11:43 When 1 he had said this, he shouted in a loud voice, 2 “Lazarus, come out!” 11:44 The one who had died came out, his feet and hands tied up with strips of cloth, 3 and a cloth wrapped around his face. 4 Jesus said to them, “Unwrap him 5 and let him go.”
11:45 Then many of the people, 6 who had come with Mary and had seen the things Jesus 7 did, believed in him. 11:46 But some of them went to the Pharisees 8 and reported to them 9 what Jesus had done. 11:47 So the chief priests and the Pharisees 10 called the council 11 together and said, “What are we doing? For this man is performing many miraculous signs. 11:48 If we allow him to go on in this way, 12 everyone will believe in him, and the Romans will come and take away our sanctuary 13 and our nation.”
11:49 Then one of them, Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, said, 14 “You know nothing at all! 11:50 You do not realize 15 that it is more to your advantage to have one man 16 die for the people than for the whole nation to perish.” 17 11:51 (Now he did not say this on his own, 18 but because he was high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus was going to die for the Jewish nation, 19 11:52 and not for the Jewish nation 20 only, 21 but to gather together 22 into one the children of God who are scattered.) 23 11:53 So from that day they planned together to kill him.
1 tn Grk “And when.”
3 sn Many have wondered how Lazarus got out of the tomb if his hands and feet were still tied up with strips of cloth. The author does not tell, and with a miracle of this magnitude, this is not an important fact to know. If Lazarus’ decomposing body was brought back to life by the power of God, then it could certainly have been moved out of the tomb by that same power. Others have suggested that the legs were bound separately, which would remove the difficulty, but the account gives no indication of this. What may be of more significance for the author is the comparison which this picture naturally evokes with the resurrection of Jesus, where the graveclothes stayed in the tomb neatly folded (20:6-7). Jesus, unlike Lazarus, would never need graveclothes again.
4 tn Grk “and his face tied around with cloth.”
5 tn Grk “Loose him.”
6 tn Or “the Judeans”; Grk “the Jews.” Here the phrase refers to the friends, acquaintances, and relatives of Lazarus or his sisters who had come to mourn, since the Jewish religious authorities are specifically mentioned as a separate group in John 11:46-47. See also the notes on the phrase “the Jewish leaders” in v. 8 and “the Jewish people of the region” in v. 19, as well as the notes on the word “people” in vv. 31, 33 and the phrase “people who had come to mourn” in v. 36.
7 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
9 tn Grk “told them.”
11 tn Or “Sanhedrin” (the Sanhedrin was the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews). The συνέδριον (sunedrion) which they gathered was probably an informal meeting rather than the official Sanhedrin. This is the only occurrence of the word συνέδριον in the Gospel of John, and the only anarthrous singular use in the NT. There are other plural anarthrous uses which have the general meaning “councils.” The fact that Caiaphas in 11:49 is referred to as “one of them” supports the unofficial nature of the meeting; in the official Sanhedrin he, being high priest that year, would have presided over the assembly. Thus it appears that an informal council was called to discuss what to do about Jesus and his activities.
12 tn Grk “If we let him do thus.”
13 tn Or “holy place”; Grk “our place” (a reference to the temple in Jerusalem).
14 tn Grk “said to them.” The indirect object αὐτοῖς (autois) has not been translated for stylistic reasons.
15 tn Or “you are not considering.”
16 tn Although it is possible to argue that ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") should be translated “person” here since it is not necessarily masculinity that is in view in Caiaphas’ statement, “man” was retained in the translation because in 11:47 “this man” (οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, outo" Jo anqrwpo") has as its referent a specific individual, Jesus, and it was felt this connection should be maintained.
17 sn In his own mind Caiaphas was no doubt giving voice to a common-sense statement of political expediency. Yet he was unconsciously echoing a saying of Jesus himself (cf. Mark 10:45). Caiaphas was right; the death of Jesus would save the nation from destruction. Yet Caiaphas could not suspect that Jesus would die, not in place of the political nation Israel, but on behalf of the true people of God; and he would save them, not from physical destruction, but from eternal destruction (cf. 3:16-17). The understanding of Caiaphas’ words in a sense that Caiaphas could not possibly have imagined at the time he uttered them serves as a clear example of the way in which the author understood that words and actions could be invested retrospectively with a meaning not consciously intended or understood by those present at the time.
18 tn Grk “say this from himself.”
19 tn The word “Jewish” is not in the Greek text, but is clearly implied by the context (so also NIV; TEV “the Jewish people”).
20 tn See the note on the word “nation” in the previous verse.
21 sn The author in his comment expands the prophecy to include the Gentiles (not for the Jewish nation only), a confirmation that the Fourth Gospel was directed, at least partly, to a Gentile audience. There are echoes of Pauline concepts here (particularly Eph 2:11-22) in the stress on the unity of Jew and Gentile.
22 tn Grk “that he might gather together.”
23 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.