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John 3:7

3:7 Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must all 1  be born from above.’ 2 

John 3:14

3:14 Just as 3  Moses lifted up the serpent 4  in the wilderness, 5  so must the Son of Man be lifted up, 6 

John 3:30

3:30 He must become more important while I become less important.” 7 

John 4:4

Conversation With a Samaritan Woman

4:4 But he had 8  to pass through Samaria. 9 

John 4:20

4:20 Our fathers worshiped on this mountain, 10  and you people 11  say that the place where people must worship is in Jerusalem.” 12 

John 4:24

4:24 God is spirit, 13  and the people who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.”

John 9:4

9:4 We must perform the deeds 14  of the one who sent me 15  as long as 16  it is daytime. Night is coming when no one can work.

John 10:16

10:16 I have 17  other sheep that do not come from 18  this sheepfold. 19  I must bring them too, and they will listen to my voice, 20  so that 21  there will be one flock and 22  one shepherd.

John 12:34


12:34 Then the crowd responded, 23  “We have heard from the law that the Christ 24  will remain forever. 25  How 26  can you say, ‘The Son of Man must be lifted up’? Who is this Son of Man?”

John 20:9

20:9 (For they did not yet understand 27  the scripture that Jesus 28  must rise from the dead.) 29 

1 tn “All” has been supplied to indicate the plural pronoun in the Greek text.

2 tn Or “born again.” The same Greek word with the same double meaning occurs in v. 3.

3 tn Grk “And just as.”

4 sn Or the snake, referring to the bronze serpent mentioned in Num 21:9.

5 sn An allusion to Num 21:5-9.

6 sn So must the Son of Man be lifted up. This is ultimately a prediction of Jesus’ crucifixion. Nicodemus could not have understood this, but John’s readers, the audience to whom the Gospel is addressed, certainly could have (compare the wording of John 12:32). In John, being lifted up refers to one continuous action of ascent, beginning with the cross but ending at the right hand of the Father. Step 1 is Jesus’ death; step 2 is his resurrection; and step 3 is the ascension back to heaven. It is the upward swing of the “pendulum” which began with the incarnation, the descent of the Word become flesh from heaven to earth (cf. Paul in Phil 2:5-11). See also the note on the title Son of Man in 1:51.

7 sn Some interpreters extend the quotation of John the Baptist’s words through v. 36.

8 sn Travel through Samaria was not geographically necessary; the normal route for Jews ran up the east side of the Jordan River (Transjordan). Although some take the impersonal verb had to (δεῖ, dei) here to indicate logical necessity only, normally in John’s Gospel its use involves God’s will or plan (3:7, 3:14, 3:30, 4:4, 4:20, 4:24, 9:4, 10:16, 12:34, 20:9).

9 sn Samaria. The Samaritans were descendants of 2 groups: (1) The remnant of native Israelites who were not deported after the fall of the Northern Kingdom in 722 b.c.; (2) Foreign colonists brought in from Babylonia and Media by the Assyrian conquerors to settle the land with inhabitants who would be loyal to Assyria. There was theological opposition between the Samaritans and the Jews because the former refused to worship in Jerusalem. After the exile the Samaritans put obstacles in the way of the Jewish restoration of Jerusalem, and in the 2nd century b.c. the Samaritans helped the Syrians in their wars against the Jews. In 128 b.c. the Jewish high priest retaliated and burned the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim.

10 sn This mountain refers to Mount Gerizim, where the Samaritan shrine was located.

11 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to indicate that the Greek verb translated “say” is second person plural and thus refers to more than Jesus alone.

12 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

13 tn Here πνεῦμα (pneuma) is understood as a qualitative predicate nominative while the articular θεός (qeos) is the subject.

14 tn Grk “We must work the works.”

15 tn Or “of him who sent me” (God).

16 tn Or “while.”

17 tn Grk “And I have.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

18 tn Or “that do not belong to”; Grk “that are not of.”

19 sn The statement I have other sheep that do not come from this sheepfold almost certainly refers to Gentiles. Jesus has sheep in the fold who are Jewish; there are other sheep which, while not of the same fold, belong to him also. This recalls the mission of the Son in 3:16-17, which was to save the world – not just the nation of Israel. Such an emphasis would be particularly appropriate to the author if he were writing to a non-Palestinian and primarily non-Jewish audience.

20 tn Grk “they will hear my voice.”

21 tn Grk “voice, and.”

22 tn The word “and” is not in the Greek text, but must be supplied to conform to English style. In Greek it is an instance of asyndeton (omission of a connective), usually somewhat emphatic.

23 tn Grk “Then the crowd answered him.”

24 tn Or “the Messiah” (Both Greek “Christ” and Hebrew and Aramaic “Messiah” mean “one who has been anointed”).

sn See the note on Christ in 1:20.

25 tn Probably an allusion to Ps 89:35-37. It is difficult to pinpoint the passage in the Mosaic law to which the crowd refers. The ones most often suggested are Ps 89:36-37, Ps 110:4, Isa 9:7, Ezek 37:25, and Dan 7:14. None of these passages are in the Pentateuch per se, but “law” could in common usage refer to the entire OT (compare Jesus’ use in John 10:34). Of the passages mentioned, Ps 89:36-37 is the most likely candidate. This verse speaks of David’s “seed” remaining forever. Later in the same psalm, v. 51 speaks of the “anointed” (Messiah), and the psalm was interpreted messianically in both the NT (Acts 13:22, Rev 1:5, 3:14) and in the rabbinic literature (Genesis Rabbah 97).

26 tn Grk “And how”; the conjunction καί (kai, “and”) has been left untranslated here for improved English style.

27 tn Or “yet know.”

28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

29 sn Verse 9 is a parenthetical note by the author. The author does not explicitly mention what OT scripture is involved (neither does Paul in 1 Cor 15:4, for that matter). The resurrection of the Messiah in general terms may have been seen in Isa 53:10-12 and Ps 16:10. Specific references may have been understood in Jonah 1:17 and Hos 6:2 because of the mention of “the third day.” Beyond this it is not possible to be more specific.

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