3:7 Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must all 1 be born from above.’ 2
3:14 Just as 3 Moses lifted up the serpent 4 in the wilderness, 5 so must the Son of Man be lifted up, 6
3:30 He must become more important while I become less important.” 7
4:20 Our fathers worshiped on this mountain, 10 and you people 11 say that the place where people must worship is in Jerusalem.” 12
4:24 God is spirit, 13 and the people who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.”
9:4 We must perform the deeds 14 of the one who sent me 15 as long as 16 it is daytime. Night is coming when no one can work.
10:16 I have 17 other sheep that do not come from 18 this sheepfold. 19 I must bring them too, and they will listen to my voice, 20 so that 21 there will be one flock and 22 one shepherd.
20:9 (For they did not yet understand 27 the scripture that Jesus 28 must rise from the dead.) 29
1 tn “All” has been supplied to indicate the plural pronoun in the Greek text.
3 tn Grk “And just as.”
6 sn So must the Son of Man be lifted up. This is ultimately a prediction of Jesus’ crucifixion. Nicodemus could not have understood this, but John’s readers, the audience to whom the Gospel is addressed, certainly could have (compare the wording of John 12:32). In John, being lifted up refers to one continuous action of ascent, beginning with the cross but ending at the right hand of the Father. Step 1 is Jesus’ death; step 2 is his resurrection; and step 3 is the ascension back to heaven. It is the upward swing of the “pendulum” which began with the incarnation, the descent of the Word become flesh from heaven to earth (cf. Paul in Phil 2:5-11). See also the note on the title Son of Man in 1:51.
8 sn Travel through Samaria was not geographically necessary; the normal route for Jews ran up the east side of the Jordan River (Transjordan). Although some take the impersonal verb had to (δεῖ, dei) here to indicate logical necessity only, normally in John’s Gospel its use involves God’s will or plan (3:7, 3:14, 3:30, 4:4, 4:20, 4:24, 9:4, 10:16, 12:34, 20:9).
9 sn Samaria. The Samaritans were descendants of 2 groups: (1) The remnant of native Israelites who were not deported after the fall of the Northern Kingdom in 722
10 sn This mountain refers to Mount Gerizim, where the Samaritan shrine was located.
11 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to indicate that the Greek verb translated “say” is second person plural and thus refers to more than Jesus alone.
13 tn Here πνεῦμα (pneuma) is understood as a qualitative predicate nominative while the articular θεός (qeos) is the subject.
14 tn Grk “We must work the works.”
15 tn Or “of him who sent me” (God).
16 tn Or “while.”
17 tn Grk “And I have.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
18 tn Or “that do not belong to”; Grk “that are not of.”
19 sn The statement I have other sheep that do not come from this sheepfold almost certainly refers to Gentiles. Jesus has sheep in the fold who are Jewish; there are other sheep which, while not of the same fold, belong to him also. This recalls the mission of the Son in 3:16-17, which was to save the world – not just the nation of Israel. Such an emphasis would be particularly appropriate to the author if he were writing to a non-Palestinian and primarily non-Jewish audience.
20 tn Grk “they will hear my voice.”
21 tn Grk “voice, and.”
22 tn The word “and” is not in the Greek text, but must be supplied to conform to English style. In Greek it is an instance of asyndeton (omission of a connective), usually somewhat emphatic.
23 tn Grk “Then the crowd answered him.”
24 tn Or “the Messiah” (Both Greek “Christ” and Hebrew and Aramaic “Messiah” mean “one who has been anointed”).
sn See the note on Christ in 1:20.
25 tn Probably an allusion to Ps 89:35-37. It is difficult to pinpoint the passage in the Mosaic law to which the crowd refers. The ones most often suggested are Ps 89:36-37, Ps 110:4, Isa 9:7, Ezek 37:25, and Dan 7:14. None of these passages are in the Pentateuch per se, but “law” could in common usage refer to the entire OT (compare Jesus’ use in John 10:34). Of the passages mentioned, Ps 89:36-37 is the most likely candidate. This verse speaks of David’s “seed” remaining forever. Later in the same psalm, v. 51 speaks of the “anointed” (Messiah), and the psalm was interpreted messianically in both the NT (Acts 13:22, Rev 1:5, 3:14) and in the rabbinic literature (Genesis Rabbah 97).
26 tn Grk “And how”; the conjunction καί (kai, “and”) has been left untranslated here for improved English style.
27 tn Or “yet know.”
28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
29 sn Verse 9 is a parenthetical note by the author. The author does not explicitly mention what OT scripture is involved (neither does Paul in 1 Cor 15:4, for that matter). The resurrection of the Messiah in general terms may have been seen in Isa 53:10-12 and Ps 16:10. Specific references may have been understood in Jonah 1:17 and Hos 6:2 because of the mention of “the third day.” Beyond this it is not possible to be more specific.