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Jeremiah 2:19

Context

2:19 Your own wickedness will bring about your punishment.

Your unfaithful acts will bring down discipline on you. 1 

Know, then, and realize how utterly harmful 2 

it was for you to reject me, the Lord your God, 3 

to show no respect for me,” 4 

says the Lord God who rules over all. 5 

Jeremiah 2:23

Context

2:23 “How can you say, ‘I have not made myself unclean.

I have not paid allegiance to 6  the gods called Baal.’

Just look at the way you have behaved in the Valley of Hinnom! 7 

Think about the things you have done there!

You are like a flighty, young female camel

that rushes here and there, crisscrossing its path. 8 

Jeremiah 3:2-3

Context

3:2 “Look up at the hilltops and consider this. 9 

You have had sex with other gods on every one of them. 10 

You waited for those gods like a thief lying in wait in the desert. 11 

You defiled the land by your wicked prostitution to other gods. 12 

3:3 That is why the rains have been withheld,

and the spring rains have not come.

Yet in spite of this you are obstinate as a prostitute. 13 

You refuse to be ashamed of what you have done.

Jeremiah 6:26

Context

6:26 So I said, 14  “Oh, my dear people, 15  put on sackcloth

and roll in ashes.

Mourn with painful sobs

as though you had lost your only child.

For any moment now 16  that destructive army 17 

will come against us.”

1 tn Or “teach you a lesson”; Heb “rebuke/chide you.”

2 tn Heb “how evil and bitter.” The reference is to the consequences of their acts. This is a figure of speech (hendiadys) where two nouns or adjectives joined by “and” introduce a main concept modified by the other noun or adjective.

3 tn Heb “to leave the Lord your God.” The change in person is intended to ease the problem of the rapid transition, which is common in Hebrew style but not in English, from third to first person between this line and the next.

4 tn Heb “and no fear of me was on you.”

5 tn Heb “the Lord Yahweh, [the God of] hosts.” For the title Lord God see the study note on 1:6. For the title “who rules over all” see the following study note. The title “the Lord who rules over all” is a way of rendering the title “Yahweh of armies.” It is an abbreviation of a longer title “Yahweh the God of armies” which occurs five times in Jeremiah (see, e.g., 44:7). The abbreviated title occurs seventy-seven times in the book of Jeremiah. On thirty-two occasions it is further qualified by the title “the God of Israel,” showing his special relation to Israel. On six occasions it is preceded by the title “Lord” (see, e.g., 46:10) and twice it is preceded by the title “the King” (see, e.g., 51:17). Both titles emphasize his sovereignty. Twice it is said that he is the maker of all things (10:16; 51:19), and once it is said that he made the earth and the people and animals on it and gives them into the control of whomever he wishes (27:4-5). On two occasions it is emphasized that he also made the heavenly elements and controls the natural elements of wind, rain, thunder, and hail (31:35; 51:14-16). All this is consistent with usage elsewhere where the “armies” over which he has charge are identified as (1) the angels which surround his throne (Isa 6:3, 5; 1 Kgs 22:19) and which he sends to protect his servants (2 Kgs 6:17), (2) the natural forces of thunder, rain, and hail (Isa 29:6; Josh 10:11; Judg 5:4, 5) through which he sends the enemy into panic and “gums” up their chariot wheels, (3) the armies of Israel (1 Sam 17:45) which he leads into battle (Num 10:34-35; Josh 5:14, 15) and for whom he fights as a mighty warrior (Exod 15:3; Isa 42:13; Ps 24:8), and even (4) the armies of the nations which he musters against his disobedient people (Isa 13:14). This title is most commonly found in the messenger formula “Thus says…” introducing both oracles of judgment (on Israel [e.g., 9:7, 15] and on the nations [e.g. 46:19; 50:18]; and see in general 25:29-32). It emphasizes his sovereignty as the king and creator, the lord of creation and of history, and the just judge who sees and knows all (11:20; 20:12) and judges each person and nation according to their actions (Jer 32:18-19). In the first instance (in the most dominant usage) this will involve the punishment of his own people through the agency of the Babylonians (cf., e.g., 25:8-9). But it will also include the punishment of all nations, including Babylon itself (cf. Jer 25:17-26, 32-38), and will ultimately result in the restoration of his people and a new relation with them (30:8; 31:35-37).

6 tn Heb “I have not gone/followed after.” See the translator’s note on 2:5 for the meaning and usage of this idiom.

7 tn Heb “Look at your way in the valley.” The valley is an obvious reference to the Valley of Hinnom where Baal and Molech were worshiped and child sacrifice was practiced.

8 sn The metaphor is intended to depict Israel’s lack of clear direction and purpose without the Lord’s control.

9 tn Heb “and see.”

10 tn Heb “Where have you not been ravished?” The rhetorical question expects the answer “nowhere,” which suggests she has engaged in the worship of pagan gods on every one of the hilltops.

11 tn Heb “You sat for them [the lovers, i.e., the foreign gods] beside the road like an Arab in the desert.”

12 tn Heb “by your prostitution and your wickedness.” This is probably an example of hendiadys where, when two nouns are joined by “and,” one expresses the main idea and the other qualifies it.

13 tn Heb “you have the forehead of a prostitute.”

14 tn These words are not in the text but are implicit from the context.

15 tn Heb “daughter of my people.” For the translation given here see 4:11 and the translator’s note there.

16 tn Heb “suddenly.”

17 tn Heb “the destroyer.”



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