12:38 so that the word 1 of Isaiah the prophet would be fulfilled. He said, 2 “Lord, who has believed our message, and to whom has the arm of the Lord 3 been revealed?” 4
15:25 Now this happened 8 to fulfill the word that is written in their law, ‘They hated me without reason.’ 9
17:12 When I was with them I kept them safe 10 and watched over them 11 in your name 12 that you have given me. Not one 13 of them was lost except the one destined for destruction, 14 so that the scripture could be fulfilled. 15
19:24 So the soldiers said to one another, “Let’s not tear it, but throw dice 16 to see who will get it.” 17 This took place 18 to fulfill the scripture that says, “They divided my garments among them, and for my clothing they threw dice.” 19 So the soldiers did these things.
19:36 For these things happened so that the scripture would be fulfilled, “Not a bone of his will be broken.” 20
1 tn Or “message.”
2 tn Grk “who said.”
3 tn “The arm of the Lord” is an idiom for “God’s great power” (as exemplified through Jesus’ miraculous signs). This response of unbelief is interpreted by the author as a fulfillment of the prophetic words of Isaiah (Isa 53:1). The phrase ὁ βραχίων κυρίου (Jo braciwn kuriou) is a figurative reference to God’s activity and power which has been revealed in the sign-miracles which Jesus has performed (compare the previous verse).
5 tn Grk “But so that the scripture may be fulfilled.”
6 tn Or “The one who shares my food.”
7 tn Or “has become my enemy”; Grk “has lifted up his heel against me.” The phrase “to lift up one’s heel against someone” reads literally in the Hebrew of Ps 41 “has made his heel great against me.” There have been numerous interpretations of this phrase, but most likely it is an idiom meaning “has given me a great fall,” “has taken cruel advantage of me,” or “has walked out on me.” Whatever the exact meaning of the idiom, it clearly speaks of betrayal by a close associate. See E. F. F. Bishop, “‘He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me’ – Jn xiii.18 (Ps xli.9),” ExpTim 70 (1958-59): 331-33.
sn A quotation from Ps 41:9.
8 tn The words “this happened” are not in the Greek text but are supplied to complete an ellipsis.
9 sn A quotation from Ps 35:19 and Ps 69:4. As a technical term law (νόμος, nomos) is usually restricted to the Pentateuch (the first five books of the OT), but here it must have a broader reference, since the quotation is from Ps 35:19 or Ps 69:4. The latter is the more likely source for the quoted words, since it is cited elsewhere in John’s Gospel (2:17 and 19:29, in both instances in contexts associated with Jesus’ suffering and death).
10 tn Or “I protected them”; Grk “I kept them.”
11 tn Grk “and guarded them.”
12 tn Or “by your name.”
13 tn Grk And not one.” The conjunction καί (kai, “and”) has not been translated here in keeping with the tendency of contemporary English style to use shorter sentences.
14 tn Grk “the son of destruction” (a Semitic idiom for one appointed for destruction; here it is a reference to Judas).
sn The one destined to destruction refers to Judas. Clearly in John’s Gospel Judas is portrayed as a tool of Satan. He is described as “the devil” in 6:70. In 13:2 Satan put into Judas’ heart the idea of betraying Jesus, and 13:27 Satan himself entered Judas. Immediately after this Judas left the company of Jesus and the other disciples and went out into the realm of darkness (13:30). Cf. 2 Thess 2:3, where this same Greek phrase (“the son of destruction”; see tn above) is used to describe the man through whom Satan acts to rebel against God in the last days.
15 sn A possible allusion to Ps 41:9 or Prov 24:22 LXX. The exact passage is not specified here, but in John 13:18, Ps 41:9 is explicitly quoted by Jesus with reference to the traitor, suggesting that this is the passage to which Jesus refers here. The previous mention of Ps 41:9 in John 13:18 probably explains why the author felt no need for an explanatory parenthetical note here. It is also possible that the passage referred to here is Prov 24:22 LXX, where in the Greek text the phrase “son of destruction” appears.
16 tn Grk “but choose by lot” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent, “throw dice,” was chosen here because of its association with gambling.
17 tn Grk “to see whose it will be.”
18 tn The words “This took place” are not in the Greek text but are implied.
19 tn Grk “cast lots.” See the note on “throw dice” earlier in the verse.
sn A quotation from Ps 22:18.
20 sn A quotation from Exod 12:46, Num 9:12, and Ps 34:20. A number of different OT passages lie behind this quotation: Exod 12:10 LXX, Exod 12:46, Num 9:12, or Ps 34:20. Of these, the first is the closest in form to the quotation here. The first three are all more likely candidates than the last, since the first three all deal with descriptions of the Passover lamb.