk “the work.”

130 tn Grk “This is the work of God.”

131 tn Grk “that one” (i.e., God).

132 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

133 sn A quotation from Ps 78:24 (referring to the events of Exod 16:4-36).

134 tn Grk “Truly, truly, I say to you.”

135 tn Or “he who.”

136 tn Or “Lord.” The Greek κύριος (kurios) means both “Sir” and “Lord.” In this passage it is not at all clear at this point that the crowd is acknowledging Jesus as Lord. More likely this is simply a form of polite address (“sir”).

137 tn Grk “the one who believes in me will not possibly thirst, ever.”

sn The one who believes in me will never be thirsty. Note the parallelism between “coming to Jesus” in the first part of v. 35 and “believing in Jesus” in the second part of v. 35. For the author of the Gospel of John these terms are virtually equivalent, both referring to a positive response to Jesus (see John 3:17-21).

138 tn Grk “But I said to you.”

139 tc A few witnesses lack με (me, “me”; א A a b e q sys,c), while the rest of the tradition has the word (Ì66,75vid rell). It is possible that the mss that lack the pronoun preserve the original wording here, with the rest of the witnesses adding the pronoun for clarity’s sake. This likelihood increases since the object is not required in Greek. Without it, however, ambiguity increases: The referent could be “me” or it could be “signs,” reaching back to vv. 26 and 30. However, the oblique form of ἐγώ (egw, the first person personal pronoun) occurs some two dozen times in this chapter alone, yet it vacillates between the emphatic form and the unemphatic form. Although generally the unemphatic form is used with verbs, there are several exceptions to this in John (cf. 8:12; 12:26, 45, 48; 13:20; 14:9). If the pronoun is a later addition here, one wonders why it is so consistently the unemphatic form in the mss. Further, that two unrelated Greek witnesses lack this small word could easily be due to accidental deletion. Finally, the date and diversity of the witnesses for the pronoun are so weighty that it is likely to be authentic and should thus be retained in the text.

140 tn Or “drive away”; Grk “cast out.”

141 tn Or “resurrect them all,” or “make them all live again”; Grk “raise it up.” The word “all” is supplied to bring out the collective nature of the neuter singular pronoun αὐτό (auto) in Greek. The plural pronoun “them” is used rather than neuter singular “it” because this is clearer in English, which does not use neuter collective singulars in the same way Greek does.

142 tn Or “resurrect him,” or “make him live again.”

143 sn Notice that here the result (having eternal life and being raised up at the last day) is produced by looking on the Son and believing in him. Compare John 6:54 where the same result is produced by eating Jesus’ flesh and drinking his blood. This suggests that the phrase in 6:54 (eats my flesh and drinks my blood) is to be understood in terms of the phrase here (looks on the Son and believes in him).

144 tn Grk “Then the Jews.” In NT usage the term ᾿Ιουδαῖοι (Ioudaioi) may refer to the entire Jewish people, the residents of Jerusalem and surrounding territory, the authorities in Jerusalem, or merely those who were hostile to Jesus. (For further information see R. G. Bratcher, “‘The Jews’ in the Gospel of John,” BT 26 [1975]: 401-9.) Here the translation restricts the phrase to those Jews who were hostile to Jesus (cf. BDAG 479 s.v. ᾿Ιουδαῖος 2.e.β), since the “crowd” mentioned in 6:22-24 was almost all Jewish (as suggested by their addressing Jesus as “Rabbi” (6:25). Likewise, the designation “Judeans” does not fit here because the location is Galilee rather than Judea.

145 tn Grk “answered and said to them.”

146 tn Or “Do not grumble among yourselves.” The words “about me” are supplied to clarify the translation “complain to one another” (otherwise the Jewish opponents could be understood to be complaining about one another, rather than complaining to one another about Jesus).

147 tn Or “attracts him,” or “pulls him.” The word is used of pulling or dragging, often by force. It is even used once of magnetic attraction (A. Oepke, TDNT 2:503).

sn The Father who sent me draws him. The author never specifically explains what this “drawing” consists of. It is evidently some kind of attraction; whether it is binding and irresistible or not is not mentioned. But there does seem to be a parallel with 6:65, where Jesus says that no one is able to come to him unless the Father has allowed it. This apparently parallels the use of Isaiah by John to reflect the spiritual blindness of the Jewish leaders (see the quotations from Isaiah in John 9:41 and 12:39-40).

148 sn A quotation from Isa 54:13.

149 tn Or “listens to the Father and learns.”

150 tn Grk “this one.”

151 sn This is best taken as a parenthetical note by the author. Although some would attribute these words to Jesus himself, the switch from first person in Jesus’ preceding and following remarks to third person in v. 46 suggests that the author has added a clarifying comment here.

152 tn Grk “Truly, truly, I say to you.”

153 tc Most witnesses (A C2 D Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat and other versions) have “in me” (εἰς ἐμέ, eis eme) here, while the Sinaitic and Curetonian Syriac versions read “in God.” These clarifying readings are predictable variants, being motivated by the scribal tendency toward greater explicitness. That the earliest and best witnesses (Ì66,75vid א B C* L T W Θ 892 pc) lack any object is solid testimony to the shorter text’s authenticity.

154 tn Compare John 6:40.

155 tn That is, “the bread that produces (eternal) life.”

156 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

157 tn Or “Here.”

158 tn Grk “someone” (τις, tis).

159 tn Grk “And the bread.”

160 tn Grk “Then the Jews began to argue.” Here the translation restricts the phrase to those Jews who were hostile to Jesus (cf. BDAG 479 s.v. ᾿Ιουδαῖος 2.e.β), since the “crowd” mentioned in 6:22-24 was almost all Jewish (as suggested by their addressing Jesus as “Rabbi” (6:25). See also the note on the phrase “the Jews who were hostile to Jesus” in v. 41.

161 tn Grk “with one another, saying.”

162 tn Grk “this one,” “this person.”

163 tn Grk “Truly, truly, I say to you.”

164 sn Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood. These words are at the heart of the discourse on the Bread of Life, and have created great misunderstanding among interpreters. Anyone who is inclined toward a sacramental viewpoint will almost certainly want to take these words as a reference to the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, or the Eucharist, because of the reference to eating and drinking. But this does not automatically follow: By anyone’s definition there must be a symbolic element to the eating which Jesus speaks of in the discourse, and once this is admitted, it is better to understand it here, as in the previous references in the passage, to a personal receiving of (or appropriation of) Christ and his work.

165 tn That is, “no eternal life” (as opposed to physical life).

166 tn Or “who chews”; Grk ὁ τρώγων (Jo trwgwn). The alternation between ἐσθίω (esqiw, “eat,” v. 53) and τρώγω (trwgw, “eats,” vv. 54, 56, 58; “consumes,” v. 57) may simply reflect a preference for one form over the other on the author’s part, rather than an attempt to express a slightly more graphic meaning. If there is a difference, however, the word used here (τρώγω) is the more graphic and vivid of the two (“gnaw” or “chew”).

167 sn Notice that here the result (has eternal life and I will raise him up at the last day) is produced by eating (Jesus’) flesh and drinking his blood. Compare John 6:40 where the same result is produced by “looking on the Son and believing in him.” This suggests that the phrase here (eats my flesh and drinks my blood) is to be understood by the phrase in 6:40 (looks on the Son and believes in him).

168 tn Or “real.”

169 tn Or “real.”

170 tn Or “who chews.” On the alternation between ἐσθίω (esqiw, “eat,” v. 53) and τρώγω (trwgw, “eats,” vv. 54, 56, 58; “consumes,” v. 57) see the note on “eats” in v. 54.

171 sn Resides in me, and I in him. Note how in John 6:54 eating Jesus’ flesh and drinking his blood produces eternal life and the promise of resurrection at the last day. Here the same process of eating Jesus’ flesh and drinking his blood leads to a relationship of mutual indwelling (resides in me, and I in him). This suggests strongly that for the author (and for Jesus) the concepts of ‘possessing eternal life’ and of ‘residing in Jesus’ are virtually interchangeable.

172 tn Or “who chews”; Grk “who eats.” Here the translation “consumes” is more appropriate than simply “eats,” because it is the internalization of Jesus by the individual that is in view. On the alternation between ἐσθίω (esqiw, “eat,” v. 53) and τρώγω (trwgw, “eats,” vv. 54, 56, 58; “consumes,” v. 57) see the note on “eats” in v. 54.

173 tn Or “This one.”

174 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

175 tn Grk “This is the bread that came down from heaven, not just like your ancestors ate and died.” The cryptic Greek expression has been filled out in the translation for clarity.

176 tn Or “who chews.” On the alternation between ἐσθίω (esqiw, “eat,” v. 53) and τρώγω (trwgw, “eats,” vv. 54, 56, 58; “consumes,” v. 57) see the note on “eats” in v. 54.

177 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) is specified in the translation for clarity.

178 sn A synagogue was a place for Jewish prayer and worship, with recognized leadership (cf. Luke 8:41). Though the origin of the synagogue is not entirely clear, it seems to have arisen in the postexilic community during the intertestamental period. A town could establish a synagogue if there were at least ten men. In normative Judaism of the NT period, the OT scripture was read and discussed in the synagogue by the men who were present (see the Mishnah, m. Megillah 3-4; m. Berakhot 2).

179 map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 C3; Map3 B2.

180 tn The words “these things” are not present in the Greek text but are implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, and must be supplied for the English reader.

181 tn Or “hard,” “demanding.”

182 tn Or “teaching”; Grk “word.”

183 tn Or “obey it”; Grk “hear it.” The Greek word ἀκούω (akouw) could imply hearing with obedience here, in the sense of “obey.” It could also point to the acceptance of what Jesus had just said, (i.e., “who can accept what he said?” However, since the context contains several replies by those in the crowd of hearers that suggest uncertainty or confusion over the meaning of what Jesus had said (6:42; 6:52), the meaning “understand” is preferred here.

184 tn Grk “When Jesus knew within himself.”

185 tn Or “were grumbling.”

186 tn Or “Does this cause you to no longer believe?” (Grk “cause you to stumble?”)

sn Does this cause you to be offended? It became apparent to some of Jesus’ followers at this point that there would be a cost involved in following him. They had taken offense at some of Jesus’ teaching (perhaps the graphic imagery of “eating his flesh” and “drinking his blood,” and Jesus now warned them that if they thought this was a problem, there was an even worse cause for stumbling in store: his upcoming crucifixion (John 6:61b-62). Jesus asked, in effect, “Has what I just taught caused you to stumble? What will you do, then, if you see the Son of Man ascending where he was before?” This ascent is to be accomplished through the cross; for John, Jesus’ departure from this world and his return to the Father form one continual movement from cross to resurrection to ascension.

187 tn Or “he was formerly?”

188 tn Grk “the flesh counts for nothing.”

189 tn Or “are spirit-giving and life-producing.”

190 sn This is a parenthetical comment by the author.

191 tn Grk “And he said”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

192 tn Grk “unless it has been permitted to him by the Father.”

193 tn Grk “many of his disciples went back to what lay behind.”

194 tn Grk “were not walking with him.”

195 tn Questions prefaced with μή (mh) in Greek anticipate a negative answer. This can sometimes be indicated by using a “tag” at the end in English (here it is “do you?”).

196 tn Grk “And we.”

197 sn See 1 John 4:16.

198 tc The witnesses display a bewildering array of variants here. Instead of “the Holy One of God” (ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ, Jo {agio" tou qeou), Tertullian has ὁ Χριστός (Jo Cristo", “the Christ”); C3 Θ* Ë1 33 565 lat read ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ (Jo Cristo" Jo Juio" tou qeou, “the Christ, the Son of God”); two versional witnesses (b syc) have ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ (“the Son of God”); the Byzantine text as well as many others (Ψ 0250 Ë13 33 Ï) read ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος (Jo Cristo" Jo Juio" tou qeou tou zwnto", “the Christ, the Son of the living God”); and Ì66 as well as a few versions have ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ (“the Christ, the Holy One of God”). The reading ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ is, however, well supported by Ì75 א B C* D L W as well as versional witnesses. It appears that Peter’s confession in the Synoptic Gospels (especially Matt 16:16) supplied the motivation for the variations. Although the witnesses in Matt 16:16; Mark 8:29; and Luke 9:20 vary considerably, the readings are all intra-synoptic, that is, they do not pull in “the Holy One of God” but reflect various permutations of “Christ”/“Christ of God”/“Christ, the Son of God”/“Christ, the Son of the living God.” The wording “the Holy One of God” (without “Christ”) in important witnesses here is thus unique among Peter’s confessions, and best explains the rise of the other readings.

sn You have the words of eternal life…you are the Holy One of God! In contrast to the response of some of his disciples, here is the response of the twelve, whom Jesus then questioned concerning their loyalty to him. This was the big test, and the twelve, with Peter as spokesman, passed with flying colors. The confession here differs considerably from the synoptic accounts (Matt 16:16, Mark 8:29, and Luke 9:20) and concerns directly the disciples’ personal loyalty to Jesus, in contrast to those other disciples who had deserted him (John 6:66).

199 tn Grk “Jesus answered them.”

200 tn Although most translations render this last phrase as “one of you is a devil,” such a translation presupposes that there is more than one devil. This finds roots in the KJV in which the Greek word for demon was often translated “devil.” In fact, the KJV never uses the word “demon.” (Sixty-two of the 63 NT instances of δαιμόνιον [daimonion] are translated “devil” [in Acts 17:18 the plural has been translated “gods”]. This can get confusing in places where the singular “devil” is used: Is Satan or one of the demons in view [cf. Matt 9:33 (demon); 13:39 (devil); 17:18 (demon); Mark 7:26 (demon); Luke 4:2 (devil); etc.]?) Now regarding John 6:70, both the construction in Greek and the technical use of διάβολος (diabolos) indicate that the one devil is in view. To object to the translation “the devil” because it thus equates Judas with Satan does not take into consideration that Jesus often spoke figuratively (e.g., “destroy this temple” [John 2:19]; “he [John the Baptist] is Elijah” [Matt 11:14]), even equating Peter with the devil on one occasion (Mark 8:33). According to ExSyn 249, “A curious phenomenon has occurred in the English Bible with reference to one particular monadic noun, διάβολος. The KJV translates both διάβολος and δαιμόνιον as ‘devil.’ Thus in the AV translators’ minds, ‘devil’ was not a monadic noun. Modern translations have correctly rendered δαιμόνιον as ‘demon’ and have, for the most part, recognized that διάβολος is monadic (cf., e.g., 1 Pet 5:8; Rev 20:2). But in John 6:70 modern translations have fallen into the error of the King James translators. The KJV has ‘one of you is a devil.’ So does the RSV, NRSV, ASV, NIV, NKJV, and the JB [Jerusalem Bible]. Yet there is only one devil…The legacy of the KJV still lives on, then, even in places where it ought not.”

201 sn At least six explanations for the name Iscariot have been proposed, but it is probably transliterated Hebrew with the meaning “man of Kerioth” (there are at least two villages that had that name). See D. A. Carson, John, 304.

202 tn Grk “this one”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

203 sn This parenthetical statement by the author helps the reader understand Jesus’ statement one of you is the devil in the previous verse. This is the first mention of Judas in the Fourth Gospel, and he is immediately identified (as he is in the synoptic gospels, Matt 10:4, Mark 3:19, Luke 6:16) as the one who would betray Jesus.



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